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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528297/biogenic-aldehydes-as-therapeutic-targets-for-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Margaret-Ann M Nelson, Shahid P Baba, Ethan J Andersonc
Aldehydes are continuously formed in biological systems through enzyme-dependent and spontaneous oxidation of lipids, glucose, and primary amines. These highly reactive, biogenic electrophiles can become toxic via covalent modification of proteins, lipids and DNA. Thus, agents that scavenge aldehydes through conjugation have therapeutic value for a number of major cardiovascular diseases. Several commonly-prescribed drugs (e.g., hydralazine) have been shown to have potent aldehyde-conjugating properties which may contribute to their beneficial effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528091/antiproliferative-activity-of-ontario-grown-onions-against-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cells
#2
Abdulmonem I Murayyan, Cynthya M Manohar, Gordon Hayward, Suresh Neethirajan
Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in Canada and other industrialized nations; the development of new/improved cancer therapies is desperately needed and continues to be a major focus of cancer research. Flavonoids, which are found in high levels in onions, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and potentially anti-cancer activities. To test their therapeutic potential, we assessed the antiproliferative, cytotoxic, apoptosis-inducing, and anti-migratory activities of five onion varieties grown in Ontario against human adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527510/saposhnikoviae-divaricata-a-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-pharmacokinetic-review
#3
REVIEW
Jenny Kreiner, Edwin Pang, George Binh Lenon, Angela Wei Hong Yang
Saposhnikoviae divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk (SD) is a traditional Chinese herb commonly used to treat clinical conditions such as rheumatism and allergic rhinitis. This review article evaluates a collection of works on in vitro and biochemical studies of SD. The discourse on the diverse class of chromones and coumarins in SD offers an insight to the pharmacological effects of these bioactive constituents as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunoregulatory, antioxidative, and anti-proliferative agents. It is highlighted that there is a structural relationship between the constituents and bioactive activities, which in effect provides a valid reasoning and reaffirm the use of SD in the treatment of the pathologies in Chinese medicine...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527184/polyphenols-as-possible-markers-of-botanical-origin-of-honey
#4
Uroš M Gašić, Dušanka M Milojković-Opsenica, Živoslav Lj Tešić
In recent years, the botanical and geographical origin of food has become an important topic in the context of food quality and safety, as well as consumer protection, in accordance with international standards. Finding chemical markers, especially phytochemicals, characteristic for some kind of food is the subject of interest of a significant number of researchers in the world. This paper is focused on the use of polyphenols as potential markers for the determination of botanical origin of honey. It includes a review of the polyphenols present in various honey samples and the methods for their separation and identification...
May 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526946/evolutionary-ecology-of-multitrophic-interactions-between-plants-insect-herbivores-and-entomopathogens
#5
Ikkei Shikano
Plants play an important role in the interactions between insect herbivores and their pathogens. Since the seminal review by Cory and Hoover (2006) on plant-mediated effects on insect-pathogen interactions, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complexity of these tritrophic interactions. Increasing interest in the areas of nutritional and ecological immunology over the last decade have revealed that plant primary and secondary metabolites can influence the outcomes of insect-pathogen interactions by altering insect immune functioning and physical barriers to pathogen entry...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525357/a-dihydrochalcone-derivative-and-further-steroidal-saponins-from-sansevieria-trifasciata-prain
#6
Billy T Tchegnitegni, Rémy B Teponno, Kristina Jenett-Siems, Matthias F Melzig, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Léon A Tapondjou
Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Sansevieria trifasciata, one of the most common Dracaenaceae plants, has resulted in the isolation of a new dihydrochalcone derivative named trifasciatine C (1), four previously unreported steroidal saponins as two pairs of inseparable regioisomers: trifasciatosides K/L (2/3), M/N (4/5), together with the known 1,2-(dipalmitoyl)-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (6), aconitic acid (7), and 1-methyl aconitic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance) and high-resolution electronspray ionization-mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods and comparison of their spectral data with those of related compounds...
