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Imaging of pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#1
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454181/brainstem-dysfunction-heralding-disseminated-cryptococcosis
#2
Prachaya Srivanitchapoom, Yuvadee Pitakpatapee, Panitta Sitthinamsuwan, Sith Sathornsumetee
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is one of the most common central nervous system infections affecting immunocompromised patients. However, brainstem involvement is extremely rare and may represent a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. We report a non-HIV infected, chronically immunosuppressed, patient with fatal disseminated cryptococcosis presented with subcutaneous masses at both thighs and progressive brainstem dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple brainstem infarcts likely derived from small vessel vasculopathy...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452593/a-review-on-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-biocidal-properties
#3
REVIEW
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Rifaqat A K Rao
Use of silver and silver salts is as old as human civilization but the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has only recently been recognized. They have been specifically used in agriculture and medicine as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidants. It has been demonstrated that Ag NPs arrest the growth and multiplication of many bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter koseri, Salmonella typhii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and fungus Candida albicans by binding Ag/Ag + with the biomolecules present in the microbial cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445509/a-case-of-paraplegia-that-developed-6-years-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-for-blunt-traumatic-aortic-injury
#4
Hiroyuki Takahashi, Tomohisa Shoko, Fumino Taketazu, Keiichi Kuriyama, Kazuhide Yoshikawa, Yoshizumi Deguchi
Case: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is becoming the standard therapy for blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI). However, the long-term outcomes of TEVAR for BTAI remain unclear. A 36-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea. He had been involved in a serious traffic accident 6 years earlier, requiring TEVAR for BTAI. Outcome: Acute heart failure and pneumonia were diagnosed on this admission. His respiratory condition improved, but paraplegia developed 10 h after hospitalization...
January 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432047/community-acquired-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states
#5
Karen J Vigil, Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
We conducted a retrospective study of 549 adults admitted with community-acquired meningitis (CAM) to several hospitals in New Orleans, LA and Houston, TX between 1999 and 2014 to characterize the current epidemiology, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, and outcomes of CAM between HIV-infected and uninfected patients and to identify risk factors for adverse outcomes in CAM. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify prognostic factors. A total of 1022 patients with CAM were screened...
February 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429466/-recurrent-convulsion-and-pulmonary-infection-complicated-by-psychomotor-retardation-in-an-infant
#6
Juan Xiong, Jing Peng, Hao-Lin Duan, Chen Chen, Xiao-Le Wang, Shi-Meng Chen, Fei Yin
A 4-month-old girl developed convulsion in the neonatal period, which was focal motor seizures in the initial stage and later became spasm and tonic spasm. And the girl also had psychomotor retardation and recurrent pulmonary infection. Electroencephalography showed hypsarrhythmia, normal results were obtained from cranial magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination, and urine organic acid analysis, as well as the spectral analyses of blood ammonia, blood lactic acid, blood amino acids, and acylcarnitines...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422854/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-due-to-atovaquone
#7
Takahiro Makino, Ikuo Kamitsukasa, Shoichi Ito
A 72-year-old Japanese woman with rheumatoid arthritis whose activity decreased with previous treatments had recurrent thunderclap headaches during an atovaquone regimen for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia. The recurrent headaches disappeared after discontinuation of the drug. Brain magnetic resonance images showed multiple cerebral vasoconstrictions of cerebral arteries with vasogenic cerebral white matter edema, which diminished several weeks later. We diagnosed the patient's headaches as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome due to atovaquone...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399056/cryptogenic-organizing-pneumonia-masquerading-as-lung-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Ji-Ping Huo, Cui Liu, Bei-Bei Jin, Feng-Xia Duan, Sheng-Hui Mei, Xin-Gang Li, Zhi-Gang Zhao
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a rare pulmonary disorder of unknown etiology. COP with hemoptysis as the primary presenting symptom has rarely been reported. The present study reported a case of COP that resembled lung carcinoma with hemoptysis as the only clinical symptom. The patient recovered well following thoracoscope surgery. A literature review of 119 COP cases between 1995 and 2015 was presented. Cough, fever and dyspnea were the most common clinical manifestations. The most common imaging manifestations were multiple or single consolidation, lung nodules, migratory sign, reversed halo sign, and multiple ground-glass opacity...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394349/the-impact-of-coexisting-lung-diseases-on-outcomes-in-patients-with-pathological-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Hiroyuki Tao, Hideko Onoda, Kazunori Okabe, Tsuneo Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is a well-known cause of interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer. Coexisting pulmonary disease can affect prognosis in patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of pulmonary disease on outcomes in patients with a smoking history who had undergone surgery for pathological Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: Medical records of 257 patients with a smoking history who underwent surgery for pathological Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer between June 2009 and December 2014 were reviewed...
