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Bacterial fatty acids

Aníbal M Reyes, Diego S Vazquez, Ari Zeida, Martín Hugo, M Dolores Piñeyro, María Inés De Armas, Darío Estrin, Rafael Radi, Javier Santos, Madia Trujillo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the intracellular bacterium responsible for tuberculosis disease (TD). Inside the phagosomes of activated macrophages, M. tuberculosis is exposed to cytotoxic hydroperoxides such as hydrogen peroxide, fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite. Thus, the characterization of the bacterial antioxidant systems could facilitate novel drug developments. In this work, we characterized the product of the gene Rv1608c from M. tuberculosis, which according to sequence homology had been annotated as a putative peroxiredoxin of the peroxiredoxin Q subfamily (PrxQ B from M...
October 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Marie-Odile Husson, Delphine Ley, Céline Portal, Madeleine Gottrand, Thomas Hueso, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Frédéric Gottrand
OBJECTIVES: Although n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) are used widely in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, their effect in infectious disease requires a particular attention. METHODS: The present article discusses their anti-inflammatory and immune properties involved in the host defence and presents a systematic review of the effects of their oral administration on the prevention and outcome of experimental and clinical infections...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Infection
S Combes, K Massip, O Martin, H Furbeyre, L Cauquil, G Pascal, O Bouchez, N Le Floc'h, O Zemb, I P Oswald, T Gidenne
Limiting the post-weaning intake of the young rabbit is known to improve its resistance to digestive disorders, whereas a degradation of its housing hygiene is assumed to have a negative impact on its health. This study aims at providing insights into the mechanism of digestive health preservation regarding both host (growth and immune response) and its symbiotic digestive microbiota. A 2×2 factorial design from weaning (day 28) to day 64 was set up: ad libitum intake or restricted intake at 70% of ad libitum, and high v...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Borja Sánchez, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Abelardo Margolles, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia González
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formation by intestinal bacteria is regulated by many different factors, among which dietary fibre is currently receiving most attention. However, since fibre-rich foods are usually good dietary sources of phenolic compounds, which are also known to affect the microbiota, authors hypothesize that the regular intake of these bioactive compounds could be associated with a modulation of faecal SCFA production by the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: In this work, food intake was recorded by means of a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Martina I Gocke, Arnaud Huguet, Sylvie Derenne, Steffen Kolb, Michaela A Dippold, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Soils, paleosols and terrestrial sediments serve as archives for studying climate change, and represent important terrestrial carbon pools. Archive functioning relies on the chronological integrity of the respective units. Incorporation of younger organic matter (OM) e.g. by plant roots and associated microorganisms into deep subsoil and underlying soil parent material may reduce reliability of paleoenvironmental records and stability of buried OM. Long-term effects of sedimentary characteristics and deep rooting on deep subsoil microbial communities remain largely unknown...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ahmed Abd Elrazak, Alan C Ward, Jarka Glassey
The increase demand of Omega-3 in the market and the challenges facing its conventional supplies led to an increase interest to microbial Omega-3 sources. This research concentrates on the statistical role of some metal ions on the biosynthesis and productivity of eicosapentanoic acid (essential omega-3 element) in bacterial isolate, Shewanella 717. A Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the main effect of all metal salts entrenched in the Artifical Sea Water medium components. Four salts in particular in addition to the interaction among them were highlighted as having a statistically significant effect upon the growth and/or EPA production...
October 13, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Jiangwei Yao, Megan E Ericson, Matthew W Frank, Charles O Rock
Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase catalyzes the last step in each elongation cycle of type II bacterial fatty acid synthesis and is a key regulatory protein in bacterial fatty acid synthesis. The facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes encodes two functional enoyl-ACP isoforms based on their ability to complement the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of E. coli strain JP1111 (fabI(Ts)). The FabI isoform was inactivated by the FabI selective inhibitor AFN-1252, but the FabK isoform was not affected by the drug as expected...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
René Cardeña, Idania Valdez-Vazquez, Germán Buitrón
Purple non-sulfur bacteria generate hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as a mechanism for disposing of reducing equivalents generated during substrate consumption. However, both pathways compete for the reducing equivalents released from bacteria growing under certain substrates, thus the formation of hydrogen or PHB is detrimental to the formation of each other. The effect of mixtures of acetic, propionic and butyric acids on the formation of H2 and PHB was evaluated using Box-Behnken design. A bacterial community mainly constituted by Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used as inoculum...
October 11, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Prathap Parameswaran, Anca G Delgado, Juan Maldonado, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Inhibition by ammonium at concentrations above 1000 mgN/L is known to harm the methanogenesis phase of anaerobic digestion. We anaerobically digested swine waste and achieved steady state COD-removal efficiency of around 52% with no fatty-acid or H2 accumulation. As the anaerobic microbial community adapted to the gradual increase of total ammonia-N (NH3-N) from 890 ± 295 to 2040 ± 30 mg/L, the Bacterial and Archaeal communities became less diverse. Phylotypes most closely related to hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus (36...
