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hiv and liver disease

Faydra I Lieveld, Colette Smit, Clemens Richter, Karel J van Erpecum, Bernhard W M Spanier, Elisabeth H Gisolf, Jan M Vrolijk, Peter D Siersema, Andy I M Hoepelman, Peter Reiss, Joop E Arends
BACKGROUND & AIMS: HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfected subjects are thought to have faster progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) than HBV mono-infected subjects. We assessed whether this remains in the current cART-era. METHODS: Data from subjects with follow-up completion post-2003 were compared between HIV/HBV coinfected subjects in the Dutch HIV Monitoring database and HBV mono-infected subjects from two centers. The primary outcome of composite ESLD included portal hypertension, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, and liver-related mortality...
November 9, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Richard K Sterling, Abdus S Wahed, Wendy C King, David E Kleiner, Mandana Khalili, Mark Sulkowski, Raymond T Chung, Mamta K Jain, Mauricio Lisker-Melman, David K Wong, Marc G Ghany
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because most HBV/HIV co-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have suppressed HBV DNA and normal liver enzymes, the histologic spectrum of liver disease in HBV/HIV coinfection is poorly defined. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a prospective study to comprehensively characterize liver disease severity assessed by liver biopsy in a well-defined cohort of HBV/HIV patients in North America receiving cART. METHODS: Adult HIV/HBsAg positive patients on stable cART were recruited...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
V Di Marco, A Alberti, G Angarano, M Colombo, G Di Perri, G B Gaeta, G Ippolito, A Mangia, P Pasqualetti, A Craxì
OBJECTIVE: To optimize the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed two questionnaires to determine Italian healthcare professionals' opinions on the overall management of HCV chronic liver disease and the use of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in the treatment of HCV. A Delphi consensus method using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to determine opinions of an expert panel (EP) of specialists...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Naoyoshi Nagata, Takeshi Nishijima, Ryota Niikura, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Yumi Matsushita, Koji Watanabe, Katsuji Teruya, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Junichi Akiyama, Mikio Yanase, Naomi Uemura, Shinichi Oka, Hiroyuki Gatanaga
BACKGROUND: Data on the long-term risks of non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) are limited, especially in Asians. The incidence of NADCs may correlate with the epidemiological trend of cancers or oncogenic infection in each country, and thus the target cancers would be different between Western and Asian countries. We aimed to elucidate the incidence of NADCs and its predictive factors in Asian HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Subjects were HIV-infected patients (n = 1001) periodically followed-up for 9 years on average...
November 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Shemal M Shah, Jagat B Baniya, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Ananta Shrestha, Holly Rodin, Andre Boonstra, Jose D Debes
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) seropositivity may confer an increased risk of liver fibrosis in immunosuppressed individuals. We studied this effect in HIV-infected individuals in Nepal, a country hyperendemic for HEV. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 200 HIV-positive individuals. Serum samples were tested for components of fibrosis scores and cytokeratin-18. RESULTS: Of 200 patients, 43% were HEV-immunoglobulin G+...
November 5, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Fiona Macintyre, Hanu Ramachandruni, Jeremy N Burrows, René Holm, Anna Thomas, Jörg J Möhrle, Stephan Duparc, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Brian Greenwood, Winston E Gutteridge, Timothy N C Wells, Wiweka Kaszubska
Over the last 15 years, the majority of malaria drug discovery and development efforts have focused on new molecules and regimens to treat patients with uncomplicated or severe disease. In addition, a number of new molecular scaffolds have been discovered which block the replication of the parasite in the liver, offering the possibility of new tools for oral prophylaxis or chemoprotection, potentially with once-weekly dosing. However, an intervention which requires less frequent administration than this would be a key tool for the control and elimination of malaria...
