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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913913/improved-image-quality-in-abdominal-ct-in-patients-who-underwent-treatment-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-small-metal-implants-using-a-raw-data-based-metal-artifact-reduction-algorithm
#1
Keitaro Sofue, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Yoshiharu Ohno, Noriyuki Negi, Hiroyasu Inokawa, Naoki Sugihara, Kazuro Sugimura
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of a raw data-based metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm for image quality improvement in abdominal CT for patients with small metal implants. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with small metal implants (3-15 mm in size) who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged with CT. CT data were reconstructed by filtered back projection with and without SEMAR algorithm in axial and coronal planes. To evaluate metal artefact reduction, mean CT number (HU and SD) and artefact index (AI) values within the liver were calculated...
December 2, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913890/performance-improvement-of-raw-water-pretreatment-process-with-pre-inoculation-biofilm-feasibility-and-limiting-factors
#2
Guang-Feng Yang, Li-Juan Feng, Cai-Rong Guo, Tian Xia, Xiang-Yang Xu, Liang Zhu
The initial formation of biofilm and the removal performance of pollutants in biological pretreatment process for polluted raw water were limited due to the oligotrophic niche in raw water. In this study, the feasibility of using pre-inoculation biofilm formed under nutrients enhanced condition for polluted raw water treatment was analyzed in nine batch reactors. Results showed that the pollutants removal performance of biofilm was improved under nutrients enhanced conditions. Ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) was exponentially increased with the increasing in NH4(+)-N levels, and organic matter removal rate (ORR) was positively related to the initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration...
December 2, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913792/genetic-engineering-approach-to-develop-next-generation-reagents-for-endotoxin-quantification
#3
Hikaru Mizumura, Norihiko Ogura, Jun Aketagawa, Maki Aizawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Toshio Oda
The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913362/learning-to-predict-eye-fixations-via-multiresolution-convolutional-neural-networks
#4
Nian Liu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu, Xuelong Li
Eye movements in the case of freely viewing natural scenes are believed to be guided by local contrast, global contrast, and top-down visual factors. Although a lot of previous works have explored these three saliency cues for several years, there still exists much room for improvement on how to model them and integrate them effectively. This paper proposes a novel computation model to predict eye fixations, which adopts a multiresolution convolutional neural network (Mr-CNN) to infer these three types of saliency cues from raw image data simultaneously...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913346/automatic-design-of-high-sensitivity-color-filter-arrays-with-panchromatic-pixels
#5
Jia Li, Chenyan Bai, Zhouchen Lin, Jian Yu
In most of existing digital cameras, color images have to be reconstructed from raw images which only have one color sensed at each pixel, as their imaging sensors are covered by color filter arrays (CFAs). At each pixel a CFA usually allows only a portion of the light spectrum to pass through and thereby reduces the light sensitivity of pixels. To address this issue, previous works have explored adding panchromatic pixels into CFAs. However, almost all existing methods assign panchromatic pixels empirically, making the designed CFAs prone to aliasing artifacts...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913172/efficient-catalytic-system-for-the-direct-transformation-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-to-furfural-and-5-hydroxymethylfurfural
#6
Luxin Zhang, Guoyun Xi, Jiaxin Zhang, Hongbing Yu, Xiaochang Wang
A feasible approach was developed for the co-production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural from corncob via a new porous polytriphenylamine-SO3H (SPTPA) solid acid catalyst in lactone solvents. XRD, SEM, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, elemental analysis, TG-DTA, acid-base titration and FTIR spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the catalyst. This study demonstrates and optimizes the catalytic performance of SPTPA and solvent selection. SPTPA was found to exhibit superior catalytic ability in γ-valerolactone (GVL)...
November 25, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912969/triterpenoid-saponins-with-anti-inflammatory-activities-from-ilex-pubescens-roots
#7
Peng Wu, Hui Gao, Jian-Xin Liu, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou, Zhong-Qiu Liu
Seven triterpenoid saponins, named ilexsaponin I-O, along with twelve known ones, were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by TLC and HPLC. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the triterpenoid saponins were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated saponins, seven compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
November 29, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912149/didymin-ameliorates-hepatic-injury-through-inhibition-of-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-by-up-regulating-rkip-expression
#8
Quanfang Huang, Facheng Bai, Jinlan Nie, Shengjuan Lu, Chunyuang Lu, Xunshuai Zhu, Lang Zhuo, Xing Lin
A flavone was isolated from Origanum vulgare and identified as didymin (O. vulgare didymin, OVD). The protective effect and mechanism of OVD on acute liver injury was then assessed in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that OVD significantly alleviated CCl4-induced liver injury in mice and markedly decreased serum ALT and AST activities. OVD treatment significantly reduced CYP2E1 activity, lipid peroxidation level, ROS generation, NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) in liver tissues and RAW 264...
