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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646434/performance-of-quantiferon-%C3%A2-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-in-children-receiving-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs
#1
Francesca Gabriele, Maria Trachana, Maria Simitsopoulou, Polixeni Pratsidou-Gertsi, Elias Iosifidis, Zoi Dorothea Pana, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the performance of the Quantiferon(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) interferon (IFN)-γ assay for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in children receiving anti-rheumatic treatment in a tertiary referral hospital of Northern Greece. METHODS: A total of 79 consecutive children receiving anti-rheumatic treatment [of which 18 screened prior to antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatment] were tested using Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT-IT...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640131/paragonimiasis-in-children-in-southwest-china-a-retrospective-case-reports-review-from-2005-to-2016
#2
Zongrong Gong, Ruixue Miao, Min Shu, Yu Zhu, Yang Wen, Qin Guo, Qiong Liao, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis infection has no specific symptoms or typical radiologic findings, leading to the possibility of misdiagnosis. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze clinical and radiological features, and treatment outcome of paragonimiasis in children in Southwest China to improve the awareness of this disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children diagnosed with paragonimiasis in West China Second University Hospital between 2005 and 2016...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633702/impact-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-the-evaluation-of-long-term-effectiveness-of-infant-mva85a-vaccination
#3
E W Bunyasi, A K K Luabeya, M Tameris, H Geldenhuys, H Mulenga, B S Landry, T J Scriba, B-M Schmidt, W A Hanekom, H Mahomed, H McShane, M Hatherill
SETTING: South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of infant modified vaccinia Ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) vaccination against tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN: We analysed data from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled Phase 2b MVA85A infant TB vaccine trial (2009-2012), with extended post-trial follow-up (2012-2014). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was provided by public health services according to national guidelines...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633701/management-of-child-mdr-tb-contacts-across-countries-in-the-who-european-region-a-survey-of-current-practice
#4
A Turkova, M Tebruegge, F Brinkmann, M Tsolia, F Mouchet, B Kampmann, J A Seddon
The World Health Organization European Region has one of the highest rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the world, resulting in many vulnerable children being exposed each year. Evidence for preventive therapy following MDR-TB exposure is limited and current guidance is conflicting. An internet-based survey was performed to determine clinical practice in this region. Seventy-two clinicians from 25 countries participated. Practices related to screening and decision-making were highly variable...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633501/epidemiology-of-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-the-united-states-1993-2014
#5
Sarah E Smith, Robert Pratt, Lisa Trieu, Pennan M Barry, Dzung T Thai, Shama Desai Ahuja, Sarita Shah
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is an important global public health threat, but accurate estimates of MDR TB burden among children are lacking. Methods: We analyzed demographic, clinical and laboratory data for newly-diagnosed pediatric (<15 years) TB cases reported to the US National TB Surveillance System (NTSS) during 1993-2014. MDR TB was defined as culture-confirmed TB disease with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. To ascertain potential under-estimation of pediatric MDR TB, we surveyed high burden states for clinically-diagnosed cases treated for MDR TB...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625040/vitamin-d-status-in-under-five-children-with-a-history-of-close-tuberculosis-contact-in-padang-west-sumatra
#6
Finny Fitry Yani, Nur Indrawaty Lipoeto, Bambang Supriyatno, Eryati Darwin, Darfioes Basir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum vitamin D influences cellular immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly in under-five children. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent in Indonesia. This study described the association of serum vitamin D in the incidence of latent TB in under-five children with a history of close TB contact. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study examined 178 under-five children with a history of close TB contact, with 98 index cases from primary health care facilities in Padang...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606173/tuberculosis-caseload-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-related-with-high-hospital-based-mortality-in-lusaka-zambia
#7
Tendai Munthali, Chishala Chabala, Elson Chama, Raider Mugode, Nathan Kapata, Patrick Musonda, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children pose a major treatment and care challenge in high HIV burden countries in Africa. We investigated the prevalence of Tuberculosis notifications among hospitalised under-five children with severe acute malnutrition. A retrospective review of medical records for all children aged 0-59 months admitted to the University Teaching Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate TB caseload...
