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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525582/challenges-in-the-estimation-of-the-annual-risk-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-aged-under-5-years
#1
P Y Khan, J R Glynn, T Mzembe, D Mulawa, R Chiumya, A C Crampin, K Kranzer, K L Fielding
Accurate estimates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in young children provide a critical indicator of on-going community M.tb transmission. Cross reactions due to infection with environmental mycobacteria and/or Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination compromise the estimates derived from population-level tuberculin skin test surveys using traditional cut-off methods. Newer statistical approaches are prone to failure of model convergence, especially in settings where the prevalence of M.tb infection is low and environmental sensitisation is high...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521913/a-6500-year-old-middle-neolithic-child-from-pollera-cave-liguria-italy-with-probable-multifocal-osteoarticular-tuberculosis
#2
Vitale S Sparacello, Charlotte A Roberts, Ammielle Kerudin, Romy Müller
Clear skeletal evidence of prehistoric tuberculosis (TB) is rare, especially in children. We describe and differentially diagnose the pathological changes displayed by a five-year-old child, Pollera 21 (PO21) dated to the Middle Neolithic of Liguria (Italy), or 5740±30 BP (Beta-409341; 6635-6453cal BP, 2σ, OxCal 4.2). PO21 shows a number of osteoarticular lesions, mainly of a lytic nature with very little bone proliferation: the vertebral column, the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the ribcage are involved...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512556/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-northern-sardinia
#3
Maria Grazia Clemente, Elena Dore, Lidia Abis, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Paolina Olmeo, Roberto Antonucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective study of children referred to the only Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit for Northern Sardinia over a 6-year-period (2009-2014)...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511392/the-diagnostic-value-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-antigen-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#4
Agustin Iskandar, Erlin Nursiloningrum, Maimun Zulhaidah Arthamin, Ery Olivianto, Mas Slamet Chandrakusuma
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502224/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-an-insight-review
#5
Nityananda Mandal, Parveen Kumar Anand, Subhash Gautam, Shritam Das, Tahziba Hussain
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. It constitutes more than 20% of TB incidence. Pediatric TB exists in the shadow of adult TB. The clinicians concentrate on pulmonary manifestation of TB, whereas it is a major problem in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections. The rate of infection with this disease is mostly associated with poverty, social disruption and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493270/public-health-alternatives-to-incarceration-for-drug-offenders
#6
REVIEW
Nicholas Clark, Kate Dolan, David Farabee
Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490246/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-children-with-presumed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-papua-new-guinea
#7
Sharon Kasa Tom, Henry Welch, Cornelia Kilalang, Nakapi Tefuarani, John Vince, Evelyn Lavu, Karen Johnson, Ruth Magaye, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: The Gene Xpert MTB/ RIF assay (Xpert) is used for rapid, simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance. This study examined the accuracy of Xpert in children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). METHODS: Children admitted to Port Moresby General Hospital with suspected PTB were prospectively enrolled between September 2014 and March 2015. They were classified into probable, possible and TB-unlikely groups...
May 11, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489674/differentiation-between-crohn-s-disease-and-intestinal-tuberculosis-in-children
#8
Sumit Kumar Singh, Anshu Srivastava, Niraj Kumari, Ujjal Poddar, Surender Kumar Yachha, Chandra Mani Pandey
OBJECTIVES: To study clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and histopathological features helpful in differentiating Crohn's disease (CD) from intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) in children. METHODS: Patients diagnosed to have CD or ITB based on standard recommended criteria were enrolled. Children with inflammatory bowel disease unclassified or suspected ITB or CD with incomplete work-up or lost to follow-up were excluded. The clinical and laboratory (radiology, endoscopy and histology) details of children were analyzed...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487695/regulatory-t-cells-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-predominate-in-children-with-tuberculosis
#9
Elizabeth Whittaker, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB) or healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482958/care-seeking-and-treatment-related-delay-among-childhood-tuberculosis-patients-in-delhi-india
#10
A Kalra
OBJECTIVE: To examine delays in treatment initiation among child tuberculosis (TB) patients and to identify associated factors. METHOD: A multistage cluster random sampling strategy was used to select 175 parents/care givers of childhood TB patients from eight district TB centres covered by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Delhi for interview in a cross-sectional survey. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482957/pediatric-and-adolescent-tuberculosis-in-latvia-2011-2014-case-detection-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
B Ziemele, R Ranka, I Ozere
OBJECTIVE: To perform a comprehensive analysis of case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children and adolescents in Latvia, and to evaluate the utility of the current approach. DESIGN: A retrospective study of all Latvian children and adolescents diagnosed with TB from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2014. RESULTS: Of 3081 patients diagnosed with TB during 2011-2014, 250 (8%) were aged <18 years, and 80% were identified through contact investigation...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480653/the-rate-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-korean-children-and-adolescents-since-2007
#12
Hyun Jung Kim, Hyung Ho Yoon, Byung Wook Eun, Youngmin Ahn, Sungweon Ryoo, Hee Jin Kim
The incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in pediatric populations is a critical indicator of national TB management and treatment strategies. Limited data exist regarding the rate of pediatric DR-TB. In this study, we aimed to analyze the status of DR-TB in Korean children from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed specimens submitted to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis using Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) from January 2007 through December 2013. Specimens from patients ≤ 19 years of age were included...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468608/factors-associated-with-virological-non-suppression-among-hiv-positive-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-uganda-august-2014-july-2015
#13
Lilian Bulage, Isaac Ssewanyana, Victoria Nankabirwa, Fred Nsubuga, Christine Kihembo, Gerald Pande, Alex R Ario, Joseph Kb Matovu, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Charles Kiyaga
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is limited information about virological non-suppression and its determinants among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals enrolled in HIV care in many resource-limited settings. We estimated the proportion of virologically non-suppressed patients, and identified the factors associated with virological non-suppression. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using routinely collected program data from viral load (VL) samples collected across the country for testing at the Central Public Health Laboratories (CPHL) in Uganda...
