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Imaging of pneumonia

Eleftheria Chaini, Nikolaos D Chainis, Anastasios Ioannidis, Maria Magana, Chryssoula Nikolaou, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Melina-Vassiliki Liakata, Panagiotis Katopodis, Leonidas Papastavrou, George P Tegos, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
Lactobacilli are human commensals found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Although generally conceived as non-pathogenic microorganisms, the existence of several reports implicating them in certain severe pathological entities renders this species as opportunistic pathogens. The case of a 58-year-old woman with mixed Lactobacillus infection is described. The patient was admitted in an outpatient clinic with community acquired pneumonia, and on the third day of hospitalization she presented rapid pneumonia deterioration...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Xavier Chaufour, Julien Gaudric, Yann Goueffic, Réda Hassen Khodja, Patrick Feugier, Sergei Malikov, Guillaume Beraud, Jean-Baptiste Ricco
OBJECTIVE: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is widely used with excellent results, but its infectious complications can be devastating. In this paper, we report a multicenter experience with infected EVAR, symptoms, and options for explantation and their outcome. METHODS: We have reviewed all consecutive endograft explants for infection at 11 French university centers following EVAR, defined as index EVAR, from 1998 to 2015. Diagnosis of infected aortic endograft was made on the basis of clinical findings, cultures, imaging studies, and intraoperative findings...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Joanna E Kusmirek, Maria Daniela Martin, Jeffrey P Kanne
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of diffuse lung diseases characterized by distinct clinicopathologic entities with the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) being the most common. The pattern of UIP can be seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as well as in secondary causes, most commonly in connective tissue diseases. IPF is usually progressive and associated with a very poor prognosis, and newer therapies pose a risk of serious complications; therefore, diagnostic certainty is crucial...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Seth Kligerman, Teri J Franks, Jeffrey R Galvin
The direct toxicity of cigarette smoke and the body's subsequent response to this lung injury leads to a wide array of pathologic manifestations and disease states that lead to both reversible and irreversible injury to the large airways, small airways, alveolar walls, and alveolar spaces. These include emphysema, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, respiratory bronchiolitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Although these various forms of injury have different pathologic and imaging manifestations, they are all part of the spectrum of smoking-related diffuse parenchymal lung disease...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Jitesh Ahuja, Deepika Arora, Jeffrey P Kanne, Travis S Henry, J David Godwin
Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by circulating autoantibodies and autoimmune-mediated organ damage. Common CTDs with lung manifestations are rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, Sjögren syndrome, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosis, mixed connective tissue disease, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease. The most common histopathologic patterns of CTD-related interstitial lung disease are nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Charles A James, Leah E Braswell, Amir H Pezeshkmehr, Paula K Roberson, James A Parks, Mary B Moore
BACKGROUND: Complicated pleural effusion prolongs the hospital course of pneumonia. Chest tube placement with instillation of fibrinolytic medication allows efficient drain output and decreases hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate experience with lower fibrinolytic dose for parapneumonic effusions and to assess potential dose stratification based on a simple ultrasound grading system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical record to identify children and young adults who received fibrinolytic therapy for parapneumonic effusion and had chest tube placement by an interventional radiology service at a single children's hospital...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Yael Gernez, Angela Tsuang, Tukisa D Smith, Khurram Shahjehan, Yiqun Hui, Paul J Maglione, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles
Recurrent pneumonia with cavitation leading to pneumatoceles, secondary fungal infections, and hemoptysis are major causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome. Prevention and aggressive treatment of pneumonia in these patients are essential to prevent further lung damage, but treatment may be delayed because the classic signs/symptoms of infection such as fever, chills, or rigors may be lacking. Early imaging to identify infection is essential for diagnosis and treatment. The mainstay of therapy is continuous, full-dose daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and commonly fungal coverage...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Yang Li-Qiao, Zhang Jian-Wei, Li Jing-Jie, Zhang Cheng-Mi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of intraoperative anesthesia adverse events (IAAEs) in children with laryngeal diseases. METHODS: We retrospectively recruited 118 children with laryngeal diseases who underwent surgical therapy. Based on medical history and preoperative imaging diagnosis, the baseline data, including sex, age, weight, onset age, the number of operation, the degree of airway obstruction, the nature of disease, the location of disease, complications, tracheotomy, and trachea intubation, were defined and recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Chunrong Li, Xiujuan Wu, Hehe Qi, Yanwei Cheng, Bing Zhang, Hongwei Zhou, Xiaohong Lv, Kangding Liu, Hong-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a rare clinico-radiological disorder with unclear pathophysiology. Clinically, RESLES is defined as reversible isolated splenial lesions in the corpus callosum, which can be readily identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and usually resolve completely over a period of time. RESLES could be typically triggered by infection, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), poisoning, etc. More factors are increasingly recognized. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reported herein an 18-year-old female patient with lobar pneumonia who developed mental abnormalities during hospitalization...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nicholas J Olson, Donna Robert, Amin A Hedayat, Xiaoying Liu, Deborah L Ornstein
Factor V inhibitors are rare and have varied clinical presentations. We report on a 76-year-old female admitted to the hospital for pneumonia and treated with multiple antibiotics. Her baseline prothrombin time was 15.6 s and the activated partial thromboplastin time was 35 s. On admission day 10, she developed arm weakness and brain imaging showed a subdural hematoma. The prothrombin time was now 59.1 s with an activated partial thromboplastin time of more than 160 s and a normal thrombin time. A mixing study did not correct the clotting times and coagulation factor assays showed a nonspecific inhibition pattern...
