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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036552/using-foliar-spectral-properties-to-assess-the-effects-of-drought-on-plant-water-potential
#1
Lorenzo Cotrozzi, John J Couture, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Clayton C Kingdon, Beth Fallon, George Pilz, Elisa Pellegrini, Cristina Nali, Philip A Townsend
Drought frequency is predicted to increase in future environments. Leaf water potential (ΨLW) is commonly used to evaluate plant water status, but traditional measurements can be logistically difficult and require destructive sampling. We used reflectance spectroscopy to characterize variation in ΨLW of Quercus oleoides Schltdl. & Cham. under differential water availability and tested the ability to predict pre-dawn ΨLW (PDΨLW) using spectral data collected hours after pressure chamber measurements on dark-acclimated leaves...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994034/on-the-interactions-among-zinc-availability-and-responses-to-ozone-stress-in-durum-wheat-seedlings
#2
Margherita G De Biasi, Rosita Marabottini, Anna Rita Paolacci, Mario Ciaffi, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini, Maurizio Badiani
Seedlings of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn] were exposed to zinc nutrition and to ozone (O3) in a factorial combination: adequate (+Zn treatment) or no Zn (-Zn) in the nutrient solution, followed by exposure to either ozone-free air (filtered air, FA) or to 150 nL L(-1) ozone (O3) for 4 h. Although omitting Zn from the nutrient solution failed to impose a genuine Zn deficiency, -Zn*FA durum wheat seedlings showed a typical deficiency behaviour, i.e. Zn mobilisation from root to shoot...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935860/secular-trends-in-overweight-and-obesity-among-urban-children-and-adolescents-2003-2012-a-serial-cross-sectional-study-in-guangzhou-china
#3
Yinan Zong, Runsheng Xie, Nali Deng, Li Liu, Weiqing Tan, Yanhui Gao, Jiewen Yang, Yi Yang
Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity are increasing in China, but limited information is available on its secular trends in Guangzhou. In this cross-sectional study, ten-wave successive data were obtained from the physical fitness surveillance for students in Guangzhou from 2003 to 2012. A total of 2,619,154 urban students aged 7-18 years were included. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity increased significantly over the period: overweight rose from 10.15% to 14.07% in boys and 6...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702906/physiological-and-ultrastructural-effects-of-acute-ozone-fumigation-in-the-lichen-xanthoria-parietina-the-role-of-parietin-and-hydration-state
#4
Andrea Vannini, Luca Paoli, Sara Ceccarelli, Sergio Sorbo, Adriana Basile, Vincenzo Carginale, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini, Mario Pica, Stefano Loppi
The physiological and ultrastructural effects induced by acute exposure to ozone (O3) were investigated in the lichen Xanthoria parietina. Our working hypothesis was that parietin content and hydration of the thalli may play a role in the modulation of the effects of O3 exposure. Four batches of X. parietina samples, dry and wet, with (P+) and without (P-) parietin, were fumigated for 1 h with 3 ppm O3. The effects of O3 were assessed immediately after the fumigation and after one week of recovery under controlled conditions...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699011/reflectance-spectroscopy-a-novel-approach-to-better-understand-and-monitor-the-impact-of-air-pollution-on-mediterranean-plants
#5
Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Philip A Townsend, Elisa Pellegrini, Cristina Nali, John J Couture
The Mediterranean basin can be considered a hot spot not only in terms of climate change (CC) but also for air quality. Assessing the impact of CC and air pollution on ecosystem functions is a challenging task, and adequate monitoring techniques are needed. This paper summarizes the present knowledge on the use of reflectance spectroscopy for the evaluation of the effects of air pollution on plants. First, the history of this technique is outlined. Next, we describe the vegetation reflectance spectrum, how it can be scaled from leaf to landscape levels, what information it contains, and how it can be exploited to understand plant and ecosystem functions...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683256/a-comprehensive-review-on-polyelectrolyte-complexes
#6
REVIEW
Venkata S Meka, Manprit K G Sing, Mallikarjuna R Pichika, Srinivasa R Nali, Venkata R M Kolapalli, Prashant Kesharwani
Global research on polyelectrolytes at a fundamental and applied level is intensifying because the advantages of sustainability are being accepted in academia and industrial research settings. During recent decades, polyelectrolytes became one of the most attractive subjects of scientific research owing to their great potential in the areas of advanced technologies. Polyelectrolytes are a type of polymer that have multitudinous ionizable functional groups. Ionized polyelectrolytes in solution can form a complex with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes - a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC)...
