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Tb in children

F Black, F Amien, J Shea
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to the international and national burden of disease. Global estimates suggest that there were 10.4 million new cases of TB in 2015. Children accounted for ~10% of these cases, although in South Africa (SA) this figure is thought to be higher. Despite clear evidence that isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) can reduce the risk of progression from TB infection to disease in TB contacts, IPT has been poorly implemented in SA national TB control programmes...
February 27, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Jaehee Lee, Jae Kwang Lim, Eun Jin Kim, Deok Heon Lee, Yu Kyung Kim, Seung Soo Yoo, Shin Yup Lee, Seung Ick Cha, Jae Yong Park, Chang Ho Kim
Background: After the introduction of chemotherapy, miliary tuberculosis (TB) has been more prevalent in adults than in children. However, adult patients have a wide age range and may have different characteristics across the age span. Thus, clinical manifestations and treatment outcome may differ according to age groups in adult patients with miliary TB. However, there is limited information regarding this issue. Methods: Adult patients with miliary TB were retrospectively reviewed and were categorized into young (18-40 years), middle-aged (41-64 years), and old adults (≥65 years)...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Elisabetta Walters, Lesley Scott, Pamela Nabeta, Anne-Marie Demers, Gary Reubenson, Corné Bosch, Anura David, Marieke van der Zalm, Joshua Havumaki, Megan Palmer, Anneke C Hesseling, Jabulani Ncayiyana, Wendy Stevens, David Alland, Claudia Denkinger, Padmapriya Banada
The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children is challenging as it relies on the collection of relatively invasive specimens by trained healthcare workers, which is not feasible in many settings. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ) is detectable from the stools of children using molecular methods, but processing stool specimens is resource-intensive.We evaluated a novel, simple, centrifugation-free processing method for stool specimens for use on the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), using two different stool masses: 0...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Elizabeth P Harausz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Stephanie Law, H Simon Schaaf, Tamara Kredo, James A Seddon, Dick Menzies, Anna Turkova, Jay Achar, Farhana Amanullah, Pennan Barry, Mercedes Becerra, Edward D Chan, Pei Chun Chan, Domnica Ioana Chiotan, Aldo Crossa, Peter C Drobac, Lee Fairlie, Dennis Falzon, Jennifer Flood, Medea Gegia, Robert M Hicks, Petros Isaakidis, S M Kadri, Beate Kampmann, Shabir A Madhi, Else Marais, Andrei Mariandyshev, Ana Méndez-Echevarría, Brittany Kathryn Moore, Parpieva Nargiza, Iveta Ozere, Nesri Padayatchi, Saleem- Ur-Rehman, Natasha Rybak, Begoña Santiago-Garcia, N Sarita Shah, Sangeeta Sharma, Tae Sun Shim, Alena Skrahina, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Martin van den Boom, Marieke J van der Werf, Tjip S van der Werf, Bhanu Williams, Elena Yablokova, Jae-Joon Yim, Jennifer Furin, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: An estimated 32,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin) each year. Little is known about the optimal treatment for these children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To inform the pediatric aspects of the revised World Health Organization (WHO) MDR-TB treatment guidelines, we performed a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis, describing treatment outcomes in children treated for MDR-TB...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Y F van der Heijden, F Karim, T Chinappa, G Mufamadi, L Zako, B E Shepherd, F Maruri, M-Y S Moosa, T R Sterling, A S Pym
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) clinic in Durban, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors associated with TB recurrence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative adults and children. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study from January 2000 to December 2012. We defined recurrence as a TB episode occurring within the study period after treatment completion or cure of a previous episode. We used a multivariable Poisson regression model to assess the factors associated with the number of recurrences among HIV-negative patients...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Y Hirsch-Moverman, J E Mantell, L Lebelo, C Wynn, A C Hesseling, A A Howard, S Nachman, K Frederix, L B Maama, W M El-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Shorter-duration regimens for preventing drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) have been shown to be safe and efficacious in children, and may improve acceptability, adherence, and treatment completion. While these regimens have been used in children in low TB burden countries, they are not yet widely used in high TB burden countries. SETTING: Five health facilities in one district in Lesotho, a high TB burden country. OBJECTIVE: Assess the preventive treatment preferences of care givers of child TB contacts...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A A Malik, F Amanullah, A J Codlin, S Siddiqui, M Jaswal, J F Ahmed, S Saleem, A Khurshid, H Hussain