January 31, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392360/hepatic-sinusoidal-dilatation
#10
Giuseppe Brancatelli, Alessandro Furlan, Alberto Calandra, Marco Dioguardi Burgio
Hepatic sinusoidal dilatation refers to the enlargement of the hepatic capillaries. Most of the time this condition is caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction, which results in vascular stasis and congestion of hepatic parenchyma. In this setting, hepatic sinusoidal dilatation can be related to pericardial disease, heart failure, compression or thrombosis of the hepatic veins or inferior vena cava (i.e., Budd-Chiari syndrome) or central veins/sinusoids involvement (i.e., sinusoidal obstruction syndrome)...
February 1, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390865/holocord-oligodendroglioma-with-intracranial-extension-in-a-young-adult-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Romulus Emmanuel H Cruz, Ranhel C De Roxas, Carmela Concepcion A Sales-Callangan, Roland Dominic G Jamora
Widespread primary spinal oligodendrogliomas are a rare variety of tumors that usually affect children. Currently, there are only two adult cases reported worldwide. We report the first case of primary holocord oligodendroglioma with intracranial extension in a young adult female. The patient presented with a 4-month history of fluctuating hemiparesis of the left upper extremity eventually becoming quadriplegic after 1 month. Imaging findings revealed a contrast-enhancing holocord neoplasm spanning from the cervical region to the conus medullaris and with extension to the lower medulla...
February 2, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390413/the-early-examination-of-combined-serum-and-imaging-data-under-flexible-fiberoptic-bronchoscopy-as-a-novel-predictor-for-refractory-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-diagnosis
#12
Le Wang, Sukun Lu, Zhishan Feng, Lanfeng Li, Bo Niu, Jinfeng Shuai, Lijie Cao, Guixia Li, Jianhua Liu
The treatment role of flexible bronchoscopy (FOB) for pediatric refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) has been well documented. Besides, the application indication of FOB is also studied in patients with general MPP (GMPP), especially in those with large pulmonary lesions. This study was designed to examine the diagnostic value of bronchoscopic features for RMPP.The FOB and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were adopted for pediatric patients who showed clinical and radiograph indications. On the basis of the final diagnosis on discharge, patients were divided into general and refractory MPP groups...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386890/phenotyping-copd-exacerbations-using-imaging-and-blood-based-biomarkers
#13
Nawaf M Alotaibi, Virginia Chen, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Cameron J Hague, Darra T Murphy, Jonathon A Leipsic, Mari L DeMarco, J Mark FitzGerald, Bruce M McManus, Raymond T Ng, Don D Sin
Rationale: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are caused by a variety of different etiologic agents. Our aim was to phenotype COPD exacerbations using imaging (chest X-ray [CXR] and computed tomography [CT]) and to determine the possible role of the blood tests (C-reactive protein [CRP], the N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) as diagnostic biomarkers. Materials and methods: Subjects who were hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD and who had had CXRs, CT scans, and blood collection for CRP and NT-proBNP were assessed in this study...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382496/-orbital-cellulitis-complicated-by-subperiosteal-abscess-due-to-streptococcus-pyogenes-infection
#14
José Daniel Ruíz Carrillo, Edwin Vázquez Guerrero, Mónica Cecilia Mercado Uribe
BACKGROUND: Orbital cellulitis is an infectious disease that is very common in pediatric patients, in which severe complications may develop. Etiological agents related to this disease are Haemophilus influenzae B, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, which correspond to 95% of cases. Moreover, Streptococcus beta hemolytic and anaerobic microorganisms may also be present corresponding to < 5% of the cases. We present an uncommon case of cellulitis complicated by sub-periosteal abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus)...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378571/high-incidence-and-early-onset-of-nivolumab-induced-pneumonitis-four-case-reports-and-literature-review
#15
N Koyama, O Iwase, E Nakashima, K Kishida, T Kondo, Y Watanabe, H Takahashi, Y Umebayashi, Y Ogawa, H Miura
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody used as an immune checkpoint inhibitor, is commonly employed for its anti-tumor effects against various types of malignant tumors. However, its administration is complicated by immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including pneumonitis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case series of four patients with malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and hypopharyngeal carcinoma who demonstrated pneumonitis induced by nivolumab, and further review clinicopathological characteristics of these patients in comparison with those of previously reported patients with nivolumab-induced pneumonitis...