July 3, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674543/losing-the-warning-signal-drought-compromises-the-cross-talk-of-signaling-molecules-in-quercus-ilex-exposed-to-ozone
#7
Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Elisa Pellegrini, Lucia Guidi, Marco Landi, Giacomo Lorenzini, Rossano Massai, Damiano Remorini, Mariagrazia Tonelli, Alice Trivellini, Paolo Vernieri, Cristina Nali
Understanding the interactions between drought and acute ozone (O3) stress in terms of signaling molecules and cell death would improve the predictions of plant responses to climate change. The aim was to investigate whether drought stress influences the responses of plants to acute episodes of O3 exposure. In this study, the behavior of 84 Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex plants was evaluated in terms of cross-talk responses among signaling molecules. Half of the sample was subjected to drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration, for 15 days) and was later exposed to an acute O3 exposure (200 nL L(-1) for 5 h)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662729/the-moving-junction-protein-ron4-although-not-critical-facilitates-host-cell-invasion-and-stabilizes-mj-members
#8
Ming Wang, Shinuo Cao, Nali DU, Jiawen Fu, Zhaoran Li, Honglin Jia, Mingxin Song
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of phylum Apicomplexa. To facilitate high-efficiency invasion of host cells, T. gondii secretes various proteins related to the moving junction (MJ) complex from rhoptries and micronemes into the interface between the parasite and host. AMA1/RON2/4/5/8 is an important MJ complex, but its mechanism of assembly remains unclear. In this study, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate a derivative of T. gondii strain RH with a null mutation in TgRON4, thought to be an essential MJ component...
June 30, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646314/ozone-and-desiccation-tolerance-in-chlorolichens-are-intimately-connected-a-case-study-based-on-two-species-with-different-ecology
#9
Stefano Bertuzzi, Elisa Pellegrini, Fabio Candotto Carniel, Guido Incerti, Giacomo Lorenzini, Cristina Nali, Mauro Tretiach
Tropospheric ozone (O3) causes severe damage to many vascular plants but not to lichens. It was recently suggested that this may be due to their high levels of natural defences against the oxidative bursts associated to their fluctuating water content. In this study, the combined effects of watering regime (with or without a daily spray of distilled water), air relative humidity (20 ± 5 vs. 80 ± 5% RH) and O3 (250 vs. 0 ppb, 5 h day(-1) for 2 weeks) were monitored in two chlorolichens with different ecology, Parmotrema perlatum and Xanthoria parietina...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616738/living-in-a-mediterranean-city-in-2050-broadleaf-or-evergreen-citizens
#10
Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Damiano Remorini, Elisa Pellegrini, Lucia Guidi, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini, Rossano Massai, Marco Landi
The predicted effects of global change (GC) will be exacerbated in the more densely populated cities of the future, especially in the Mediterranean basin where some environmental cues, such as drought and tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution, already mine seriously plant survival. Physiological and biochemical responses of a Mediterranean, evergreen, isohydric plant species (Quercus ilex) were compared to those of a sympatric, deciduous, anisohydric species (Q. pubescens) under severe drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration) and/or chronic O3 exposure (80 ppb for 5 h day(-1) for 28 consecutive days) to test which one was more successful in those highly limiting conditions...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498923/preventive-measures-for-pet-friendly-lodging-facilities-association-of-leishmaniasis-expansion-route-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-and-preventive-measures-for-regional-animals-displacement
#11
Camila Aparecida de Carvalho, Dennis Minoru Fujita, Luiz Henrique da Silva Nali, Heitor Franco de Andrade Júnior, Roberto Mitsuyoshi Hiramoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362360/a-risk-assessment-matrix-for-public-health-principles-the-case-for-e-cigarettes
#12
Daniela Saitta, Azim Chowdhury, Giancarlo Antonio Ferro, Federico Giuseppe Nalis, Riccardo Polosa
Besides nicotine replacement therapies, a realistic alternative for smoking cessation or for smoking substitution may come from electronic cigarettes (ECs), whose popularity has been steadily growing. As for any emerging behaviour associated with exposure to inhalational agents, there is legitimate cause for concern and many health organizations and policy makers have pushed for restrictive policy measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products. Nonetheless, it is important to reframe these concerns in context of the well-known harm caused by cigarette smoking...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357799/what-about-the-detoxification-mechanisms-underlying-ozone-sensitivity-in-liriodendron-tulipifera
#13
Elisa Pellegrini, Alessandra Campanella, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Mariagrazia Tonelli, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini
Liriodendron tulipifera (known as the tulip tree) is a woody species that has been previously classified as sensitive to ozone (O3) in terms of visible leaf injuries and photosynthetic primary reactions. The objective of this work is to give a thorough description of the detoxification mechanisms that are at the basis of O3 sensitivity. Biochemical and molecular markers were used to characterize the response of 1-year-old saplings exposed to O3 (120 ppb, 5 h day(-1), for 45 consecutive days) under controlled conditions...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224700/delivery-of-radiation-therapy-in-resource-limited-settings-a-pilot-quality-assessment-study
#14
Alexandra Power-Hays, Paola Friedrich, Gretchen Fernandez, Naly A Cruz, Karen Marcus, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Luisa Collado
Progress has been made in resource-limited countries in treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but advances in solid malignancies have been slower. Multidisciplinary care coordination is challenging, assessing adherence to guidelines through quality improvement initiatives is essential. We characterized deviations from guidelines in the delivery of radiation in a middle-income country program as a pilot for evaluating adequacy of local control and as surrogate for integration of multidisciplinary care. One-third of patients for whom it was indicated did not receive radiation...