SETTING: Many children with tuberculosis (TB) remain undiagnosed due to the absence of services, lack of child-friendly diagnostics and underappreciation of TB as a common cause of childhood illness. OBJECTIVE: To show the impact of systematic verbal screening and contact tracing with appropriate management services on TB case finding in pediatric populations. DESIGN: Between October 2014 and March 2016, children were verbally screened at the pediatric out-patient departments of four public hospitals in Jamshoro District, Pakistan...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
L Berteloot, O Marcy, B Nguyen, V Ung, M Tejiokem, B Nacro, S Goyet, B Dim, S Blanche, L Borand, P Msellati, C Delacourt
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inter-reader agreement and diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography (CXR) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. DESIGN: HIV-infected children with clinically suspected TB were enrolled in a prospective study conducted in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon and Viet Nam from April 2010 to December 2014. Three readers-a local radiologist, a paediatric pulmonologist and a paediatric radiologist-independently reviewed the CXRs...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Fasil Wagnew, Wubet Worku, Getiye Dejenu, Animut Alebel, Setegn Eshetie
Background: Mortality of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a devastating problem in Ethiopia. This study estimated the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM among children <5 y of age and its association with comorbidity. Methods: An electronic search was carried out using the database of MEDLINE/PubMed through the HINARI Programme, Google Scholar and Google for grey literature. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM and the hazard ratio (HR) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity using Stata/SE version 14...
July 9, 2018: International Health
Stella Mokitimi, Marguerite Schneider, Petrus J de Vries
Background: Mental health problems represent the greatest global burden of disease among children and adolescents. There is, however, lack of policy development and implementation for child and adolescent mental health (CAMH), particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where children and adolescents represent up to 50% of populations. South Africa, an upper-middle income country is often regarded as advanced in health and social policy-making and implementation in comparison to other LMICs...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Jason E Stout, Yanjue Wu, Christine S Ho, April C Pettit, Pei-Jean Feng, Dolly J Katz, Smita Ghosh, Thara Venkatappa, Ruiyan Luo
BACKGROUND: Lack of a gold standard for latent TB infection has precluded direct measurement of test characteristics of the tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ release assays (QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB). OBJECTIVE: We estimated test sensitivity/specificity and latent TB infection prevalence in a prospective, US-based cohort of 10 740 participants at high risk for latent infection. METHODS: Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate test sensitivity/specificity and latent TB infection prevalence among subgroups based on age, foreign birth outside the USA and HIV infection...
July 7, 2018: Thorax
Dattatraya Muzumdar, Rajshekhar Vedantam, Deopujari Chandrashekhar
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) in children is still a socioeconomic problem in developing countries. It has varied manifestations, symptoms are nonspecific, diagnosis can be challenging, and treatment may be difficult. It is often missed or overlooked. Among the various pathological entities, tuberculous meningitis is the most common and devastating manifestation. The resultant vasculitis, infarction, and hydrocephalus can be life-threatening. It can have grave cognitive, intellectual, and endocrine sequelae if not treated in time resulting in handicap, especially in resource constraint countries...
July 5, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Dong Tien Ngo, Phuc Huu Phan, Shoji Kawachi, Noriko Nakajima, Naoyuki Hirata, Akira Ainai, Thuy Thi Bich Phung, Dien Minh Tran, Hai Thanh Le
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous (TB) pneumonia can induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although TB pneumonia is one of the causes of disease and death among children worldwide, the literature on TB pneumonia-induced ARDS is limited. We report herein on the successful treatment of a two-year-old female child with TB pneumonia-induced severe ARDS complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). CASE PRESENTATION: A two-year-old Vietnamese female child with sustained fever and cough for 20 days was transferred to our hospital...