January 30, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378345/ectopic-prolactinoma-presenting-as-bacterial-meningitis-a-diagnostic-conundrum
#16
Oluwaseun O Akinduro
INTRODUCTION: Prolactinomas may rarely present with meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea secondary to erosion of the wall of the sella turcica. It is even more un-common for this abnormal communication to be caused by an ectopic prolactinoma arising from the sphenoid sinus and eroding into the sella. This atypical growth pattern makes diagnosis very difficult, as there may be no displacement of the normal pituitary gland. The authors present the first reported case of a patient with an ectopic prolactinoma presenting primarily with meningitis, and discuss the management strategy as well as surgical and non-surgical treatment options for these patients...
January 26, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368085/selective-nonoperative-management-of-liver-gunshot-injuries
#17
Pradeep Navsaria, Andrew Nicol, Jake Krige, Sorin Edu, Sharfuddin Chowdhury
PURPOSE: Nonoperative management (NOM) of gunshot liver injuries (GLI) is infrequently practiced. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of selective NOM of GLI. METHODS: A prospective, protocol-driven study, which included patients with GLI admitted to a level 1 trauma center, was conducted over a 52-month period. Stable patients without peritonism or sustained hypotension with right-sided thoracoabdominal (RTA) and right upper quadrant (RUQ), penetrating wounds with or without localized RUQ tenderness, underwent contrasted abdominal CT scan to determine the trajectory and organ injury...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361238/digital-image-analyses-on-whole-lung-slides-in-mouse-models-of-acute-pneumonia
#18
Kristina Dietert, Geraldine Nouailles, Birgitt Gutbier, Katrin Reppe, Sarah Berger, Xiaohui Jiang, Anja E Schauer, Andreas C Hocke, Susanne Herold, Hortense Slevogt, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp, Achim D Gruber
Descriptive histopathology of mouse models of pneumonia is essential in assessing the outcome of infections, molecular manipulations or therapies in the context of whole lungs. Quantitative comparisons between experimental groups, however, have been limited to laborious stereology or ill-defined scoring systems that depend on the subjectivity of a more or less experienced observer. Here, we introduce self-learning digital image analyses that allow to transform optical information from whole mouse lung sections into statistically testable data...
January 23, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342160/expression-of-the-lux-genes-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-modulates-pilus-expression-and-virulence
#19
Jenny A Herbert, Andrea M Mitchell, Ryan Ritchie, Jiangtao Ma, Kirsty Ross-Hutchinson, Timothy J Mitchell
Bioluminescence has been harnessed for use in bacterial reporter systems and for in vivo imaging of infection in animal models. Strain Xen35, a bioluminescent derivative of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 strain TIGR4 was previously constructed for use for in vivo imaging of infections in animal models. We have shown that strain Xen35 is less virulent than its parent TIGR4 and that this is associated with the expression of the genes for bioluminescence. The expression of the luxA-E genes in the pneumococcus reduces virulence and down regulates the expression of the pneumococcal pilus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341032/-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-update-2017-s3-guideline-of-the-german-society-for-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-care-medicine-the-german-society-for-infectious-diseases-the-german-society-for-hygiene-and-microbiology
#20
K Dalhoff, M Abele-Horn, S Andreas, M Deja, S Ewig, P Gastmeier, S Gatermann, H Gerlach, B Grabein, C P Heußel, G Höffken, M Kolditz, E Kramme, H Kühl, C Lange, K Mayer, I Nachtigall, M Panning, M Pletz, P-M Rath, G Rohde, S Rosseau, B Schaaf, D Schreiter, H Schütte, H Seifert, C Spies, T Welte
Nosocomial pneumonia (HAP) is a frequent complication of hospital care. Most data are available on ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, infections on general wards are increasing. A central issue are infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens which are difficult to treat in the empirical setting potentially leading to inappropriate use of antimicrobial therapy.This guideline update was compiled by an interdisciplinary group on the basis of a systematic literature review. Recommendations are made according to GRADE giving guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP on the basis of quality of evidence and benefit/risk ratio...
January 2018: Pneumologie
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