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Bacterial fatty acids

Sina-Catherine Siegerstetter, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth Magowan, Stefanie Urimare Wetzels, Qendrim Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Niamh E O'Connell, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Intestinal microbe-host interactions can affect the feed efficiency (FE) of chickens. As inconsistent findings for FE-associated bacterial taxa were reported across studies, the present objective was to identify whether bacterial profiles and predicted metabolic functions that were associated with residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits in female and male chickens were consistent across two different geographical locations. At six weeks of life, the microbiota in ileal, cecal and fecal samples of low (n = 34) and high (n = 35) RFI chickens were investigated by sequencing the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: PloS One
Le-Ni Sun, Dan-Dan Pan, Xiang-Wei Wu, En-Dong Yang, Ri-Mao Hua, Qing X Li
A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterial strain, designated JW-1(T), was isolated from activated sludge collected from the outlet of an aeration tank in a prometryn-manufacturing plant, located in Binzhou City, Shandong province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that strain JW-1(T) belongs to the genus Leucobacter and its closest neighbours are 'Leucobacter kyeonggiensis' F3-P9 (98.95 % similarity), Leucobacter celer subsp. astrifaciens CBX151(T) (98...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Tingye Feng, Sang Eun Jeong, Kyung Hyun Kim, Hye Yoon Park, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic and halotolerant bacterial strain, designated strain NAP41(T), was isolated from a sea tidal flat in the Yellow Sea of South Korea. Cells were non-motile cocci showing oxidase- and catalase-positive activities. Growth of strain NAP41(T) was observed at 15-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0.5-12 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 %). Strain NAP41(T) contained summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c) and C18 : 0 as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-10 as the sole isoprenoid quinone...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Dong-Uk Kim, Hyosun Lee, Suyeon Lee, Sooyeon Park, Jung-Hoon Yoon, Lei Zhao, Min-Kyu Kim, Jae-Hyung Ahn, Jong-Ok Ka
A gamma radiation-resistant and pink-to-red pigmented bacterial strain, designated ID1504(T), was isolated from a car air-conditioning system sampled in Korea. The cells were observed to be Gram-stain negative, aerobic, motile with peritrichous flagella and short rod-shaped. Phylogenetically, the strain groups with the members of the genus Deinococcus and exhibits high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Deinococcus arenae SA1(T) (94.0%), Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2(T) (93.9%) and Deinococcus soli N5(T) (93...
November 14, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
You-Jian Yang, Yan-Ting Zhang, Guo-Qiang Chen, Dan Cheng, Ji-Guo Qiu, Qin He, Jian He
A bacterial strain designated YYJ7-1(T) was isolated from farmland soil in China and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain YYJ7-1(T) were Gram-staining-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming. Growth occurred at 18-42 °C (optimum at 35 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum at pH 7.5) and with 0.0-4.0 % NaCl (optimum with 0.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Paenibacillus and showed high levels of sequence similarity with respect to Paenibacillus provencensis 4401170(T) (98...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Shashank Singh, Vandana Bijalwan, Vijay Kumar, Pragyanshu Khare, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Paramdeep Singh, Ravneet Kaur Boparai, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
PURPOSE: Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Purified sugars or artificial sweeteners are being added to cranberry-based food products to mask tartness. Refined sugar and artificial sweeteners intake modulate gut microbiota and result in metabolic complications. We evaluated effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs; sweet tasting non-digestible oligosaccharides) with cranberry extract (CRX) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in mice. METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice were fed normal chow or HFD (58% fat kcal), and were administered either CRX (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with IMOs (1 g/kg)...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Yue Wang, Lei Xu, Junhua Liu, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
This study investigated the dynamic shifts in mucosa-associated microbiota composition and mucosal morphology in the colon of sheep fed a high grain (HG) diet. A total of 20 male sheep were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 5 for each). The sheep in first group received hay diet. The animals in other 3 groups were fed an HG diet for 7 (HG7), 14 (HG14), or 28 (HG28) days, respectively. Colonic digesta samples were collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA) and lactate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Weilan, Jae-Jin Lee, Seung-Yeol Lee, Sangkyu Park, Leonid N Ten, Hee-Young Jung
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated S7-4-1(T), was isolated from soil in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea and characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain S7-4-1(T) belonged to the family Cytophagaceae and was most closely related to Spirosoma fluviale MSd3(T) (96.2%), 'Spirosoma radiotolerans' DG5A (96.0%), Spirosoma pulveris JSH5-14(T) (95.9%), and Spirosoma linguale DSM 74(T) (95...