November 1, 2018: Malaria Journal
H Lin, M V Stankov, J Hegermann, R Budida, D Panayotova-Dimitrova, R E Schmidt, G M N Behrens
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) such as zidovudine (AZT) are constituents of HIV-1 therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission. Prolonged thymidine analogues exposure has been associated with mitochondrial toxicities to heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the thymidine analogue AZT might interfere with autophagy in myocytes, a lysosomal degradation pathway implicated in regulation of mitochondrial recycling, cell survival and the pathogenesis of myodegenerative diseases...
October 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Duale Ahmed, David Roy, Edana Cassol
With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals are now living longer and healthier lives. However, ART does not completely restore health and treated individuals are experiencing increased rates of noncommunicable diseases such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. While it is well known that persistent immune activation and inflammation contribute to the development of these comorbid diseases, the mechanisms underlying this chronic activation remain incompletely understood...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Hany S Bedair, Brian M Schurko, Maureen K Dwyer, David Novikov, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) have had extremely high complication rates after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We sought to compare perioperative complication rates between untreated and treated HCV in THA patients and to compare these rates between patients treated with 2 different therapies (interferon vs direct antiviral agents). METHODS: A multicenter retrospective database query was used to identify patients diagnosed with HCV who underwent THA between 2006 and 2016...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
María A Jiménez-Sousa, Juan Berenguer, Amanda Fernández Rodríguez, Luz María Medrano, Teresa Aldámiz-Echevarria, Leire Pérez-Latorre, Cristina Díez, María Martín-Vicente, Mónica Gutiérrez-Rivas, Isidoro Martínez, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: TNFAIP3 is a crucial hepatoprotective factor due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and pro-regenerative functions. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between genetic variants upstream of TNFAIP3 (rs675520, rs9376293 and rs6920220) and liver fibrosis severity and inflammation in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 215 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, who underwent a liver biopsy...
October 15, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Alauddin, Swati Chaturvedi, Mohd Yaseen Malik, Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Zaiba Naseem, ChandanaVenkateswara Rao, Naresh Kumar Agarwal
AIMS: Ritonavir (RIT) is a human immune deficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI) active against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Among various adverse effects of PIs, hepatotoxicity is a very common adverse reaction of RIT which is concentration dependent. Red clover isoflavones are found to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activity. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that these isoflavones can be used to alleviate the side-effects of drugs. Hence, the present study was inquested to ascertain the effect of Formononetin (FMN) and Biochanin A (BCA) on RIT induced hepatotoxicity...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore
OBJECTIVE: Describe all-cause mortality associated with history of injection drug use (IDU) after a validated diagnosis of four non-communicable disease (NCD) diagnoses: 1) end-stage liver disease (ESLD); 2) end-stage renal disease (ESRD); 3) cancer; or 4) myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. DESIGN: We followed 4 cohorts of persons in continuity HIV care in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic with a validated diagnosis of ESLD (n = 67), ESRD (n = 187), cancer (n = 424), and MI or stroke (n = 213) from 1996 through approximately 2014...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Mingze Su, Lingjie Liao, Hui Xing, Shuai Wang, Yutang Li, Wei Lu, Lingyuan He, Juan Deng, Yiming Shao, Tong Li, Hui Zhuang
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in three HIV high endemic areas with different modes of HIV transmission and explore the HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue resistance (NUCr) substitutions in this cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients and methods: The enrolled 705 HIV-infected patients were from three different regions in China and received lamivudine-based ART for at least 1 year. After screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc and anti-HBc IgM), HBV DNA in plasma of patients positive for HBsAg was tested...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Chien-Cheng Huang, Chung-Han Ho, Yi-Chen Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Yi-Fong Wang, Hung-Jung Lin, Jhi-Joung Wang, How-Ran Guo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on reducing neurological sequelae (NS) in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP). Using a nationwide database of insurance claims in Taiwan, we conducted a population-based cohort study to identify 24,046 patients with COP diagnosed between 1999 and 2012, including 6793 (28.2%) patients who received HBOT and 17,253 (71.8%) patients who did not. We followed the two cohorts of patients and compared the occurrence of NS...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Giovanni Cenderello, Lucia Taramasso, Domenico Marra, Patrizia Orcamo, Ambra Pasa, Antonio Di Biagio
OBJECTIVES: This article presents a 3-year budget impact simulation on the effects of a chronic Hepatitis C (HCV) eradication plan in real-life costs incurred by the Regional Health Service in the Liguria Region (in Northern Italy). METHODS: The Liguria Region network performed a prospective 3-year (2017-2019) timeframe horizon trends simulation analysis focusing on management interventions and costs. It involved all the eight prescribing centres in the region, starting from retrospective historical performance data and assuming impact of sustained viral response rates for patients treated for HCV...
