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Bacterial fatty acids

Jian-Chao Zhao, Juan Cheng, Qi Zhang, Zi-Wei Gao, Meng-Yue Zhang, Yi-Xuan Zhang
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-coloured, motile by gliding and elongated rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SYP-B1015T , was isolated from the rhizosphere of Artemisia annua L. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SYP-B1015T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Flavobacterium compostarboris JCM 16527T (98.1 %) and Flavobacterium procerum JCM 30113T (97.2 %). The predominant respiratory quinone for the strain was MK-6, and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Rosa Margesin, De-Chao Zhang, Luciana Albuquerque, Hugo J C Froufe, Conceição Egas, Milton S da Costa
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-positive bacterial strain, designated AM20-91T , was isolated from alpine forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain AM20-91T was related to the genus Lysobacter and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of Lysobacter novalis THG-PC7T (97.8 %), Luteimonas tolerans UM1T (97.7 %) and Lysobacter ximonensis XM415T (97.0 %). The strain contained ubiquinone 8 as the predominant respiratory quinone; its polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified aminophospholipids...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yehao Liu, Yongchun Li, Xiaomei Hua, Karin Müller, Hailong Wang, Tongyi Yang, Qiong Wang, Xin Peng, Mengcheng Wang, Yanjun Pang, Jinliang Qi, Yonghua Yang
Glyphosate is a non-selective organophosphate herbicide that is widely used in agriculture, but its effects on soil microbial communities are highly variable and often contradictory, especially for high dose applications. We applied glyphosate at two rates: the recommended rate of 50 mg active ingredient kg-1 soil and 10-fold this rate to simulate multiple glyphosate applications during a growing season. After 6 months, we investigated the effects on the composition of soil microbial community, the catabolic activity and the genetic diversity of the bacterial community using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), community level catabolic profiles (CLCPs), and 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Phoebe Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal commensal microbiota are important in shaping immune cell repertoire and are influenced by host genetics. Because of this intricate interaction, an intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with multiple immune-mediated polygenic diseases. This review summarizes the literature on how alterations in the intestinal microbiota contribute to immune-mediated ocular disease, and how to potentially target the gut microbiome for therapeutic benefit. RECENT FINDINGS: Several groups have demonstrated the importance of the intestinal microbiome in uveitis pathogenesis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Nicolas Danylec, Andrea Göbl, Dominic A Stoll, Birgit Hetzer, Sabine E Kulling, Melanie Huch
Two novel, anaerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterial strains, ResAG-85T and ResAG-96T , were isolated from a faecal sample of a male human. 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses indicated that these strains represent a distinct lineage within the family Eggerthellaceae. Strain ResAG-85T showed 92.3 % similarity to the type strains of the genera Eggerthella and Gordonibacter. Strain ResAG-96T clustered together with Paraeggerthella hongkongensis and the newly (but not validly) published genus 'Arabia massiliensis' (94...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Miri Park, Jaeho Song, Gi Gyun Nam, Suhyun Kim, Yochan Joung, Jang-Cheon Cho
A bacterial strain, designated IMCC25901T , was isolated from a freshwater lake, Soyang, in the Republic of Korea. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, orange-coloured and short rod-shaped. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain IMCC25901T was most closely related to Flavobacterium yonginense HMD1001T (97.0 %) and formed a robust phylogenetic clade with other species of the genus Flavobacterium. Growth of strain IMCC25901T was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 20 °C), pH 6-8 (optimum, pH 7) and 0-1...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Anusorn Cherdthong, Benjamad Khonkhaeng, Anuthida Seankamsorn, Chanadol Supapong, Metha Wanapat, Nirawan Gunun, Pongsatron Gunun, Pin Chanjula, Sineenart Polyorach
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of feeding fresh cassava root (CR) along with a feed block containing high was to sulfur (FBS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood thiocyanate concentration in Thai native beef cattle. Four Thai male native beef cattle, initial body weight (BW) of 130 + 20.0 kg, were used in this study. The experiments were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The main factors were supplemented fresh CR levels (1...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Inam Ullah Khan, Neeli Habib, Min Xiao, Xing Huang, Nasr Ullah Khan, Wan-Taek Im, Iftikhar Ahmed, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Wen-Jun Li
A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated YIM 730227T , was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karak district, Khyber-Pakhtun-Khwa, Pakistan. The bacterium was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Pairwise comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 730227T is closely related to Phenylobacterium lituiforme FaiI3T (97.5% sequence similarity), Phenylobacterium muchangponense A8T (97.4%), Phenylobacterium panacis DCY109T (97...