May 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461825/effect-of-tuberculosis-treatment-on-leptin-levels-weight-gain-and-percentage-body-fat-in-indonesian-children
#14
Maria Mexitalia, Yesi Oktavia Dewi, Adriyan Pramono, Mohammad Syarofil Anam
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a problem in the community. TB patients usually experience malnutrition, which is characterized by both decreased body weight (BW) and body fat percentage (BFP). Leptin, an important regulator of BW, also plays an important role in cellular immunity, which is integral to defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We analyzed the effect of an anti-TB treatment regimen on the leptin level, BW, and BFP of children with TB. METHODS: The design of this study was a group interrupted time series...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455104/a-comparison-of-tuberculosis-diagnostic-systems-in-a-retrospective-cohort-of-hiv-infected-children-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#15
Solange Gonçalves David, Kathryn L Lovero, Maria de Fátima B Pombo March, Thalita G Abreu, Antonio Ruffino Netto, Afranio L Kritski, Clemax C Sant'Anna
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) presents many challenges, and is further complicated in HIV-infected patients. While many diagnostic systems have been proposed, there is no pediatric TB diagnosis gold standard. The outcomes of four TB diagnostic systems in HIV-infected children were compared in this study. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a TB/HIV reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro. HIV-infected pediatric patients evaluated for TB from 1998 to 2010 were reassessed using four diagnostic systems: Kenneth Jones, 1969; Tidjani, 1986; Ben Marais, 2006; Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2010...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446486/delayed-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-13-year-old-malawian-boy
#16
Niall Johnston, Nichola Sandys
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a significant global health burden. There are more than 1 million new cases of childhood TB annually. Despite this, many national TB control programs largely focus on identification and treatment of smear positive adults. Early case detection is essential if childhood TB is to be controlled and eradicated.Delayed diagnosis of TB is associated with more advanced disease and worse treatment outcomes. Younger children who go undiagnosed for long periods are at risk of developing severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, such as meningitis...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#17
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417858/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-of-thoracic-and-extrathoracic-tuberculosis-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Patrick Martineau, Lionel S Zuckier, Xuan Pham, Raymond Lambert, Sophie Turpin
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem, affecting approximately one-third of the world׳s population. The tubercle bacillus can affect virtually any organ of the human body and if left untreated can lead to severe morbidity and death. Diagnosis of active TB is challenging, especially in children. As a "great imitator," the disease can mimic numerous other pathologies, both clinically and at imaging. Although recognition of active TB is crucial to initiate adequate treatment in a timely fashion, thereby preventing transmission of disease, differentiation of active and quiescent disease is not always straightforward...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410697/multifocal-pure-tubercular-osteomyelitis-an-unusual-presentation-in-childhood
#19
Sananda Pati, Sangita De, Tarak Nath Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti Ghosh
Tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing world. One-third of children infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis have extra pulmonary involvement. Skeletal tuberculosis occurs in 1-6% of them with vertebra being the commonest site. Pure tubercular osteomyelitis without joint involvement occurs in only 2-3% cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis. Common sites are femur, tibia, and fibula. Disseminated skeletal involvement is very rare in children (7%) and calvarial osteomyelitis is even rarer (1%)...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407146/high-rates-of-latent-tb-infection-in-contacts-and-the-wider-community-in-south-india
#20
Padmanesan Narasimhan, Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Dilip Mathai, James Wood
Background: We aimed to compare TB transmission rates between case and community households in Vellore, South India. Methods: 359 household contacts (HHC) and 363 community contacts (CC) were assessed with tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) between August 2010 and September 2011. Concordance test and multivariate risk factor assessment were conducted using logistic regression adjusted for clustering. Results: Latent TB infection (LTBI) positivity was similar between the two groups using both tests, with only moderate concordance observed between QFT and TST...
February 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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