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hiv and liver disease

Zachary Henry, Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora
Since the advent of new direct acting antivirals (DAA), substantial changes in hepatitis C (HCV) treatment guidelines have occurred. However, little is known about how these recommendations have been adopted into clinical practice. We conducted a retrospective review of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV coinfected patients treated with DAAs at the Ryan White Clinic of the Jackson Health System in Miami, FL, USA. Our aim was to determine changes in HCV evaluation and treatment patterns in the use of DAAs over a four-year period from January 2014 to December 2017...
September 20, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Kenneth E Sherman, Enass Abdel-Hameed, Susan D Rouster, Mohamed Tarek M Shata, Jason T Blackard, Parham Safaie, Barbara Kroner, Liliana Preiss, Paul S Horn, Shyam Kottilil
Background: CCR5 is a key receptor for HIV-1 viral entry into T-cells and a variant allele, CCR5 delta-32, is associated with decreased viral replication and disease progression. Active HIV-1 replication is highly associated with accelerated rates of hepatic fibrosis. We postulated that CCR5 plays a central role in the development of hepatic fibrosis, and evaluated the longitudinal effect of both natural or drug-induced CCR5 mutation and blockade on biomarkers of liver fibrosis in HIV-1 infected patients...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Muhammad T Farooqui, Muhammad Ali Khan, George Cholankeril, Zubair Khan, Mubeen K Mohammed Abdul, Andrew A Li, Neha Shah, Lin Wu, Khwaja Haq, Shantanu Solanki, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: An estimated 22 million adults use marijuana in the USA. The role of marijuana in the progression of hepatic fibrosis remains unclear. AIMS: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of marijuana on prevalence and progression of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched several databases from inception through 10 November 2017 to identify studies evaluating the role of marijuana in chronic liver disease...
September 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Claire Dendle, Rhonda L Stuart, William R Mulley, Stephen R Holdsworth
This narrative review summarizes the current literature relating to pneumococcal vaccination in adult solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, who are at risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) with its attendant high morbidity and mortality. The effect of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been examined in several small cohort studies in SOT recipients, most of which were kidney transplant recipients. The outcomes for these studies have been laboratory seroresponses or functional antibody titers...
September 11, 2018: Vaccine
Kelsey B Loeliger, Frederick L Altice, Maria M Ciarleglio, Katherine M Rich, Divya K Chandra, Colleen Gallagher, Mayur M Desai, Jaimie P Meyer
BACKGROUND: People transitioning from prisons or jails have high mortality, but data are scarce for people with HIV and no studies have integrated data from both criminal justice and community settings. We aimed to assess all-cause mortality in people with HIV released from an integrated system of prisons and jails in Connecticut, USA. METHODS: We linked pharmacy, custodial, death, case management, and HIV surveillance data from Connecticut Departments of Correction and Public Health to create a retrospective cohort of all adults with HIV released from jails and prisons in Connecticut between 2007 and 2014...
September 6, 2018: Lancet HIV
Z J Chen, Y S Cao, S B Zai, Y W Hu, Z Q Zhu
Objective: To analyze the drug resistance of clinical isolates of Candida tropicalis in patients with infectious diseases, and preliminarily study their molecular characteristics. Methods: 95 strains of Candida tropicalis were isolated from the fungal culture specimens of 87 patients with infectious diseases in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from 2012 to 2015. Meanwhile, basic clinical data of patients were collected. The drug resistance of the strains to fungal drugs was analyzed by ATB FUNGUS 3 drug sensitivity test strips...
September 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Claudinei Mesquita da Silva, Leyde Daiane de Peder, Alessandra Michele Guelere, Josana Dranka Horvath, Eraldo Schunk Silva, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Dennis Armando Bertolini
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a common cause of complications in liver disease and immunological impairment among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and their correlation with CD4+ T-cells among HIV-infected patients in an HBV endemic area. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational and retrospective study was carried out in a reference center in Southern Brazil between January 2005 and December 2016...
2018: PloS One
Lina Ruiz, María Angélica Maya, Zulma Vanesa Rueda, Lucelly López, Lázaro Agustín Vélez
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV patients. It is unknown if the advent of molecular diagnostic methods and a greater availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in our country have changed some characteristics of the TB/HIV co-infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, resistance patterns, tuberculosis drug effects and mortality in co-infected patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study based on the review of medical records of hospitalized co-infected adults in a university hospital in Medellín, Colombia...
August 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Hariklia Kranidioti, Christina Chatzievagelinou, Adonis Protopapas, Margarita Papatheodoridi, Konstantinos Zisimopoulos, Eftychia Evangelidou, Pinelopi Antonakaki, John Vlachogiannakos, Christos Triantos, Ioannis Elefsiniotis, John Goulis, Maria Mela, Olga Anagnostou, Christos Tsoulas, Melanie Deutsch, George Papatheodoridis, Spilios Manolakopoulos
Background: It is estimated that 17,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece have hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia. The aim of our study was to explore the characteristics of the HCV-infected, direct acting antiviral (DAA)-naïve PWID. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of PWID with HCV infection. We selected data from six liver clinics during the period from 1st May 2014 to 31st May 2017 in order to record the characteristics of infected PWID. Results: We included 800 PWID with HCV infection (78...