March 14, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sophie A Poeker, Annelies Geirnaert, Laura Berchtold, Anna Greppi, Lukasz Krych, Robert E Steinert, Tomas de Wouters, Christophe Lacroix
Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Youngji Cho, Galeb Abu-Ali, Hiroki Tashiro, David I Kasahara, Traci A Brown, Jeffrey D Brand, Joel A Mathews, Curtis Huttenhower, Stephanie A Shore
Previous reports demonstrate that the microbiome impacts allergic airway responses, including airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. Here we examined the role of the microbiome in pulmonary responses to a non-allergic asthma trigger, ozone. We depleted the microbiota of conventional mice with either a single antibiotic (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, or vancomycin) or a cocktail of all four antibiotics given via the drinking water. Mice were then exposed to room air or ozone. In air-exposed mice, airway responsiveness was not different in antibiotic- versus control water-treated mice...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Woo Cheol Lee, Min-Cheol Jeong, Yeongjoon Lee, Chulhee Kwak, Jee-Young Lee, Yangmee Kim
Originally annotated as the initiator of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III) is a unique component of the bacterial FAS system. Novel variants of KAS III have been identified that promote the de novo use of additional extracellular fatty acids by FAS. These KAS III variants prefer longer acyl-groups, notably octanoyl-CoA. Acinetobacter baumannii, a clinically important nosocomial pathogen, contains such a multifunctional KAS III (AbKAS III). To characterize the structural basis of its substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of AbKAS III in the presence of different substrates...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
V L N Brandao, X Dai, E M Paula, L G Silva, M I Marcondes, T Shenkoru, S R Poulson, A P Faciola
Camelina is a drought- and salt-tolerant oil seed, which in total ether extract (EE) contains up to 74% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of replacing calcium salts of palm oil (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) with camelina seed (CS) on ruminal fermentation, digestion, and flows of fatty acids (FA) and AA in a dual-flow continuous culture system when supplemented at 5 or 8% dietary EE. Diets were randomly assigned to 8 fermentors in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with four 10-d experimental periods consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Georg Hölzl, Christian Sohlenkamp, Miguel Angel Vences-Guzmán, Nicolas Gisch
Amino acid-containing acyloxyacyl lipids are composed of a 3-hydroxy fatty acid amide-bound to the α-amino group of an amino acid. A second fatty acid is ester-linked to the 3-hydroxy group of the first fatty acid. Most commonly, ornithine is the headgroup of these lipids, but glycine, serineglycine, glutamine and lysine have also been described in bacteria. Ornithine lipids (OL) can be synthesized by about 50% of the sequenced bacterial species, and several covalent modifications of its basic structure have been described...
March 7, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Lingxiao Gong, Wenyan Cao, Jie Gao, Jing Wang, Huijuan Zhang, Baoguo Sun, Meng Yin
The gut microbiota has recently become a new route for research at the intersection of diet and human health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole Tibetan hull-less barley (WHB) and refined Tibetan hull-less barley (RHB) caused differentiation of the fecal microbiota in vitro. The microbiota-accessible ingredients in the 2 barley samples were studied using an in vitro enzymatic digestion procedure. After in vitro digestion, insoluble dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, proteins, and β-glucans were 93...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Su-Kyoung Shin, Eunji Kim, Hana Yi
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, designated LPB0136T , was isolated from a squid Todarodes pacificus, caught in the East Sea, off Korea. LPB0136T contained a circular chromosome of 3.02 Mb with a DNA G+C content of 30.7 mol%. The genome included 2726 protein-coding genes and three copies of rRNA operons. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this isolate represents a member of the genus Tenacibaculum with an independent genomic species status, showing sequence similarities of 95...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sooyeon Park, Jeehyun Choi, Su Jung Choi, Jung-Hoon Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated MM-14T , was isolated from seawater sampled from the Yellow Sea in the Republic of Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain MM-14T grew optimally at 30 °C and in the presence of approximately 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MM-14T clustered with the type strain of Hanstruepera neustonica. The novel strain exhibited a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value of 96...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Carlos Rullán-Lind, Ruth B Pietri, Melvin Vázquez-Cintrón, Abel Baerga-Ortiz
FabA and FabZ are the two dehydratase enzymes in Escherichia coli that catalyze the dehydration of acyl intermediates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Both enzymes form obligate dimers in which the active site contains key amino acids from both subunits. While FabA is a soluble protein that has been relatively straightforward to express and to purify from cultured E. coli, FabZ has shown to be mostly insoluble and only partially active. In an effort to increase the solubility and activity of both dehydratases, we made constructs consisting of two identical subunits of FabA or FabZ fused with a naturally occurring peptide linker, so as to force their dimerization...
March 9, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Jamie A Meadows, Graham G Willsey, Matthew J Wargo
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can metabolize carnitine and O-acylcarnitines, which are abundant in host muscle and other tissues. Acylcarnitines are metabolized to carnitine and a fatty acid. The liberated carnitine and its catabolic product, glycine betaine, can be used as osmoprotectants, to induce the secreted phospholipase C PlcH, and as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. P. aeruginosa is incapable of de novo synthesis of carnitine and acylcarnitines, therefore they must be imported from an exogenous source...
March 8, 2018: Microbiology
Jiulia Satiaputra, Bart A Eijkelkamp, Christopher A McDevitt, Keith E Shearwin, Grant W Booker, Steven W Polyak
Biotin (Vitamin B7) is a critical enzyme co-factor in metabolic pathways important for bacterial survival. Biotin is obtained either from the environment or by de novo synthesis, with some bacteria capable of both. In certain species, the bifunctional protein BirA plays a key role in biotin homeostasis as it regulates expression of biotin biosynthetic enzymes in response to biotin demand and supply. Here, we compare the effect of biotin on the growth of two bacteria that possess a bifunctional BirA, namely Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus...
March 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shuofei Yang, Jiaquan Chen, Qihong Ni, Haozhe Qi, Xiangjiang Guo, Lan Zhang, Guanhua Xue
BACKGROUND: Acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) is an abdominal vascular condition. Early recanalization is essential to successful treatment. The aim of the study was to establish rabbit models of ASMVT and assess the time course of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption. METHODS: After surgical exposure of superior mesenteric vein (Sham group), large-vessel (L-group) and small-vessel (S-group) models were established by endothelium damage, stenosis creation, and thrombin injection...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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