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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941769/a-neuro-immune-neuro-oxidative-and-neuro-nitrosative-model-of-prenatal-and-postpartum-depression
#1
REVIEW
Chutima Roomruangwong, George Anderson, Michael Berk, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
A large body of evidence indicates that major affective disorders are accompanied by activated neuro-immune, neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. Postpartum depression is predicted by end of term prenatal depressive symptoms whilst a lifetime history of mood disorders appears to increase the risk for both prenatal and postpartum depression. This review provides a critical appraisal of available evidence linking IO&NS pathways to prenatal and postpartum depression. The electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus were sources for this narrative review focusing on keywords, including perinatal depression, (auto)immune, inflammation, oxidative, nitric oxide, nitrosative, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), kynurenine, leaky gut and microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941080/gb3-glycosphingolipids-with-fluorescent-oligoene-fatty-acids-synthesis-and-phase-behavior-in-model-membranes
#2
Lukas J Patalag, Jeremias Sibold, Ole M Schütte, Claudia Steinem, Daniel B Werz
Glycosphingolipids are involved in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and they serve as receptors for a variety of bacterial toxins and viruses. To investigate their function in lipid membranes, fluorescently labeled glycosphingolipids are highly desirable. Herein, a synthetic route to access Gb3 glycosphingolipids with fluorescently labeled fatty acids, consisting of pentaene and hexaene moieties either at the terminus or in the middle of the acyl chain, has been developed. The fluorescent properties of the Gb3 derivatives were investigated in small unilamellar vesicles composed of a raft-like mixture...
September 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937612/houttuynia-cordata-facilitates-metformin-on-ameliorating-insulin-resistance-associated-with-gut-microbiota-alteration-in-oletf-rats
#3
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Soo-Kyoung Lim, AbuZar Ansari, Young-Won Chin, Han Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#4
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935372/structural-insights-into-the-dimer-tetramer-transition-of-fabi-from-bacillus-anthracis
#5
Hyun Tae Kim, Sulhee Kim, Byeong Kwan Na, Jiwoung Chung, Eunha Hwang, Kwang Yeon Hwang
Enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR, also known as FabI) has received considerable interest as an anti-bacterial target due to its essentiality in fatty acid synthesis. All the FabI structures reported to date, regardless of the organism, are composed of homo-tetramers, except for two structures: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus FabI (bcFabI and saFabI, respectively), which have been reported as dimers. However, the reason for the existence of the dimeric form in these organisms and the biological meaning of dimeric and tetrameric forms of FabI are ambiguous...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934209/microbial-translocation-is-correlated-with-hiv-evolution-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#6
Jean-Jacques Tudesq, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Christophe Combescure, Régine Doncesco, Didier Laureillard, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Albert Sotto
Microbial translocation (MT) is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit) marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933324/photobacterium-toruni-sp-nov-a-bacterium-isolated-from-diseased-farmed-fish
#7
Alejandro M Labella, David R Arahal, Teresa Lucena, Manuel Manchado, Dolores Castro, Juan J Borrego
Three bacterial strains were isolated from liver and spleen of diseased farmed redbanded seabream (Pagrus auriga) in south-west Spain. Their partial 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered within those of the genus Photobacterium, showing high similarity (98.6-99.3 %) to the type strains of Photobacterium iliopiscarium, P. piscicola, P. kishitanii, P. aquimaris and P. phosphoreum. Multilocus sequence analysis using six housekeeping genes (gapA, topA, mreB, ftsZ, gyrB and 16S rRNA) confirmed the new strains as forming an independent branch with a bootstrap value of 100, likely to represent a novel species...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933319/paracoccus-sordidisoli-sp-nov-isolated-from-an-agricultural-field-contaminated-with-hexachlorocyclohexane-isomers
#8
Amit Kumar Singh, Puneet Kohli, Nitish Kumar Mahato, Rup Lal
A novel bacterial strain, designated LP91T, was isolated from an agricultural field contaminated with hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers at Ummari Village, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Cells of the strain were aerobic, short rod or coccoid, Gram-stain-negative and non-motile. Colonies of the strain were initially transparent but with time changed to a creamy white colour. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA marker gene showed that it was closely associated with Paracoccus aestuariivivens GHD-30T (99...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933317/elstera-cyanobacteriorum-sp-nov-a-novel-bacterium-isolated-from-cyanobacterial-aggregates-in-a-eutrophic-lake
#9
Haiyuan Cai, Yonghui Zeng, Yanan Wang, Helong Jiang
A bacterial strain, TH019T, was isolated from cyanobacterial aggregates in a eutrophic lake, Taihu Lake, China. Cells were observed to be slightly curved rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. Optimal growth was obtained at pH 7.0 (range, 5.0-9.0) and 28 °C (range, 20-37 °C) in R2A broth. The cells were found to be positive for oxidase and catalase activities, nitrate reduction and denitrification. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The major fatty acids were identified as C18 : 1 ω6c/C18 : 1 ω7c and C18 : 1 2OH...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933315/massilia-buxea-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-rock-surface
#10
Le-Ni Sun, En-Dong Yang, Dan-Xi Cui, Ye-Wen Ni, Yu-Bo Wang, Dong-Dong Sun, Wei-Yun Wang
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, designated A9T, was isolated from the surface of rock collected from the shore of Nvshan lake in Mingguang, Anhui province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence data showed that strain A9T was affiliated with the genus Massilia and showed the highest sequence similarities to Massilia plicata KCTC 12344T (98.8 %) and Massilia lurida CGMCC 1.10822T (97.9 %). The major fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C15 : 0 iso 2-OH), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929776/lactulose-enemas-in-the-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-do-we-help-or-harm
#11
Ana de Lorenzo-Pinto, Raquel García-Sánchez, Almudena Lorenzo-Salinas
The administration of lactulose enemas instead of or in combination with oral lactulose is common practice in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose is a non-absorbable disaccharide that is catabolized by the bacterial flora to short chain fatty acids (e.g., lactic acid and acetic acid) which lower the colonic pH. This pH favors the formation of non-absorbable NH4+ from NH3, trapping NH4+ in the colon and thus reducing plasma ammonia concentrations. Lactulose therapy is considered as a first-line treatment and can be administered both orally and rectally...