October 15, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
P L Guo, W P Cai, X J Chen, H L He, F Y Hu, X P Tang, L H Li
Objective: To investigate the combined effects of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) infection on the cause of death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The causes of death of 111 cases of AIDS with HBV/HCV (combined infection group) and 210 AIDS patients (single infection group) admitted to our hospital from 2012 to 2016 data were compared using chi-square test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in gender composition and age in the combined infection groups ( P > 0...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Sérgio Luiz Arruda Parente Filho, Douglas de Sousa Soares, Rodrigo da Nóbrega de Alencar, Tiago Tomaz Teles Peixoto, Isadora Sales Nogueira, Antônio Mendes Ponte de Oliveira Filho, Fernanda Holanda Menezes, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Elizabeth de Francesco Daher
OBJECTIVE: HIV-related mortality is still high, especially in developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate factors associated to death in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with all HIV adult patients admitted to a tertiary infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil, from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: survivors and non-survivors. Demo-graphical, clinical and laboratory data were compared and a logistic regression was performed in order to investigate risk factors for death...
June 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Francisca Sosa-Jurado, Daniel Meléndez-Mena, Nora H Rosas-Murrieta, Belinda Guzmán-Flores, Miguel A Mendoza-Torres, Roberto Barcenas-Villalobos, Luis Márquez-Domínguez, Paulina Cortés-Hernández, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Gerardo Santos-López
BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HVB) DNA in the liver of HBsAg negative individuals with or without detectable viral DNA in serum. OBI is a diagnostic challenge as it is characterized by a very low viral load, intermittently detectable through time. Individuals with OBI can develop chronic hepatic disease, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to produce tools to improve OBI detection of the HVB genotypes prevalent in Mexico...
2018: PloS One
Suman Srinivasa, Kathleen V Fitch, Nabiha Quadri, Patrick Maehler, Timothy K O'Malley, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Tricia H Burdo, Meghan Feldpausch, Martin Torriani, Gail K Adler, Steven K Grinspoon
Objective: Fatty liver disease is increased among individuals with HIV. We sought to explore how aldosterone, a key hormone linked to insulin resistance and inflammation, relates to liver fat in the large population of individuals with HIV and metabolic abnormalities. Methods: Forty-six individuals with HIV and increased waist circumference and dysglycemia were assessed for liver fat using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum aldosterone level was obtained following strictly controlled posture conditions and a standardized sodium diet and was related to liver fat...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Vatsalya Vatsalya, Matt Cave, Rajarshi Kumar, Shweta Srivastava, Sujita Khanal, Alfred Jenson, Melanie Schwandt, Shirish S Barve, Vijay Ramchandani, Craig McClain
Heavy alcohol drinking causes alterations in the metabolism of fatty acids and zinc that participate in inflammation and liver injury. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has been reported to cause dysregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) and zinc metabolism. In this pilot study, we examined the role of dysregulated PUFA metabolism and zinc deficiency in liver injury in the liver injury occurring in heavy drinkers with early stage HIV diagnosis. Fourteen heavy drinking alcohol dependent (AD) patients (seven with treatment naïve HIV diagnosis [AD+HIV], and seven without HIV infection [AD]) participated in this study...
October 3, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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