May 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524540/antineoplastic-effects-of-clove-buds-syzygium-aromaticum-l-in-the-model-of-breast-carcinoma
#7
Peter Kubatka, Sona Uramova, Martin Kello, Karol Kajo, Peter Kruzliak, Jan Mojzis, Desanka Vybohova, Marian Adamkov, Karina Jasek, Zora Lasabova, Pavol Zubor, Silvia Fialova, Svetlana Dokupilova, Peter Solar, Martin Pec, Katarina Adamicova, Jan Danko, Mariusz Adamek, Dietrich Busselberg
It is supposed that plant functional foods, rich in phytochemicals, may potentially have preventive effects in carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticancer effects of cloves in the in vivo and in vitro mammary carcinoma model were assessed. Dried flower buds of cloves (CLOs) were used at two concentrations of 0.1% and 1% through diet during 13 weeks after the application of chemocarcinogen. After autopsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of rat mammary carcinomas were performed. Moreover, in vitro evaluation using MCF-7 cells was carried out...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523644/elicitation-as-a-tool-to-improve-the-profiles-of-high-value-secondary-metabolites-and-pharmacological-properties-of-hypericum-perforatum
#8
REVIEW
Preeti Shakya, Gregory Marslin, Karthik Siram, Ludger Beerhues, Gregory Franklin
OBJECTIVES: In this review, we aim at updating the available information on the improvement of the Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) phytochemical profile and pharmacological properties via elicitation. KEY FINDINGS: Hypericum perforatum seedlings, shoots, roots, calli and cell suspension cultures were treated with diverse elicitors to induce the formation of secondary metabolites. The extracts of the elicitor-treated plant material containing naphthodianthrones, phloroglucinols, xanthones, flavonoids and other new compounds were quantitatively analysed and tested for their bioactivities...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521827/antioxidant-activity-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-potential-and-phytochemical-analysis-of-sarcocephalus-latifolius-sm-bark-used-in-traditional-medicine-in-sudan
#9
Alsiddig Osama, Sufyan Awadelkarim, Amna Ali
BACKGROUND: Sarcocephalus latifolius is used as a traditional medicine for curing many diseases in Sudan. The main objective of the current study was to determine the antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI) of S. latifolius, and to estimate its total phenolic and flavonoid contents. METHODS: Antioxidant activity of the tested plant extracts was carried out by determining their ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical...
May 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521385/-ziziphus-oxyphylla-ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#10
REVIEW
Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus oxyphylla (ZO) is distributed mainly in tropic and warm temperate regions in the world. Pakistan owns six (06) indigenous species of genus Ziziphus out of which ZO is widely used for traditional treatment of different ailments such as diabetes, jaundice and liver diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present review aims to provide in-depth and comprehensive literature overview, regarding botanical, chemical and biological characteristics of the plant alongwith phytochemical isolation and mechanistic studies to support its folklore and traditional uses...
May 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521374/phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-ferula-hermonis-boiss-a-review
#11
Zohreh Sattar, Mehrdad Iranshahi
Ferula hermonis, a well-known species of the genus Ferula found in Lebanon and Syria, has a brilliant history in traditional medicine as it has been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men and menopausal disturbances in women. Thanks to modern pharmacological and clinical investigations, F. hermonis is a valuable medicinal and condimental plant that may be used for the treatment of impotence and diabetes, the prevention of osteoporosis, and possesses anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties...
May 18, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521254/cs-peg-decorated-plga-nano-prototype-for-delivery-of-bioactive-compounds-a-novel-approach-for-induction-of-apoptosis-in-hepg2-cell-line
#12
Ahmed A Abd-Rabou, Hanaa H Ahmed
PURPOSE: Polymer-based nanoparticles are used as vectors for cancer drug delivery. The bioactive compounds (quercetin, ellagic acid and gallic acid) are well known to be not only antioxidants but also chemopreventive candidates against various types of cancers. To circumvent the low bioavailability and the short half-life time obstacles, we hypothesized a novel PLGA nano-platform functionalized with CS and PEG to encapsulate these phytochemicals. This encapsulation will protect the compounds from the phagocytic uptake and deliver PLGA-CS-PEG nano-prototype with high biodegradability and biosafety...
