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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910720/the-management-of-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-young-children-post-2015-an-opportunity-to-close-the-policy-practice-gap
#1
Stephen M Graham
The treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in young children is supported by universal policy based on strong rationale and evidence of effectiveness, but has rarely been implemented in tuberculosis endemic countries. Areas covered: This review highlights a number of important recent developments that provide an unprecedented opportunity to close the policy-practice gap, as well as ongoing needs to facilitate implementation under programmatic conditions and scale-up. Expert commentary: The WHO's End TB Strategy and Stop TB Partnership's Plan to End TB provide ambitious targets for prevention at a time when National Tuberculosis Programs in tuberculosis endemic countries are increasing attention to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis disease in children...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882294/cough-and-fever-in-an-immigrant-adolescent-with-abnormal-chest-x-ray
#2
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872320/pott-s-disease-a-major-issue-for-an-unaccompanied-refugee-minor
#3
Cihan Papan, Ulrich von Both, Matthias Kappler, Birgit Kammer, Matthias Griese, Johannes Huebner
The incidence of TB in children in Germany has been on a rise since 2008, especially among foreign-born individuals. With rapidly increasing numbers of refugees from the numerous areas of conflict, this increase in incidence is not expected to halt, neither in Germany nor in Europe in general. We report a case of insufficient tracking in a 16-year-old unaccompanied refugee minor from Somalia who had a positive interferon γ release assay on arrival in Germany. No actions were undertaken, until 6 months later, an X-ray showed prominent hilar enlargement...
November 21, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#4
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realised This review evaluates the evidence the effectiveness preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug susceptible and drug resistant bacteria. We summarise current national and international preventive therapy guidelines, as well as ongoing randomised trials evaluating regimen to prevent drug resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865245/adolescent-with-recurrent-tuberculosis-can-it-be-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#5
Yashashree Gupta, Ira Shah
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent bacterial and fungal infections like Staphylococcus aureus, Nocardia spp, Serratia marcescens, Burkholderia cepacia, Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus species. We present a 13-year-old male child who had 3 episodes of tuberculosis (TB) at 5 years, 8 years and 13 years of age, respectively, with no other intercurrent infections and who was diagnosed as CGD at the age of 13 years. This case highlights the possibility of phenotypic variations of CGD...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865242/a-study-on-knowledge-and-awareness-about-tuberculosis-in-senior-school-children-in-bangalore-india
#6
K Vanaja, Reshma Banu, Lokeshwar Reddy, P Chethan Kumar, Chaitra Srinivas, T Rajani, Navyashree, H S Shekar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), commonly affecting the lungs. All health care professionals including the pharmacists provide a valuable public health role in promoting community awareness of TB particularly in reducing stigma attached to TB. Thus, creating awareness at a community level could play a vital role in control and prevention of TB. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether educational intervention would affect the level of TB awareness among students of selected schools and pre-university colleges (PUCs) in Bangalore urban and Bangalore rural regions...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865236/pcr-targeting-is6110-in-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-children-in-comparison-to-mgit-culture
#7
Rajeshwar Dayal, Dipti Agarwal, Harish Pathak, Shehraj Feroz, Manoj Kumar, Devendra S Chauhan, Rakesh Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult in children especially in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). This study was conducted to evaluate the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting IS6110 in the diagnosis of TB in children with pulmonary TB and EPTB and also to compare its performance with MGIT 960 culture and conventional microscopy. METHODS: A total of 142 cases (50 pulmonary, 92 extrapulmonary) of suspected TB patients <15 years of age were included in the study...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863623/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-of-the-head-and-neck-in-canadian-children-experience-from-a-low-burden-region
#8
Jason J Xu, Shazia Peer, Blake C Papsin, Ian Kitai, Evan J Propst
BACKGROUND: Children are more likely than adults to develop extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which often presents as cervical lymphadenopathy. The role of surgery in management is uncertain. We reviewed all head and neck EPTB cases presenting to our tertiary care pediatric institution over a twelve-year period. METHODS: All children 18 years of age and younger with EPTB involving the head and neck were included. We recorded clinical data and age at diagnosis, birth country, BCG vaccination status, as well as radiographic, surgical, histological, and microbiological results...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861788/phenotypically-resembling-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-children-with-hiv-and-exposed-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Nelita Du Plessis, Ruschca Jacobs, Andrea Gutschmidt, Zhuo Fang, Paul D van Helden, Manfred B Lutz, Anneke C Hesseling, Gerhard Walzl
Increased disease susceptibility during early life has been linked to immune immaturity, regulatory T-cell/TH2 immune biasing and hyporesponsiveness. The contribution of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) remains uninvestigated. Here, we assessed peripheral MDSC in HIV-infected and -uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) disease before, during and after TB treatment, along with matched household contacts (HHCs), HIV-exposed, -infected and -uninfected children without recent TB exposure. Serum analytes and enzymes associated with MDSC accumulation/activation/function were measured by colorimetric- and fluorescence arrays...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861363/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-a-24-month-treatment-regimen-including-delamanid-in-a-child-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Marina Tadolini, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi
RATIONAL: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are emerging problems in several countries. These infections require long and expensive treatment regimens. Recently, 2 new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have been approved in several countries for use in adults with severe, difficult-to-treat MDR-TB, and it has been suggested that they could also be administered to children with MDR-TB and limited treatment options. However, no study has been completed on their efficacy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855070/pharmacokinetics-of-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-ghanaian-children-with-tuberculosis-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#11