November 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
Deepika Pal, Ayanka Bhardwaj, Navjot Kaur, Sarabjeet Kour Sudan, Bhawana Bisht, Munesh Kumari, Bhawna Vyas, Srinivasan Krishnamurthi, Shanmugam Mayilraj
A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, GDSW-R2A3(T), was isolated from a downstream water sample collected from the river Ganges, India. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GDSW-R2A3(T) revealed its affiliation to the family Bacillaceae. Further analysis using a polyphasic approach revealed that strain GDSW-R2A3(T) was most closely related to the genus Fictibacillus. Analysis of the almost-complete (1488 bp) 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GDSW-R2A3(T) revealed the highest level of sequence similarity with Fictibacillus phosphorivorans CCM 8426(T) (98...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Gyu-Min Choi, Soon-Youl Lee, Kang Duk Choi, Wan-Taek Im
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated HKS-05(T), was isolated from ginseng field soil. This bacterium was characterized to determine its taxonomic position by using the polyphasic approach. HKS-05(T) grew at 10-37 °C and at pH 6.0-8.0 on R2A agar. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, HKS-05(T) was shown to represent a member of the family Caulobacteraceaeand to be related to Phenylobacterium lituiforme FaiI3(T) (98.1 % sequence similarity), 'Phenylobacterium zucineum' HLK1 (97...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Matteo Soverini, Silvia Turroni, Elena Biagi, Sara Quercia, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Simone Rampelli
The human gut microbiota (GM) has been associated, to date, with various complex functions, essentials for the host health. Among these, it is certainly worth noting the degradation of the so-called microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs), which the GM breaks down through specific enzymes, referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). This degradation constitutes the first step in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key microbial small molecules having multiple health-promoting effects for the host organism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cédric Hubas, Dominique Boeuf, Bruno Jesus, Najet Thiney, Yann Bozec, Christian Jeanthon
Mass blooms of purple sulfur bacteria growing seasonally on green stranded macroalgae have a major impact on the microbial composition and functionality of intertidal mats. To explore the active anoxygenic phototrophic community in purple bacterial mats from the Roscoff Aber Bay (Brittany, France), we conducted a combined approach including molecular and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses. To investigate the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen assimilation activities, NanoSIMS was coupled with a stable isotope probing (SIP) experiment and a compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kosuke Mima, Shuji Ogino, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Koichi Kinoshita, Ryuichi Krashima, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Takatoshi Ishiko, Hideo Baba
More than 100 trillion microorganisms inhabit the human intestinal tract and play important roles in health conditions and diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that specific bacteria and bacterial dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract can potentiate the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract neoplasms by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, producing tumor-promoting metabolites such as secondary bile acids, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Other bacterial species have been shown to produce short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which can suppress inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
E Castillo-Lopez, J Moats, N D Aluthge, H A Ramirez Ramirez, D A Christensen, T Mutsvangwa, G B Penner, S C Fernando
AIMS: The effects of partial replacement of a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows were evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatments fed were CONT, a normal diet that included barley silage, alfalfa hay, and a barley-based concentrate that contained no flaxseed or faba beans; FLAX, inclusion of a non-extruded flaxseed-based product containing 55.0% flaxseed, 37.8% field peas and 6...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lidia Lipińska, Robert Klewicki, Michał Sójka, Radosław Bonikowski, Dorota Żyżelewicz, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Elżbieta Klewicka
The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus pentosus ŁOCK 0979 depends both on the culture medium and on the fungal species. In the control medium, the strain exhibited limited antagonistic activity against indicator food-borne molds and yeasts. However, the supplementation of the bacterial culture medium with polyols (erythritol, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol) or their galactosyl derivatives (gal-erythritol, gal-sorbitol, gal-xylitol) enhanced the antifungal properties of Lactobacillus pentosus ŁOCK 0979...
November 6, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Claudia Nastasi, Simon Fredholm, Andreas Willerslev-Olsen, Morten Hansen, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld, Carsten Geisler, Mads Hald Andersen, Niels Ødum, Anders Woetmann
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are products of microbial macronutrients fermentation that distribute systemically and are believed to modulate host immune responses. Recent data have indicated that certain SCFAs, such as butyrate and propionate, directly modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function. Given the role of DCs in initiating and shaping the adaptive immune response, we now explore how SCFAs affect the activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells stimulated with autologous, MART1 peptide-pulsed DC...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Taher Uddin, Geoffrey Ian McFadden, Christopher Dean Goodman
Malaria parasites contain a relict plastid, the apicoplast, which is considered an excellent drug target due to its bacterial-like ancestry. Numerous parasiticidals have been proposed to target the apicoplast, but few have had their actual targets substantiated. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) production is the sole required function of the apicoplast in the blood stage of the parasite life cycle, and IPP supplementation rescues parasites from apicoplast perturbing drugs. Hence, any drug that kills parasites when IPP is supplied in culture must have a non-apicoplast target...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nirwana Fitriani Walenna, Yusuke Kurihara, Bin Chou, Kazunari Ishii, Toshinori Soejima, Ryota Itoh, Akinori Shimizu, Takeshi Ichinohe, Kenji Hiromatsu
Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), a cytosolic lipid chaperone predominantly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, modulates lipid fluxes, trafficking, signaling, and metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated that FABP4 regulates metabolic and inflammatory pathways, and in mouse models its inhibition can improve type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. However, the role of FABP4 in bacterial infection, metabolic crosstalk between host and pathogen, and bacterial pathogenesis have not been studied...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sophia A Ghanimeh, Dana N Al-Sanioura, Pascal E Saikaly, Mutasem El-Fadel
This study examines the stability and efficiency of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating food waste under various mixing velocities (50-160 rpm). The results showed that high velocities (120 and 160 rpm) were harmful to the digestion process with 18-30% reduction in methane generation and 1.8 to 3.8 times increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations, compared to mild mixing (50 and 80 rpm). Also, the removal rate of soluble COD dropped from 75 to 85% (at 50-80 rpm) to 20-59% (at 120-160 rpm)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Clifford J Beall, Elaine M Mokrzan, Ann L Griffen, Eugene J Leys
A novel bacterium was isolated from the subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontal disease. Bacterial strain BA112(T) is a facultative gram-positive coccus. It metabolizes alanine, arginine, glycine, histidine, leucine, proline, serine, and tyrosine, but does not appear to utilize carbohydrates. Urease, esculin, indole, catalase, and nitrate reduction tests were all negative. Major cellular fatty acids were C18:0 , C12:0 , C16:0 , C18:1 w9c, and C20:0. The genome was sequenced and is 2.4 Mbp in length and has 64% GC content...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
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