September 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
G Alicandro, G Sebastiani, P Bertuccio, N Zengarini, G Costa, C La Vecchia, L Frova
OBJECTIVES: Monitoring socio-economic inequality has become a priority for many governments, especially after the socio-economic changes that followed the 2008 financial crisis. This study aimed at detecting the causes of death with the largest socio-economic inequality in relative and absolute terms in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: This is a historical cohort study. METHODS: We used two regression-based measures of socio-economic inequality, the relative index of inequality (RII) and the slope index of inequality (SII), to rank the causes of death with the highest relative and absolute socio-economic inequality...
August 30, 2018: Public Health
Vinicius da Costa Vieira, Liliane Lins, Viviane Almeida Sarmento, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Oral health care may improve the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HIV/AIDS patients. We aimed to evaluate oral health and HRQoL of HIV/AIDS patients using antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included 120 HIV-infected patients, aged ≥18 years, from February, 2016 to September, 2017. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to evaluate the HRQoL. We assessed dental caries status using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index...
August 29, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Laura E Starbird, Hae-Ra Han, Mark S Sulkowski, Chakra Budhathoki, Nancy R Reynolds, Jason E Farley
Co-infection with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in a threefold increase in relative risk of progression to end stage liver disease and cirrhosis compared to HCV alone. Although curative treatments exist, less than one quarter of people with HCV are linked to care, and even fewer have received treatment. The Care2Cure study is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial to improve the HCV care continuum among people co-infected with HIV. This ongoing study was designed to test whether a nurse case management intervention can (i) improve linkage to HCV care and (ii) decrease time to HCV treatment initiation among 70 adults co-infected with HIV who are not engaged in HCV care...
August 28, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Alan J Taege
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease with a near normal life span resulting in increased risk of organ failure. HIV organ transplantation is a proven and accepted intervention in appropriately selected cases. HIV-positive organ transplantation into HIV-positive recipients is in its nascent stages. Hepatitis C virus, high rates of organ rejection, and immune dysregulation are significant remaining barriers to overcome. This article provides an overview of the transplantation needs in the HIV population focusing on kidney and liver transplants...
September 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Alvin Yang, Charlie Tan, Nick Daneman, Mark S Hansen, Gilbert Habib, Erwan Salaun, Cécile Lavoute, Sandrine Hubert, Neill Kj Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Prediction of embolic events (EEs) in infective endocarditis (IE) could inform clinical decisions, such as surgical timing. We conducted a systematic review to more precisely define associations between risk factors and EEs. METHODS: We searched 2 bibliographic databases (1994-2018) for observational studies that reported EEs in IE patients and considered clinical, microbiologic, or echocardiographic risk factors. Studies that did not use Duke criteria or only investigated a subset of IE patients were excluded...
August 23, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jenny Bischoff, Jürgen K Rockstroh
Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have tremendously improved treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections also in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Curing HCV is of particular importance in HIV positive individuals as liver disease progression is accelerated in the course of concomitant HIV infection. Former challenges, such as safety and tolerability as well as reduced treatment uptake of a peginterferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) based treatment have been overcome with the approval of DAAs...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Amanda Whitmill, Seongcheol Kim, Vivian Rojas, Fahad Gulraiz, Kazi Afreen, Mamta Jain, Meharvan Singh, In-Woo Park
To elucidate HIV-1 co-infection-induced acceleration of HCV liver disease and identify stage-specific molecular signatures, we applied a new high-resolution molecular screen, the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array (HTA2.0), to HCV-mono- and HIV/HCV-co-infected liver specimens from subjects with early and advanced disease. Out of 67,528 well-annotated genes, we have analyzed the functional and statistical significance of 75 and 28 genes expressed differentially between early and advanced stages of HCV mono- and HIV/HCV co-infected patient liver samples, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Jorge Soares, João Vasco Santos, António Sarmento, Altamiro Costa-Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous viral clearance of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a rare event. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic, demographic, and laboratory features associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in 16 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, the largest case series, to our knowledge). METHODS: This case series study reports the findings from 16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with CHC who experienced spontaneous clearance of HCV infection...
August 16, 2018: Intervirology
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Paul G Barnett, Vilija R Joyce, Jeanie Lo, Risha Gidwani-Marszowski, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Manisha Desai, Steven M Asch, Mark Holodniy, Douglas K Owens
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether implementation of interferon-free treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) reached groups less likely to benefit from earlier therapies, including patients with genotype 1 virus or contraindications to interferon treatment, and groups that faced treatment disparities: African Americans, patients with HIV co-infection, and those with drug use disorder. METHODS: Electronic medical records of the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were used to characterize patients with chronic HCV infection and the treatments they received...
August 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
V Nehra, S A Rizza, Z Temesgen
The fixed-dose combination of glecaprevir (GLE), a nonstructural protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) protease inhibitor, and pibrentasvir (PIB), an NS5A inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-6 (GT-1-6) without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, and for the treatment of HCV GT-1 patients who have failed treatment with either NS5A inhibitors or NS3/4A protease inhibitors, but not both. This combination, administered over 8 or 12 weeks, has resulted in high cure rates in all six HCV genotypes, including patients with HIV coinfection...
July 2018: Drugs of Today
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