July 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Teresa Bielecka, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Paweł Gonerko, Paweł Gruszczyński, Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria Krasińska, Katarzyna Krenke, Joanna Lange, Anna Pankowska, Marek Popielarz, Andrzej Pustkowski, Joanna Stryczyńska-Kazubska, Zbigniew Doniec
Since the second half of the 20th century the incidence of tuberculosis has been declining in Poland. Despite this, current epidemiological data still support the need for the continued mass BCG vaccination in Poland in the near future. Apart from the protection against severe hematogenous forms of tuberculosis, vaccination lowers the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Primary and acquired immunodeficiency, including immunity disorders associated with an ongoing treatment, are contraindications to BCG vaccination...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Khadija Said, Jerry Hella, Mwajabu Ruzegea, Rajesh Solanki, Magreth Chiryamkubi, Francis Mhimbira, Nicole Ritz, Christian Schindler, Anna M Mandalakas, Karim Manji, Marcel Tanner, Jürg Utzinger, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is acquired following exposure to an infectious TB case, often within the household. We prospectively screened children 6-59 months of age, exposed and unexposed to an infectious TB case within the same household, for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We collected medical data and clinical specimens (to evaluate for helminths, TB and HIV coinfections) and performed physical examinations at enrollment and at 3-month and 6-months follow-up surveys...
June 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Claudia Marotta, Francesco Di Gennaro, Damiano Pizzol, Geoffrey Madeira, Laura Monno, Annalisa Saracino, Giovanni Putoto, Alessandra Casuccio, Walter Mazzucco
The concept of &ldquo;children at risk&rdquo; changes worldwide according to each specific context. Africa has a large burden of overall risk factors related to childhood health and development, most of which are of an infective or social origin. The aim of this study was to report and analyze the volumes of activities of fifteen At Risk Child Clinics (ARCCs) within the Beira District (Mozambique) over a 3 year-period in order to define the health profile of children accessing such health services. We retrospectively analyzed the data from all of the children accessing one of the 15 Beira ARCCs from January 2015 to December 2017...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andrey S Borisov, Sapna Bamrah Morris, Gibril J Njie, Carla A Winston, Deron Burton, Stefan Goldberg, Rachel Yelk Woodruff, Leeanna Allen, Philip LoBue, Andrew Vernon
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is critical to the control and elimination of tuberculosis disease (TB) in the United States. In 2011, CDC recommended a short-course combination regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) by directly observed therapy (DOT) for treatment of LTBI, with limitations for use in children aged <12 years and persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). CDC identified the use of 3HP in those populations, as well as self-administration of the 3HP regimen, as areas to address in updated recommendations...
June 29, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Elin M Svensson, Jeannine du Bois, Rene Kitshoff, Veronique R de Jager, Lubbe Wiesner, Jennifer Norman, Sharon Nachman, Betsy Smith, Andreas Diacon, Anneke C Hesseling, Anthony J Garcia-Prats
OBJECTIVES: Bedaquiline is an important novel drug for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, but no paediatric formulation is yet available. This work aimed to explore the possibility of using the existing tablet formulation in children by evaluating the relative bioavailability, short-term safety, acceptability and palatability of suspended bedaquiline tablets compared to whole tablets. METHODS: A randomized, open-label, two-period cross-over study was conducted in 24 healthy adult volunteers...
June 27, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Sahana K S, Prakash R M Saldanha, Supriya Kushwah, Anitha S Prabhu
INTRODUCTION: In spite of having BCG vaccination and tuberculosis control program for the last 50 years, prevalence of tuberculosis continues to be high in India. Inadequate diagnostic methods, suboptimal treatment and monitoring, and the lack of vigilant reporting system are some of the contributing factors for the failure of TB control. OBJECTIVES: To know the current practices among local pediatricians regarding management of TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Field based cross sectional study...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Nathaly Cortez-Bazán, Jennifer R Delgado, Omar Galdos, Luis Huicho
Pott's disease is a health problem in developing countries and its diagnosis in children is a challenge. Here we present the case of a two-year-old boy with Pott's disease involving T1 to T3 thoracic vertebrae. The clinical presentation was characterized by difficulty walking, fever, cough, and dyspnea. At physical examination, kyphosis and bony prominence were observed in the cervicodorsal area. A positive tuberculin test was obtained, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated via culture of the gastric aspiration sample...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
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