June 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606115/peripheral-neuropathy-in-a-diabetic-child-treated-with-linezolid-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Aravind Swaminathan, Philipp du Cros, James A Seddon, Shamsiya Mirgayosieva, Rajabov Asladdin, Zulfiya Dusmatova
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB with additional resistance to injectable agents or fluoroquinolones are challenging to treat due to lack of available, effective drugs. Linezolid is one of the few drugs that has shown promise in treating these conditions. Long-term linezolid use is associated with toxicities such as peripheral and optic neuropathies. Diabetes mellitus (DM), especially when uncontrolled, can also result in peripheral neuropathy...
June 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600662/mri-in-thoracic-tuberculosis-of-children
#9
Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Madhurima Sharma, Akshay Kumar Saxena, Joseph L Mathew, Meenu Singh, Niranjan Khandelwal
OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with thoracic tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: This prospective study of forty children (age range of 5 to 15 y) with thoracic TB was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Chest radiograph, lung MRI and computed tomography (CT) scan were performed in all children. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of MRI were calculated and kappa test of agreement was used to determine the strength of agreement between the MRI and CT findings...
June 10, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598771/barriers-to-initiating-tuberculosis-treatment-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-focused-on-children-and-youth
#10
Brittney J Sullivan, B Emily Esmaili, Coleen K Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease globally, with 10.4 million people infected and more than 1.8 million deaths in 2015. TB is a preventable, treatable, and curable disease, yet there are numerous barriers to initiating treatment. These barriers to treatment are exacerbated in low-resource settings and may be compounded by factors related to childhood. OBJECTIVE: Timely initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is critical to reducing disease transmission and improving patient outcomes...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579706/hepatotoxicity-due-to-antituberculosis-therapy-among-paediatric-patients-seen-at-the-university-of-ilorin-teaching-hospital-north-central-nigeria
#11
Gobir Aishatu, Ibraheem Rasheedah, Johnson Wahab, Muhammed Sheni, Oladele Damilola, Ojuola Adeniyi
BACKGROUND: The liver is vulnerable to injury from the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs. This may result in mortality, long term morbidity and reduced compliance to therapy. Nigeria recently introduced fixed drug combinations in the treatment of children amid concerns of hepatotoxicity. A 6-year-old boy was treated in our unit had fulminant hepatic failure two weeks after completing his anti-tuberculosis therapy. This prompted the unit to investigate hepatotoxicity due to anti-tuberculosis therapy among children...
March 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575208/high-rate-of-treatment-completion-in-program-settings-with-12-dose-weekly-isoniazid-and-rifapentine-3hp-for-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#12
Amy L Sandul, Nwabunie Nwana, J Mike Holcombe, Mark N Lobato, Suzanne Marks, Risa Webb, Shu-Hua Wang, Brock Stewart, Phil Griffin, Garrett Hunt, Neha Shah, Asween Marco, Naveen Patil, Leonard Mukasa, Ruth N Moro, John Jereb, Sundari Mase, Terence Chorba, Sapna Bamrah-Morris, Christine S Ho
Background: RCTs demonstrated the newest LTBI regimen, 12 weekly doses of directly observed isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP), as efficacious as 9 months of isoniazid (9H) with a greater completion rate (82% versus 69%); however, 3HP has not been assessed in routine health care settings. Methods: Observational cohort of LTBI patients receiving 3HP through 16 US programs was used to assess treatment completion, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and factors associated with treatment discontinuation...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562675/addressing-tuberculosis-control-in-fragile-states-urban-dots-experience-in-kabul-afghanistan-2009-2015
#13
G Qader, A Hamim, M Sayedi, M Rashidi, L Manzoor, M K Seddiq, N Ikram, P G Suarez
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Afghanistan, but experience in implementing effective strategies to prevent and control TB in urban areas and conflict zones is limited. This study shares programmatic experience in implementing DOTS in the large city of Kabul. We analyzed data from the 2009-2015 reports of the National TB Program (NTP) for Kabul City and calculated treatment outcomes and progress in case notification using rates, ratios, and confidence interval. Urban DOTS was implemented by the NTP in partnership with United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded TB projects, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the private sector...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559513/extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-colombian-children-epidemiological-and-clinical-data-in-a-reference-hospital
#14
Eileen Viviana Fonseca Sepulveda, Luisa Fernanda Imbachí Yunda, Kelly Christina Márquez Herrera, German Camacho Moreno
BACKGROUND: The pediatric population is at increased risk of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). There is little information on children affected by this entity. The demographic, clinical, and outcome characteristics of the treatment of children with extrapulmonary TB, treated at a national reference institution between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2016, are described and analyzed in this work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study...
