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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928098/influence-of-identification-of-contacts-in-adherence-of-index-tuberculosis-cases-to-treatment-in-a-high-incidence-country
#2
Simoni Pimenta de Oliveira, Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho, Sandra Marisa Pelloso, Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi-Ferracioli, Vera Lúcia Dias Siqueira, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Health professionals must interview tuberculosis (TB) index cases to identify and examine their contacts because human interaction favours disease transmission. Revealing their contacts implies the disclosure of their health condition to close friends and family. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the identification of contacts of TB index cases in the outcome of TB treatment. METHODS: This observational, cross-sectional, epidemiological study was conducted using data provided by SINAN-Net on subjects diagnosed with TB between 2008 and 2012 in Paraná, Brazil...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924198/bacteriological-diagnosis-of-childhood-tb-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Andrew J Brent, Daisy Mugo, Robert Musyimi, Agnes Mutiso, Susan Morpeth, Michael Levin, J Anthony G Scott
Childhood TB diagnosis is challenging. Studies in adults suggest Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) culture or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay might be used to expand bacteriological diagnosis. However data from children are more limited. We prospectively compared MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF with standard microscopy and culture using the BD MGIT 960 system among 1442 Kenyan children with suspected TB. 97 specimens from 54 children were TB culture-positive: 91 (94%) by MGIT and 74 (76%) by MODS (p = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915796/correlates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-failure-in-child-household-contacts-with-infectious-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-settings-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cohort-study
#4
Florence Nafula Okwara, John Paul Oyore, Fred Nabwire Were, Samson Gwer
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912165/holistic-care-of-complicated-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings-with-limited-resources
#5
Trevor Duke, Sharon Kasa Tom, Harry Poka, Henry Welch
In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910284/caretakers-perspectives-of-paediatric-tb-and-implications-for-care-seeking-behaviours-in-southern-mozambique
#6
Carolina Mindu, Elisa López-Varela, Yara Alonso-Menendez, Yolanda Mausse, Orvalho Joaquim Augusto, Kizito Gondo, Jose Múñoz, Jahit Sacarlal, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Pedro L Alonso, Khátia Munguambe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important public health concern, especially in poorly resourced settings. TB diagnosis is challenging, particularly for children, who are the most vulnerable to its' impacts. Lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease compromises prompt diagnosis and treatment compliance. OBJECTIVE: To gain insights regarding caretakers' knowledge of the aetiology and prevention of paediatric TB in southern Mozambique, to describe their care-seeking behaviours and to assess the acceptability of diagnostic procedures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904186/stool-culture-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children
#7
Elisabetta Walters, Anne-Marie Demers, Marieke M van der Zalm, Andrew Whitelaw, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Heather R Draper, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
Bacteriological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is achieved in the minority of young children with tuberculosis (TB), as specimen collection is resource-intensive and respiratory secretions are mostly paucibacillary, leading to limited sensitivity of available diagnostic tests. Although molecular tests are increasingly available globally, mycobacterial culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of drug susceptibility and is more sensitive than molecular methods for paucibacillary TB...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895024/tuberculosis-meningitis
#8
REVIEW
Kassem Bourgi, Christina Fiske, Timothy R Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis disproportionately affects developing countries and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we review recent updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TB meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Young children and people living with HIV continue to be at highest risk for TB meningitis. Early diagnosis remains challenging, especially since conventional diagnostic tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity...
September 11, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886729/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children-by-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-of-stool-samples-in-a-low-resource-setting
#9
Zahra Hasan, Sadia Shakoor, Fehmina Arif, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Marium Haider, Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE: Children with tuberculosis (TB) remain underdiagnosed due to difficulty in testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for respiratory and stool testing in children for pulmonary TB through a cross-sectional study at tertiary care facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty children aged 0-15 years screened by a modified Kenneth-Jones (KJ) score were included. Mycobacterial culture of respiratory samples was the microbiological standard against stool Xpert TB results...
September 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886145/application-of-a-whole-blood-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assay-to-study-immunity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-high-tuberculosis-burden-population
#10
Richard Baguma, Adam Penn-Nicholson, Erica Smit, Mzwandile Erasmus, Jonathan Day, Lebohang Makhethe, Marwou de Kock, E Jane Hughes, Michele van Rooyen, Bernadette Pienaar, Lynnett Stone, Willem Hanekom, Michael J Brennan, Robert S Wallis, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba
The determinants of immunological protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in humans are not known. Mycobacterial growth inhibition assays have potential utility as in vitro surrogates of in vivo immunological control of M.tb. We evaluated a whole blood growth inhibition assay in a setting with high burden of TB and aimed to identify immune responses that correlate with control of mycobacterial growth. We hypothesized that individuals with underlying M.tb infection will exhibit greater M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878523/transcultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-brief-illness-perception-questionnaire-for-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Jinsoo Min, Youjin Chang, Ki Man Lee, Kang Hyeon Choe, Jin Young An
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The brief illness perception questionnaire (BIPQ) has been used in many populations for both adults and children, and it provides a rapid assessment of illness perception. This study was performed to create a translated version of the BIPQ to fit the Korean society and to test its validity through pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. METHODS: Translation and transcultural adaptation of BIPQ, applicable to the Korean society, was performed in accordance with the international guidelines...