2016: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
Zhizhen Qi, Yujun Cui, Qingwen Zhang, Ruifu Yang
This chapter summarized the taxonomy and typing works of Yersinia pestis since it's firstly identified in Hong Kong in 1894. Phenotyping methods that based on phenotypic characteristics, including biotyping, serotyping, antibiogram analysis, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, and plasmid typing, were firstly applied in classification of Y. pestis in subspecies level. And then, with the advancement of molecular biological technology, the methods based on outer membrane protein profiles, fatty acid composition, and bacterial mass fingerprinting were also used to identify the populations within Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
J J Castro, A Gomez, B A White, H J Mangian, J R Loften, J K Drackley
Digestive disorders are common during the first few weeks of life of newborn calves. Prebiotics are nondigestible but fermentable oligosaccharides that modulate growth and activity of beneficial microbial populations, which can result in enhanced gut health and function. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) have demonstrated such prebiotic potential. In this study, the effect of GOS supplementation on intestinal bacterial community composition and fermentation profiles; intestinal health, development, and function; and growth was evaluated in dairy calves fed for high rates of growth...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
J J Castro, A Gomez, B White, J R Loften, J K Drackley
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of age and gastrointestinal location (rumen vs. colon) on bacterial community diversity and composition, as well as short-chain fatty acid profiles of preruminant male Holstein calves on an intensive milk replacer feeding program. Thirty-two calves were fed at 2% of their body weight (dry matter basis) from d 10 until harvest. Sixteen calves were euthanized at 2 wk and another 16 at 4 wk of age to collect digesta samples from the rumen and colon. The rumen and colon bacterial communities of preruminant calves showed a similar degree of diversity (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Na Liu, Xuehui Xie, Bo Yang, Qingyun Zhang, Chengzhi Yu, Xiulin Zheng, Leyi Xu, Ran Li, Jianshe Liu
In this study, performance of hydrolysis acidification process treating simulated dyeing wastewater containing azo and anthraquinone dyes in different stages was investigated. The decolorization ratio, CODCr removal ratio, BOD5/CODCr value, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production were almost better in stage 1 than that in stage 2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the biodegradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) in hydrolysis acidification process...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Beatriz Gullón, Patricia Gullón, Freni K Tavaria, Remedios Yáñez
Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Claire Morvan, David Halpern, Gérald Kénanian, Constantin Hays, Jamila Anba-Mondoloni, Sophie Brinster, Sean Kennedy, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Claire Poyart, Gilles Lamberet, Karine Gloux, Alexandra Gruss
The bacterial pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis, FASII, is a target for development of new anti-staphylococcal drugs. This strategy is based on previous reports indicating that self-synthesized fatty acids appear to be indispensable for Staphylococcus aureus growth and virulence, although other bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to compensate FASII inhibition. Here we report that staphylococci can become resistant to the FASII-targeted inhibitor triclosan via high frequency mutations in fabD, one of the FASII genes...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Azul Zorzoli, James P Grayczyk, Francis Alonzo
To thrive in diverse environments, bacteria must shift their metabolic output in response to nutrient bioavailability. In many bacterial species, such changes in metabolic flux depend upon lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of enzyme complexes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, glycine catabolism, and branched chain fatty acid biosynthesis. The requirement of lipoic acid for metabolic enzyme activity necessitates that bacteria synthesize the cofactor and/or scavenge it from environmental sources...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Rheinallt M Jones
The results generated from the NIH funded Human Microbiome Project (HMP) are necessarily tied to the overall mission of the agency, which is to foster scientific discoveries as a basis for protecting and improving health. The investment in the HMP phase 1 accomplished many of its goals including the preliminary characterization of the human microbiome and the identification of links between microbiome diversity and disease states. Going forward, the next step in these studies must involve the identification of the functional molecular elements that mediate the positive influence of a eubiotic microbiome on health and disease...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Andrea R Nawrocki, Dan Zhou, Margaret Wu, Stephen Previs, Corey Miller, Haiying Liu, Catherine D G Hines, Maria Madeira, Jin Cao, Kithsiri Herath, Liangsu Wang, David E Kelley, Cai Li, Hong-Ping Guan
OBJECTIVES: Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and enhanced glucose oxidation, which in turn led to net reduction of liver triglycerides (TG), reduced ambient glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity...
2016: PloS One
Long Zhang, Xiao-Long Chen, Qiang Hu, Zhe-Pu Ruan, Kai Chen, Shun-Peng Li, Jian-Dong Jiang
A novel Gram-stain positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated as LIP-1T was isolated from a contaminated soil of a pesticide factory in Xinyi, China, was investigated for its taxonomic allocation by a polyphasic approach. Cell growth occurred at 16-37 oC (optimum, 30 oC), in the presence of 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). The major fatty acids of strain LIP-1T were anteiso-C15:0 (50.8 %), iso-C16:0 (17.6 %) and anteiso-C17:0 (17.4 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was B2δ with 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic diamino acid...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
J Maxwell Dow
Cell-to-cell signals of the Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids of differing chain length and branching pattern. DSF signalling has been described in diverse bacteria to include plant and human pathogens where it acts to regulate functions such as biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and the production of virulence factors. DSF family signals can also participate in interspecies signalling with other bacteria and interkingdom signaling such as with the yeast Candida albicans...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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