November 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911995/allometry-data-and-equations-for-coastal-marsh-plants
#9
Meng Lu, Joshua S Caplan, Jonathan D Bakker, J Adam Langley, Thomas J Mozdzer, Bert G Drake, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is essential for evaluating these ecosystem services, understanding the biogeochemical processes that regulate ecosystem function, and forecasting tidal wetland responses to accelerated sea level rise...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911040/retrospective-study-evaluating-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-blood-donors-and-in-swine-veterinarians-in-italy-2004
#10
L De Sabato, I Di Bartolo, E Montomoli, C Trombetta, F M Ruggeri, F Ostanello
Hepatitis E is an emerging viral disease in developed countries, with sporadic cases occasionally linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork, wild boar or deer meat. Cases due to transfusion or transplantation have also been reported. In developed countries, hepatitis E is considered a zoonosis and pig is the main reservoir. In the last few years, several studies conducted in Europe reported variable seroprevalence rates among the general population, ranging between 0.26% and 52.5%. A higher seroprevalence was described among workers who come in contact with pigs...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910769/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-biomass-extracts-of-the-bay-mushroom-imleria-badia-agaricomycetes-in-raw-264-7-cells
#11
Agata Grzywacz, Joanna Gdula Argasinska, Katarzyna Kala, Wlodzimierz Opoka, Bozena Muszynska
The popular edible bay mushroom, Imleria badia, is rich in phenolic and indole compounds, unsaturated fatty acids, and elements that have anti-inflammatory activity, including zinc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of I. badia biomass extracts on RAW 264.7 cells. We analyzed the influence of I. badia extracts and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cotreatment on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes. We also analyzed cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E synthase, glutathione S transferase Mul, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p50 and p65 protein expression, as well as the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and NF-κB transcription factors...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910725/an-over-the-counter-central-sensitization-therapy-a-chronic-back-pain-registry-study-of-pain-relief-medication-use-and-their-adverse-effects
#12
Richard Staelin, Sree N Koneru, Ian M Rawe
AIM: Back pain, the most prevalent musculoskeletal chronic pain condition, is usually treated with analgesic medications of questionable efficacy and frequent occurrence of adverse side effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the ActiPatch medical devices in reducing chronic back pain, document medication related adverse side effects and establish their impact on quality of life. METHODS: Upon completing a 7-day trial, subjects were contacted via email with an assessment form using the Constant Contact email program...
December 2, 2016: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910694/mhd-marking-using-the-mse-polarimeter-optics-in-ilw-jet-plasmas
#13
S Reyes Cortes, B Alper, D Alves, M Baruzzo, J Bernardo, P Buratti, R Coelho, C Challis, I Chapman, N Hawkes, T C Hender, J Hobirk, E Joffrin
In this communication we propose a novel diagnostic technique, which uses the collection optics of the JET Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic, to perform polarimetry marking of observed MHD in high temperature plasma regimes. To introduce the technique, first we will present measurements of the coherence between MSE polarimeter, electron cyclotron emission, and Mirnov coil signals aiming to show the feasibility of the method. The next step consists of measuring the amplitude fluctuation of the raw MSE polarimeter signals, for each MSE channel, following carefully the MHD frequency on Mirnov coil data spectrograms...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910677/temperature-gradient-scale-length-measurement-a-high-accuracy-application-of-electron-cyclotron-emission-without-calibration
#14
S Houshmandyar, Z J Yang, P E Phillips, W L Rowan, A E Hubbard, J E Rice, J W Hughes, S M Wolfe
Calibration is a crucial procedure in electron temperature (Te) inference from a typical electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic on tokamaks. Although the calibration provides an important multiplying factor for an individual ECE channel, the parameter ΔTe/Te is independent of any calibration. Since an ECE channel measures the cyclotron emission for a particular flux surface, a non-perturbing change in toroidal magnetic field changes the view of that channel. Hence the calibration-free parameter is a measure of Te gradient...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910350/optimization-and-application-of-cooled-avalanche-photodiodes-for-spectroscopic-fluctuation-measurements-with-ultra-fast-charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy
#15
D D Truong, R J Fonck, G R McKee
The Ultra-Fast Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (UF-CHERS) diagnostic is a highly specialized spectroscopic instrument with 2 spatial channels consisting of 8 spectral channels each and a resolution of ∼0.25 nm deployed at DIII-D to measure turbulent ion temperature fluctuations. Charge exchange emissions are obtained between 528 and 530 nm with 1 μs time resolution to study plasma instabilities. A primary challenge of extracting fluctuation measurements from raw UF-CHERS signals is photon and electronic noise...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910340/analysis-method-for-thomson-scattering-diagnostics-in-gamma-10-pdx
#16
K Ohta, M Yoshikawa, R Yasuhara, M Chikatsu, Y Shima, J Kohagura, M Sakamoto, Y Nakasima, T Imai, M Ichimura, I Yamada, H Funaba, T Minami
We have developed an analysis method to improve the accuracies of electron temperature measurement by employing a fitting technique for the raw Thomson scattering (TS) signals. Least square fitting of the raw TS signals enabled reduction of the error in the electron temperature measurement. We applied the analysis method to a multi-pass (MP) TS system. Because the interval between the MPTS signals is very short, it is difficult to separately analyze each Thomson scattering signal intensity by using the raw signals...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909407/the-tlr4-active-morphine-metabolite-morphine-3-glucuronide-does-not-elicit-macrophage-classical-activation-in-vitro
#17
Samira Khabbazi, Nan Xie, Wenjun Pu, Yannick Goumon, Marie-Odile Parat
Macrophages are abundant in the tumor microenvironment where they adopt a pro-tumor phenotype following alternative polarization induced by paracrine factors from cancer and stromal cells. In contrast, classically activated macrophages have tumoricidal activities, such that the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages has become a novel therapeutic target. Toll-like receptor 4 engagement promotes classical activation of macrophages, and recent literature suggests TLR4 agonism to prevent metastasis and promote survival in experimental metastasis models...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908762/bioactive-chemical-constituents-from-the-root-bark-of-morus-australis
#18
Yu-Ren Liao, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wei-Jern Tsai, Guan-Jhong Huang, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Tian-Shung Wu
Two new pyranoflavonoids, morustralins A (1) and B (2), a new natural benzene derivative, one benzenoid (Z)-1-hydroxy-4-(2-nitroethenyl)benzene (3), and thirty known compounds were isolated and characterized from the root bark of Morus australis. The structures of the new compounds were established from spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. Ten isolates (1-10) were examined for inhibitory effects on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, arachidonic acid (AA)-, and platelet-aggregating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation...
November 17, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908731/structural-basis-of-the-substrate-recognition-of-hydrazidase-isolated-from-microbacterium-sp-strain-hm58-2-which-catalyzes-acylhydrazide-compounds-as-its-sole-carbon-source
#19
Tomonori Akiyama, Misaki Ishii, Atsushi Takuwa, Ken-Ichi Oinuma, Yasuyuki Sasaki, Naoki Takaya, Shunsuke Yajima
Hydrazidase was an enzyme that remained unidentified for a half century. However, recently, it was purified, and its encoding gene was cloned. Microbacterium sp. strain HM58-2 grows with acylhydrazides as its sole carbon source; it produces hydrazidase and degrades acylhydrazides to acetate and hydrazides. The bacterial hydrazidase belongs to the amidase signature enzyme family and contains a Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic motif. The condensation of hydrazine and carbonic acid produces various hydrazides, some of which are raw materials for synthesizing pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908456/wastewater-based-epidemiology-to-assess-human-exposure-to-pyrethroid-pesticides
#20
Nikolaos I Rousis, Ettore Zuccato, Sara Castiglioni
Pesticides are active substances with potentially adverse effects on human health, and therefore great effort is addressed to study the relation between their widespread use and the effects on humans. To track human exposure to pesticides, novel approaches are needed to give additional information on exposure at population level. In this study, a novel application of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) was developed to measure the intake of pyrethroid pesticides in a population. Three human urinary metabolites of pyrethroids were selected and validated as biomarkers of exposure by evaluating their sources and stability in wastewater...
November 28, 2016: Environment International
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