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hiv and liver disease

Donald P Rice, Michelle A Ordoveza, Ann M Palmer, George Y Wu, Lisa M Chirch
Direct-acting antiviral therapy is safe and cost-effective for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, variability in drug payment rules represents a barrier to treatment that may disproportionately affect certain populations. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among HIV/HCV coinfected and HCV monoinfected patients using Kaplan-Meier and Fisher's exact test to analyze the time from the prescription of a direct-acting antiviral agent to delivery to the patient. Variables with significance p < ...
July 18, 2018: AIDS Care
Miranda S Moore, Angelica Bocour, Olivia C Tran, Baozhen Qiao, Maria J Schymura, Fabienne Laraque, Ann Winters
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complication of chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection. New York City (NYC) has a high prevalence of HBV and HCV, and infected persons likely face increased mortality from HCC and other causes. We describe the mortality profile of NYC residents with HBV or HCV, emphasizing the contributions of HCC and HIV coinfection. Methods:  Two existing data sets were combined to examine all individuals diagnosed with HBV or HCV in NYC first reported to the Health Department during 2001-2012 and their HCC, HIV, and vital status...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Ranmali Ranasinghe, Rajaraman Eri
C-C chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) receptor 6 (CCR6) and its exclusive binding molecule CCL20 is an extremely important chemokine receptor-ligand pair which controls cell migration and immune induction during inflammatory disease. Not many scientific studies have been undertaken to study its immune mechanisms in detail, but its unique contribution to steady state cell chemotaxis in upholding immune tolerance and regulating immune homeostasis during inflammation is evident in multiple systems in the human body, including skin, liver, lung, kidney, brain, eye, joints, gonads and the gut...
July 2, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Aliasgar Esmail, Natasha F Sabur, Ikechi Okpechi, Keertan Dheda
Tuberculosis remains a major problem globally, and is the leading cause of death from an infectious agent. Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens to marginalise the substantial gains that have recently been made in the fight against tuberculosis. Drug-resistant TB has significant associated morbidity and a high mortality, with only half of all multidrug-resistant TB patients achieving a successful treatment outcome. Patients with drug-resistant TB in resource-poor settings are now gaining access to newer and repurposed anti-tuberculosis drugs such as bedaquiline, delamanid and linezolid...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
S Kahouli, H Naoui, J Uwingabiye, A Reggad, K Ennibi, M Bouchrik, B E Lmimouni
Tick-borne relapsing fever is a zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia, transmitted by hematophagous ticks. This life-threatening condition is still misdiagnosed. We report a case of tick-borne relapsing fever in a 54 year-old man in Morocco with a history of hiking, who was hospitalized for an isolated fever. On admission, the clinical examination showed no specific signs. The laboratory assessment showed inflammatory syndrome with disturbance of the liver function. The blood culture was sterile...
May 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
C Jiang, C Y Liu, S Shao, Y H Gao
Patients with HCV infection can develop decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even liver failure. As a result, efficient antiviral treatment is very essential to prevent HCV-related disease progression. Newly developed direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have shown safety profile, favorable tolerability, and relatively short duration, which provide an opportunity to expand the number of patients who can be treated for HCV infection. There is a need for further clinical observation and summaries for DAAs in a real world...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Susanna Naggie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Steve Choi, Sam Lusk, Audrey Lan, Guido Ferrari, Wing-Kin Syn, Cynthia D Guy, Anna Mae Diehl
Liver disease is a leading cause of HIV-related mortality. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related fibrogenesis is accelerated in the setting of HIV coinfection, yet the mechanisms underlying this aggressive pathogenesis are unclear. We identified formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue for HIV-infected patients, HCV-infected patients, HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, and controls at Duke University Medical Center. De-identified sections were stained for markers against the wound repair Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, resident T-lymphocytes, and immune activation and cellular aging...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Emanuele Pontali, Vito Fiore, Anna Maria Ialungo, Roberto Ranieri, Oscar Mollaretti, Giorgio Barbarini, Daniele Marri, Tullio Prestileo, Serena Dell'Isola, Elena Rastrelli, Guido Leo, Giulio Starnini, Sergio Babudieri, Giordano Madeddu
BACKGROUND: People who are incarcerated have a significantly higher prevalence of HCV infection than the general population. Given their high-risk behavior, they represent a reservoir of HCV infection for the whole community. METHODS: We evaluated all HCV-infected people who were incarcerated in 25 Italian prisons starting direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) treatment between May 2015 and October 2016. We collected information on demographic characteristics, liver disease, HCV-related aspects, anti-HCV treatment, HIV or HBV co-infection...
July 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Amoah Yeboah-Korang, Mohammad I Beig, Mohammad Q Khan, Jay L Goldstein, Don M Macapinlac, Darryck Maurer, Amnon Sonnenberg, Claus J Fimmel
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing rates among U.S. birth-cohort patients have been studied extensively, limited data exists to differentiate birth-cohort screening from risk- or liver disease-based testing. This study aims to identify factors associated with HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) testing in a group of insured birth cohort patients, to determine true birth cohort testing rates, and to determine whether an electronic medical record (EMR)-driven Best Practice Alert (BPA) would improve birth cohort testing rates...