July 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877156/performance-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-assay-among-hiv-infected-children-with-active-tuberculosis-in-france
#12
Myriam Hormi, Valérie Guérin-El Khourouj, Virginie Pommelet, Mohamed Jeljeli, Béatrice Pédron, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Albert Faye, Ghislaine Sterkers
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the use of QuantiFERON to assist the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children is limited, especially in countries with low incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. METHODS: QuantiFERON results were analyzed in 63 HIV-infected children who presented to our hospital in Paris, France. Seventeen HIV-uninfected children with active TB (4 culture-confirmed) were included for comparison. RESULTS: The 63 HIV-infected children (median age: 11 years) had 113 QuantiFERON tests...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854390/particle-deposition-in-tracheobronchial-airways-of-an-infant-child-and-adult
#13
Qihong Deng, Cuiyun Ou, Jiao Chen, Yuguang Xiang
BACKGROUND: Particle deposition in human airways is important for assessing both health effects of inhaled particles and therapeutic efficacy of inhaled drug aerosols, but is not well understood for infants and children. OBJECTIVE: We investigate particle deposition in infants and children by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and compare this with particle deposition in adults. METHODS: We chose three population age groups: 7-month infant, 4-year old child, and 20-year old adult...
August 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851825/embryo-biopsy-and-development-the-known-and-unknown
#14
Federica Zacchini, Roberta Arena, Adam Abramik, Grazyna Ewa Ptak
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been introduced in clinical practice as a tool for selecting "healthy" embryos before their transfer in utero. PGD protocols include biopsy of cleaving embryos (Blastomere Biopsy - BB) or blastocysts (trophectoderm biopsy - TB), followed by genetic analysis to select "healthy" embryos for transfer in utero. Currently, TB is replacing the use of BB in the clinical practice. However, based on the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Consortium reports, BB has been used in >87% of PGD cycles for more than 10 years...
August 29, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851285/the-impact-of-drug-resistance-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-child-household-contacts-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Vera Golla, Kathryn Snow, Anna M Mandalakas, Simon H Schaaf, Karen Du Preez, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
BACKGROUND: The relative fitness of organisms causing drug-susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. We compared the risk of TB infection and TB disease in young child household contacts of adults with confirmed DS-TB and MDR-TB. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis we included data from two community-based contact cohort investigation studies conducted in parallel in Cape Town, South Africa. Children <5 years of age with household exposure to an infectious TB case were included between August 2008 to June 2011...
August 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840843/interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-response-to-pe35-ppe68-proteins-a-promising-diagnostic-method-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis
#16
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi
Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of people who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PE/PPE proteins have been reported to elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses either in the form of whole recombinant proteins or as individual peptides. Very few of the PE and PPE proteins have been previously tested for responses in patients with TB and healthy donors. This is the first study to evaluate the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) after stimulation with PE35 and PPE68...
March 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840010/delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Margareth Dalcolmo, Adrian Rendon, Susanna Esposito, Giovanni Battista Migliori
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). As evidence is lacking, the World Health Organization recommends their use under specific conditions in adults, delamanid only being recommended in children ≥6 years of age. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the new drugs in children. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was performed, to evaluate the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid or bedaquiline-containing regimens in children with confirmed M/XDR-TB...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838977/risk-of-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-solid%C3%A2-cancers-and-haematological-malignancies-a-systematic-review-and%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#18
Claudia C Dobler, Kelvin Cheung, John Nguyen, Andrew Martin
There is uncertainty regarding whether patients with cancer should be screened for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relative incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in cancer.We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies published before December 21, 2016. We included studies that evaluated the incidence of TB in patients with solid cancers and haematological malignancies relative to a reference group (study control or general population). A pooled estimate of the incidence rate ratio (IRR) was obtained using standard meta-analysis methods...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827302/almost-200%C3%A2-000-children-under-5-died-from-tb-in-2015
#19
Sophie Cousins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826449/a-community-based-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-childhood-tuberculosis-in-ethiopia
#20
D G Datiko, M A Yassin, S J Theobald, L E Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Although children in contact with adults with tuberculosis (TB) should receive isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT), this is rarely implemented. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a community-based approach to provide IPT at the household level improves uptake and adherence in Ethiopia. METHODS: Contacts of adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) were visited at home and examined by health extension workers (HEWs). Asymptomatic children aged <5 years were offered IPT and followed monthly...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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