September 24, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Paolo Toma, Alice Bertaina, Elio Castagnola, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Maria Luisa D'Andrea, Andrea Finocchi, Vincenzina Lucidi, Angela Mastronuzzi, Claudio Granata
Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Hend E Salama, Gamal R Saad, Magdy W Sabaa
Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride (ChG) and glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan biguanidine (CChG) were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analyses (TGA and DTA). The results showed that ChG and CChG had a more amorphous structure than that of chitosan, and their thermal stability were slightly lower than that of chitosan. Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared using borohydride reduction method and then investigated as fillers in partially cross-linked chitosan biguanidine...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
M N A Vogel, M Kreuter, H-U Kauczor, C-P Heußel
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Pulmonary complications are frequent in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD). Frequent causes are a direct manifestation of the underlying disease, side effects of specific medications and lung infections. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: The standard radiological procedure for the work-up of pulmonary pathologies in patients with CVD is multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with thin-slice high-resolution reconstruction. PERFORMANCE: The accuracy of thin-slice CT for the identification of particular disease patterns is very high...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
Afra Ekinci, Tuba Yücel Uçarkuş, Aylin Okur, Mehmet Öztürk, Serap Doğan
PURPOSE: Pneumonia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients. Computed tomography (CT) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. Since CT exposes the patient to ionizing radiation, we investigated the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and surveillance of immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. METHODS: The study included 40 immunocompromised patients with pneumonia documented on CT...
September 9, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Gulhadiye Avcu, Mehmet Arda Kilinc, Cenk Eraslan, Bulent Karapinar, Fadil Vardar
Mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome that can be related to infectious and non-infectious conditions. Patients present with mild neurological symptoms, and magnetic resonance imaging typically demonstrate a reversible lesion with transiently reduced diffusion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Here, we describe MERS in a 10-year-old boy who presented with fever and consciousness and who completely recovered within a few days. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the causative agent...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Xiaoqin Wang, Kaiyu Zhou, Yimin Hua, Yifei Li
INTRODUCTION: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common cardiomyopathies, which induces sudden cardiac death. Several mutants have been identified among HCM cases. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 10-month female infant who experienced cough, fever, aggressive exertional dyspnea, and recurrent cyanosis was admitted to our hospital. The patient was first diagnosed with type I respiratory failure, dysfunction of heart, severe pneumonia, and also some cardiac disorders were suspected...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brandon T Larsen, Maxwell L Smith, Brett M Elicker, Jessica M Fernandez, Guillermo A Arbo-Oze de Morvil, Carlos A C Pereira, Kevin O Leslie
Context .- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a distinctive clinicopathologic entity and the most common form of progressive diffuse lung scarring in older adults. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis manifests histopathologically as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. The usual interstitial pneumonia pattern is distinguished by geographically and temporally heterogeneous fibrosis that is peripherally accentuated, often with honeycombing and traction bronchiectasis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is not the only disease that leads to end-stage lung fibrosis, however, and several other entities may also cause advanced fibrosis...
September 15, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Keisuke Kumada, Nobuo Murakami, Hideshi Okada, Izumi Toyoda, Shinji Ogura, Hiroshi Kondo, Atsuhiro Fukuda
BACKGROUND: A central venous catheter enables the measurement of hemodynamic variations, such as accurate central venous pressure; catheter malposition may induce potentially fatal complications. This case report describes a rare central venous catheter tip malposition in the right internal mammary artery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old Japanese woman who presented with severe pneumonia secondary to scleroderma was treated under ventilator support because of acute respiratory failure...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Yuka Miura, Gojiro Nakagami, Koichi Yabunaka, Haruka Tohara, Koji Hara, Hiroshi Noguchi, Taketoshi Mori, Hiromi Sanada
AIMS: Prevention of aspiration pneumonia is a great concern in the era of global aging. The assessment of pharyngeal post-swallow residue is important because remaining food and liquid in the pharyngeal area has a possibility of flowing into the lower airway which can cause aspiration pneumonia. Ultrasound examination has been recently used to assess swallowing disorders because of its noninvasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance for detecting pharyngeal post-swallow residue using an ultrasound examination by comparing with those using a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of a swallowing study as a reference...
September 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
Yoel Siegel, Russ Kuker, Gary Danton, Javier Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Patients with lung cancer present to the emergency department (ED) in a variety of ways. Symptoms are often nonspecific and can lead to a delay in diagnosis. Here, a lung cancer mimicked two illnesses, adding to the diagnostic complexity. This case highlights diagnostic pitfalls as well as advantages and limitations of imaging utilized in the emergency setting. CASE REPORT: We report a case of an occult lung cancer occluding a pulmonary vein, which at first mimicked pneumonia and later a pulmonary embolism (PE) and arterial lung infarction...
August 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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