Sampson Antwi, Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Anima M Sarfo, Fizza S Gillani, Daniel Ansong, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Orstin, Theresa Opoku, Dennis Bosumtwe, Lubbe Wiesner, Jennifer Norman, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
Although human immunodefiency virus (HIV) coinfection is the most important risk factor for poor antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment response, its effect on the pharmacokinetics of the first-line drugs in children is understudied. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of the four first-line anti-TB drugs in children with tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV coinfection. Ghanaian children with TB on isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 8-hours post-dose...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854508/new-repurposed-drugs-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-practice-based-recommendations
#12
Elizabeth P Harausz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, James A Seddon, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling, Jay Achar, Jonathan Bernheimer, Andrea Cruz, Lia D'Ambrosio, Anne Detjen, Stephen M Graham, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Ben J Marais, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Lindsay McKenna, Alena Skrahina, Marina Tadolini, Peyton Wilson, Jennifer Furin
It is estimated that 33,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) each year. In spite of these numbers, children and adolescents have limited access to the new and repurposed MDR-TB drugs. There is also little clinical guidance for the use of these drugs and for the shorter MDR-TB regimen in the pediatric population. This is despite the fact that these drugs and regimens are associated with improved interim outcomes and acceptable safety profiles in adults. This review fills a gap in the pediatric MDR-TB literature by providing practice-based recommendations for the use of the new (delamanid and bedaquiline) and repurposed (linezolid and clofazimine) MDR-TB drugs and the new shorter MDR-TB regimen in children and adolescents...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848902/the-impact-of-mass-gathering-on-the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-al-madinah-al-monawarah-region-saudi-arabia
#13
Mogahid Elhassan, Hassan A Hemeg, Miskelyemen A Elmekki, Khalid A Turkistani, Ahmed A Abdul-Aziz
BACKGROUND: The pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to first line drugs and multidrug resistance in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a seasonally overcrowded are during Hajj and Omrah, is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate anti-TB drug resistance and its distribution among new cases in Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. METHODS: Study subjects included 622 patients with first time confirmed TB referred to the central tuberculosis laboratory in Al-Madinah between January 2012 and December 2014...
November 15, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846812/predictors-of-hospitalization-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-montreal-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Lisa A Ronald, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Boivin, Kevin Schwartzman, Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835678/nutritional-status-and-tuberculosis-risk-in-adult-and-pediatric-household-contacts
#15
Omowunmi Aibana, Xeno Acharya, Chuan-Chin Huang, Mercedes C Becerra, Jerome T Galea, Silvia S Chiang, Carmen Contreras, Roger Calderon, Rosa Yataco, Gustavo E Velásquez, Karen Tintaya, Judith Jimenez, Leonid Lecca, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: Studies show obesity decreases risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. There is limited evidence on whether high body mass index also protects against TB infection; how very high body mass indices influence TB risk; or whether nutritional status predicts this risk in children. We assessed the impact of body mass index on incident TB infection and disease among adults and children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study among household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826955/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-preventing-infections-in-children-under-five-years-of-age
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Rehana A Salam, Farhan R Khan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a micronutrient important for bone growth and immune function. Deficiency can lead to rickets and has been linked to various infections, including respiratory infections. The evidence on the effects of supplementation on infections in children has not been assessed systematically. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrhoea, and malaria in children under five years of age...
November 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825314/diagnostic-performance-of-smear-microscopy-and-incremental-yield-of-xpert-in-detection-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-rwanda
#17
Jean Claude Semuto Ngabonziza, Willy Ssengooba, Florence Mutua, Gabriela Torrea, Augustin Dushime, Michel Gasana, Emmanuel Andre, Schifra Uwamungu, Alaine Umubyeyi Nyaruhirira, Dufton Mwaengo, Claude Mambo Muvunyi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis control program of Rwanda is currently phasing in light emitting diode-fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) as an alternative to Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy. This, alongside the newly introduced Xpert (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is expected to improve diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of rifampicin resistance in patients at health facilities. We assessed the accuracy of smear microscopy and the incremental sensitivity of Xpert at tuberculosis laboratories in Rwanda...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825307/prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-predictive-factors-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Jabulani R Ncayiyana, Jean Bassett, Nora West, Daniel Westreich, Eustasius Musenge, Michael Emch, Audrey Pettifor, Colleen F Hanrahan, Sheree R Schwartz, Ian Sanne, Annelies van Rie
BACKGROUND: South Africa has one of the highest burdens of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk populations such as young children, adolescents, household contacts of TB cases, people living with HIV, gold miners and health care workers, but little is known about the burden of LTBI in its general population. METHODS: Using a community-based survey with random sampling, we examined the burden of LTBI in an urban township of Johannesburg and investigated factors associated with LTBI...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824436/tuberculosis-in-poland-in-2014
#19
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823900/gene-based-neonatal-immune-priming-potentiates-a-mucosal-adenoviral-vaccine-encoding-mycobacterial-ag85b
#20
Guixiang Dai, Hamada F Rady, Weitao Huang, Judd E Shellito, Carol Mason, Alistair J Ramsay
Tuberculosis remains a major public health hazard worldwide, with neonates and young infants potentially more susceptible to infection than adults. BCG, the only vaccine currently available, provides some protection against tuberculous meningitis in children but variable efficacy in adults, and is not safe to use in immune compromised individuals. A safe and effective vaccine that could be given early in life, and that could also potentiate subsequent booster immunization, would represent a significant advance...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
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