April 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554083/children-s-difficulty-with-true-belief-tasks-competence-deficit-or-performance-problem
#15
Nese Oktay-Gür, Hannes Rakoczy
According to the standard picture of explicit theory of mind (ToM) development, children begin to (explicitly) ascribe beliefs to others and themselves from around age 4. The empirical basis of this picture comes from numerous studies consistently showing that children master verbal false belief (FB) tasks from around age 4 while children much younger have no difficulty in mastering structurally analogous true belief (TB) tasks. The standard picture, though, has come under serious attack from recent studies using TB tasks with wider age ranges...
May 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550599/rare-earth-elements-in-street-dust-and-associated-health-risk-in-a-municipal-industrial-base-of-central-china
#16
Guangyi Sun, Zhonggen Li, Ting Liu, Ji Chen, Tingting Wu, Xinbin Feng
The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg(-1), with an average of 115.9 mg kg(-1), which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546104/development-of-a-paediatric-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-to-assess-the-impact-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-tuberculosis-co-infected-malaria-subjects-a-case-study-with-artemether-lumefantrine-and-the-cyp3a4-inducer-rifampicin
#17
Olusola Olafuyi, Michael Coleman, Raj K S Badhan
The fixed dosed combination of artemether and lumefantrine (AL) is widely used for the treatment of malaria in adults and children in sub-Sahara Africa, with lumefantrine day 7 concentrations being widely used as a marker for clinical efficacy. Both are substrates for CYP3A4 and susceptible to drug-drug interactions (DDIs); indeed, knowledge of the impact of these factors is currently sparse in paediatric population groups. Confounding malaria treatment is the co-infection of patients with tuberculosis. The concomitant treatment of AL with tuberculosis chemotherapy, which includes the CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin, increases the risk of parasite recrudescence and malaria treatment failure...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534730/big-stimulus-little-ears-safety-in-administering-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-children
#18
Megan L A Thomas, Denis Fitzpatrick, Ryan McCreery, Kristen L Janky
BACKGROUND: Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become common clinical vestibular assessments. However, VEMP testing requires high intensity stimuli, raising concerns regarding safety with children, where sound pressure levels may be higher due to their smaller ear canal volumes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the range of peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels (peSPLs) in child and adult ears in response to high intensity stimuli (i...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525582/challenges-in-the-estimation-of-the-annual-risk-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-aged-under-5-years
#19
P Y Khan, J R Glynn, T Mzembe, D Mulawa, R Chiumya, A C Crampin, K Kranzer, K L Fielding
Accurate estimates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in young children provide a critical indicator of on-going community M.tb transmission. Cross reactions due to infection with environmental mycobacteria and/or Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination compromise the estimates derived from population-level tuberculin skin test surveys using traditional cut-off methods. Newer statistical approaches are prone to failure of model convergence, especially in settings where the prevalence of M.tb infection is low and environmental sensitisation is high...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521913/a-6500-year-old-middle-neolithic-child-from-pollera-cave-liguria-italy-with-probable-multifocal-osteoarticular-tuberculosis
#20
Vitale S Sparacello, Charlotte A Roberts, Ammielle Kerudin, Romy Müller
Clear skeletal evidence of prehistoric tuberculosis (TB) is rare, especially in children. We describe and differentially diagnose the pathological changes displayed by a five-year-old child, Pollera 21 (PO21) dated to the Middle Neolithic of Liguria (Italy), or 5740±30 BP (Beta-409341; 6635-6453cal BP, 2σ, OxCal 4.2). PO21 shows a number of osteoarticular lesions, mainly of a lytic nature with very little bone proliferation: the vertebral column, the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the ribcage are involved...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
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