August 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145648/measurement-and-estimation-of-renal-size-by-computed-tomography-in-korean-children
#15
Chan Won Park, Nali Yu, Sin Weon Yun, Soo Ahn Chae, Na Mi Lee, Dae Yong Yi, Young Bae Choi, In Seok Lim
Adequate organ growth is an important aspect of growth evaluation in children. Renal size is an important indicator of adequate renal growth; computed tomography (CT) can closely estimate actual kidney size. However, insufficient data are available on normal renal size as measured by CT. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of anthropometric indices with renal length and volume measured by CT in Korean pediatric patients. Renal length and volume were measured using CT images in 272 pediatric patients (age < 18 years) without renal disease...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995504/phenylpropanoids-are-key-players-in-the-antioxidant-defense-to-ozone-of-european-ash-fraxinus-excelsior
#16
Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Alessandra Campanella, Elisa Pellegrini, Giacomo Lorenzini, Cristina Nali, Elena Paoletti
Physiological and biochemical responses to ozone (O3) (150 ppb, 8 h day(-1), 35 consecutive days) of two Italian provenances (Piedmont and Tuscany) of Fraxinus excelsior L. were evaluated, with special attention to the role of phenylpropanoids. Our results indicate (i) the high O3 sensitivity especially of Piedmont provenance (in terms of visible injury, water status, and photosynthetic apparatus); (ii) although the intra-specific sensitivity to O3 between provenances differs (mainly due to different stomatal behaviors since only Tuscany plants partially avoided the uptake of the pollutant gas), both provenances showed detoxification and defense mechanisms; (iii) the crucial participation of phenylpropanoids, with a key role played by flavonoids (especially quercitrin): among this class of metabolites, isoquercitrin is the principal player in the lower O3 sensitivity of Tuscany plants, together with lignins; (iv) although coumarins (typical compounds of Fraxinus) were severely depressed by O3, isofraxidin was triggered suggesting a key role in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, as well as trans-chalcone...
December 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885560/expression-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-w-in-babies
#17
L H S Nali, A C S Oliveira, D O Alves, G S Caleiro, C F Nunes, D Gerhardt, R C M Succi, Camila M Romano, D M Machado
Here we determined the relative expression of HERV-K and W proviruses in HIV infected and non-infected mothers as well as their respective babies up to 1 year-old. HIV-infected mothers, their babies and uninfected control groups presented expression of both HERV-K and HERV-W with relatively high frequency. While the level of HERV-K expression was similar among groups, the level of HERV-W expression in HIV-infected mothers was four-fold higher than the uninfected mothers from the control group (p < 0.01)...
March 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784826/the-harsh-life-of-an-urban-tree-the-effect-of-a-single-pulse-of-ozone-in-salt-stressed-quercus-ilex-saplings
#18
Lucia Guidi, Damiano Remorini, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Tommaso Giordani, Giacomo Lorenzini, Rossano Massai, Cristina Nali, Lucia Natali, Elisa Pellegrini, Alice Trivellini, Alberto Vangelisti, Paolo Vernieri, Marco Landi
Ozone (O3) and salinity are usually tested as combined factors on plant performance. However, the response to a single episode of O3 in plants already stressed by an excess of NaCl as occurs in the natural environment has never been investigated, but is important given that it is commonly experienced in Mediterranean areas. Three-year-old Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) saplings were exposed to salinity (150 mM NaCl, 15 days), and the effect on photosynthesis, hydric relations and ion partitioning was evaluated (Experiment I)...
February 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777581/trichoderma-harzianum-t-22-induces-systemic-resistance-in-tomato-infected-by-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#19
Antonella Vitti, Elisa Pellegrini, Cristina Nali, Stella Lovelli, Adriano Sofo, Maria Valerio, Antonio Scopa, Maria Nuzzaci
Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513910/polyandry-predation-and-the-evolution-of-frog-reproductive-modes
#20
Kelly R Zamudio, Rayna C Bell, Renato C Nali, Célio F B Haddad, Cynthia P A Prado
Frog reproductive modes are complex phenotypes that include egg/clutch characteristics, oviposition site, larval development, and sometimes, parental care. Two evident patterns in the evolution of these traits are the higher diversity of reproductive modes in the tropics and the apparent progression from aquatic to terrestrial reproduction, often attributed to higher fitness resulting from decreased predation on terrestrial eggs and tadpoles. Here, we propose that sexual selection-and not only natural selection due to predation-favors terrestrial breeding by reducing the loss of fitness due to polyandry...
September 2016: American Naturalist
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