June 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
Ashton A Shaffer, Christine M Durand
Purpose of Review: The prevalence of end-stage organ disease is increasing among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals. Individuals with well-controlled HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART), without active opportunistic infections or cancer, and with specified minimum CD4 cell counts are appropriate transplant candidates. Infectious disease clinicians can improve access to transplantation for these patients and optimize management pre- and post-transplant. Recent Findings: Clinical trials and registry-based studies demonstrate excellent outcomes for select HIV+ kidney and liver transplant recipients with similar patient and graft survival as HIV-uninfected patients...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
Issifou Yaya, Perrine Roux, Fabienne Marcellin, Linda Wittkop, Laure Esterle, Bruno Spire, Stéphanie Dominguez, Boni Armand Elegbe, Lionel Piroth, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have dramatically increased HCV cure rates with minimal toxicity in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. This study aimed to compare the socio-behavioral characteristics of patients initiating pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)-based HCV treatment with those of patients initiating DAA-based treatment. METHODS: ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH is a national multicenter prospective cohort started in 2005, which enrolled 1,859 HIV-HCV co-infected patients followed up in French hospital outpatient units...
2018: PloS One
Damariz Marín-Palma, Gustavo A Castro, Jaiberth A Cardona-Arias, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima, Juan C Hernandez
Introduction: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are responsible for the efflux and transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. In addition, HDL can modulate various immunological mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that have been reported to be activated during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, thus contributing to immune hyperactivation, which is the main pathogenic mechanism of HIV-1 progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alyssa Austria, George Y Wu
Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OCI), first described in 2004, is defined as the presence of HCV RNA in hepatocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells without detectable HCV RNA in the serum. Here, we aimed to review the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and potential management recommendations currently described in the literature, as well as the future directions for investigation of this entity. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with combination of the following keywords: "occult", "hepatitis C virus", and "occult HCV infection"...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Samantha Young, Evan Wood, M-J Milloy, Kora DeBeck, Sabina Dobrer, Ekaterina Nosova, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have high rates of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. Little is known about the rates of diagnosis and treatment for HCV among PWID. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the cascade of care in Vancouver, Canada to improve HCV treatment access and delivery for PWID. METHODS: Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of PWID in Vancouver, Canada between December 2005 and May 2015. We identified the progression of participants through five steps in the cascade of care: (1) chronic HCV; (2) linkage to HCV care; (3) liver disease assessment; (4) initiation of treatment; and (5) completion of treatment...
June 27, 2018: Substance Abuse
Viktor V Chirikov, Steven E Marx, Shivaji R Manthena, John P Strezewski, Sammy Saab
INTRODUCTION: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease and infectious disease deaths. While recent and emerging treatment options for HCV patients have enabled higher rates of sustained virologic response (SVR), the demographic, clinical, geographic, and payer characteristics of the estimated 3.4 million chronic HCV patients in the USA are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to create a dataset describing the current HCV patient landscape in the USA...
June 9, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Oscar Moreno-Perez, Rebeca Reyes-Garcia, Manuel Muñoz-Torres, Esperanza Merino, Vicente Boix, Sergio Reus, Livia Giner, Rocío Alfayate, Beatriz Garcia-Fontana, Jose Sanchez-Paya, Antonio Picó, Joaquín Portilla
OBJECTIVE: HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Irisin is a miokyne secreted by skeletal muscle, which may influence insulin homeostasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between serum irisin, insulin homeostasis, NAFLD and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected males. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. PATIENTS: Inclusion criteria: men older than 18 years; antiretroviral therapy (ART) -naïve or on effective ART (< 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) without changes in the previous 6 months; no diabetes or hepatitis C...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Elizabeth Katwesigye, Emmanuel Seremba, Fred Semitala, Ponsiano Ocama
Background: Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in developing countries and it aggressively accelerates progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and other complications. There is scarcity of data on HDV in sub-Saharan Africa .We investigated the sero-prevalence and factors associated with HDV antibody among HIV/HBV co-infected patients attending a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. Methods: We screened 189 HIV/HBV co-infected individuals for anti-HDV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and performed logistic regression to determine the associated factors...
December 2017: African Health Sciences
Hajime Senjo, Takakazu Higuchi, Sadamu Okada, Osamu Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate conditions which cause elevation of the serum ferritin, extent of the elevation in each condition, and clinical relevance of hyperferritinemia in general practice. METHODS: We retrospectively studied medical records of all patients who had at least one serum ferritin measurement above 500 μg L-1 . Patients who had a marked elevation of the serum ferritin over 10,000 μg L-1 were studied separately. RESULTS: We studied 1394 patients to identify the etiologies of hyperferritinemia...
June 19, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Hélène Blasco-Perrin, Jean-Marie Péron
All patients with elevated transaminases in France should be tested for HEV infection. HEV can cause severe hepatitis, in particular in patients with chronic liver disease, pregnant women and the elderly. Extra-hepatic manifestations including a number of neurologic syndromes, thrombopenia and renal injury have been described. HEV can cause chronic infection in immunosuppressed patients, in particular in organ-transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancies and individuals with HIV. In patients with hematological malignancies, viral clearance can occur at the time of remission, with a risk of acute cytolysis and acute liver failure...
June 13, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Vanessa El Kamari, Corrilynn O Hileman, Pierre M Gholam, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapies are needed to limit progression of fatty liver diseases in patients with HIV infection. We analyzed data from a prospective study of the effects of rosuvastatin (a statin) on hepatic steatosis in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from a double-blind trial of adult patients with HIV infection (78% male; 68% African American; mean age, 46 years; body mass index, 29 kg/m2 ; HIV1 RNA<1000 copies/mL; LDL-cholesterol <130 mg/dL) receiving antiretroviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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