March 12, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515776/hormonally-active-phytochemicals-and-vertebrate-evolution
#13
Max R Lambert, Thea M Edwards
Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515436/nimbolide-upregulates-reck-by-targeting-mir-21-and-hif-1%C3%AE-in-cell-lines-and-in-a-hamster-oral-carcinogenesis-model
#14
Jaganathan Kowshik, Rajakishore Mishra, Josephraj Sophia, Satabdi Rautray, Kumaraswamy Anbarasu, G Deepak Reddy, Madhulika Dixit, Sundarasamy Mahalingam, Siddavaram Nagini
Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a common negative target of oncogenic signals and a potential therapeutic target for novel drug development. Here, we show that sequential RECKlessness stimulates angiogenesis and Notch signalling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model, a paradigm for oral oncogenesis and chemointervention. We also report the chemotherapeutic effect of nimbolide, a limonoid from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) based on the upregulation of RECK as well as modulation of the expression of key molecules involved in invasion and angiogenesis...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515385/supercritical-co2-extraction-of-rice-bran-oil-the-technology-manufacture-and-applications
#15
Phumon Sookwong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont
Rice bran is a good source of nutrients that have large amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidants. Conventional rice bran oil production requires many processes that may deteriorate and degrade these valuable substances. Supercritical CO2 extraction is a green alternative method for producing rice bran oil. This work reviews production of rice bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. In addition, the usefulness and advantages of SC-CO2 extracted rice bran oil for edible oil and health purpose is also described...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514868/phytochemical-composition-and-in-vitro-screening-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-essential-oils-on-oral-pathogenic-bacteria
#16
Roberta Tardugno, Federica Pellati, Ramona Iseppi, Moreno Bondi, Giacomo Bruzzesi, Stefania Benvenuti
In this study, the activity of essential oils (EOs) against microorganisms involved in oral diseases was evaluated. Fourteen EOs were selected and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis, including Illicium verum, Eucaliptus globulus, Eugenia caryophyllata, Leptospermum scoparium, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Myrtus communis, Salvia officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula x intermedia, Thymus capitatus and Thymus vulgaris. These EOs were tested for their antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species clinically isolated from dental surgery patients...
May 17, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514737/integration-of-phytochemicals-and-phytotherapy-into-cancer-precision-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Mohamed E M Saeed, Elhaj Mirghani, Awadh Alim, Zahir Yassin, Elfatih Saeed, Hassan E Khalid, Salah Daak
Concepts of individualized therapy in the 1970s and 1980s attempted to develop predictive in vitro tests for individual drug responsiveness without reaching clinical routine. Precision medicine attempts to device novel individual cancer therapy strategies. Using bioinformatics, relevant knowledge is extracted from huge data amounts. However, tumor heterogeneity challenges chemotherapy due to genetically and phenotypically different cell subpopulations, which may lead to refractory tumors. Natural products always served as vital resources for cancer therapy (e...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514712/nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots-derived-from-sargassum-fluitans-as-fluorophore-for-dna-detection
#18
S Godavarthi, K Mohan Kumar, E Vázquez Vélez, A Hernandez-Eligio, M Mahendhiran, N Hernandez-Como, M Aleman, L Martinez Gomez
This work focused on the use of waste seaweed Sargassum fluitans (S. fluitans) as carbon source precursor to prepare nitrogen doped carbon dots (NCDs) by hydrothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) studies revealed that the synthesized water soluble NCDs are in the size range of 2-8nm and exhibits excellent fluorescent properties with a quantum yield of 18.2%. Elemental nitrogen in NCDs was evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transformed infrared spectrum (FT-IR)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513167/quercetin-luteolin-phloretin-and-morin-are-dietary-flavonoid-inhibitors-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-6
#19
Robert Spencer Jones, Mark Parker, Marilyn Emily Morris
Monocarboxylate transporter 6 (MCT6; SLC16A5) has been recognized for its role as a xenobiotic transporter, with characterized substrates probenecid, bumetanide, and nateglinide. To date, the impact of commonly ingested dietary compounds on MCT6 function has not been investigated and therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate a variety of flavonoids for their potential MCT6-specific interactions. Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenolic phytochemicals found in commonly consumed plant-based products that have been recognized for their dietary health benefits...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513003/quantification-of-skin-erythema-response-to-topical-alcohol-in-alcohol-intolerant-east-asians
#20
Y Aoki, S L Wehage, P Talalay
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Severe alcohol intolerance characterized by flushing, headache, nausea, and tachycardia even after very modest oral alcohol consumption, is common among East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, Koreans) and has been associated with the accumulation of acetaldehyde resulting from genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). These individuals also display erythema of the skin in response to exposure to topical alcohol. We have recently observed that dietary phytochemicals such as sulforaphane can accelerate the disposal of acetaldehyde from cells and animals by inducing ALDH...
May 17, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
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