September 18, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927478/molecular-hydrogen-generated-by-elemental-magnesium-supplementation-alters-rumen-fermentation-and-microbiota-in-goats
#12
Min Wang, Rong Wang, XiuMin Zhang, Emilio M Ungerfeld, Donglei Long, HongXiang Mao, JinZhen Jiao, Karen A Beauchemin, Zhiliang Tan
We tested the hypotheses that supplementation of a diet with elemental Mg increases ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) in rumen fluid, which in turn alters rumen fermentation and microbial community in goats. In a randomised block design, twenty growing goats were allocated to two treatments fed the same basal diet with 1·45 % Mg(OH)2 or 0·6 % elemental Mg. After 28 d of adaptation, we collected total faeces to measure total tract digestibility, rumen contents to analyse fermentation end products and microbial groups, and measured methane (CH4) emission using respiration chambers...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927467/associations-among-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrate-ruminal-microbiota-and-epithelium-g-protein-coupled-receptor-and-histone-deacetylase-regulations-in-goats
#13
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zhan Chen, Zanming Shen
BACKGROUND: Diet-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the rumen have broad effects on the health and growth of ruminants. The microbe-G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) and microbe-histone deacetylase (HDAC) axes might be the major pathway mediating these effects. Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model...
September 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926282/bacterial-and-archaeal-lipids-recovered-from-subsurface-evaporites-of-dalangtan-playa-on-the-tibetan-plateau-and-their-astrobiological-implications
#14
Ziye Cheng, Long Xiao, Hongmei Wang, Huan Yang, Jingjing Li, Ting Huang, Yi Xu, Nina Ma
Qaidam Basin (Tibetan Plateau) is considered an applicable analogue to Mars with regard to sustained extreme aridity and abundant evaporites. To investigate the possibility of the preservation of microbial lipids under these Mars analog conditions, we conducted a mineralogical and organic geochemistry study on samples collected from two Quaternary sections in Dalangtan Playa, northwestern Qaidam Basin, which will enhance our understanding of the potential preservation of molecular biomarkers on Mars. Two sedimentary units were identified along two profiles: one salt unit characterized by a predominance of gypsum and halite, and one detrital unit with a decrease of gypsum and halite and enrichment in siliciclastic minerals...
September 19, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920853/flavobacterium-chuncheonense-sp-nov-and-flavobacterium-luteum-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-freshwater-lake
#15
Miri Park, Gi Gyun Nam, Suhyun Kim, Hyoung Tae Jeon, Yochan Joung, Jang-Cheon Cho
Two Gram-staining-negative, orange coloured, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated strains IMCC26013T and IMCC26026T, were isolated from a freshwater sample collected from Lake Soyang in Korea. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses showed that both strains belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and that strains IMCC26013T and IMCC26026T were most closely related to Flavobacterium psychrophilum (96.5 %) and Flavobacterium myungsuense (97.7 %), respectively. DNA G+C contents of strains IMCC26013T and IMCC26026T were 37...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920851/loktanella-acticola-sp-nov-isolated-from-seawater
#16
Sooyeon Park, Su Jung Choi, Sung-Min Won, Jung-Hoon Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated OISW-6T, was isolated from seawater near Oido, a South Korean island, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain OISW-6T grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain OISW-6T fell within the clade comprising the type strains of Loktanella species. Strain OISW-6T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920850/ramlibacter-alkalitolerans-sp-nov-alkali-tolerant-bacterium-isolated-from-soil-of-ginseng
#17
Do-Hoon Lee, Chang-Jun Cha
A novel bacterial strain, designated CJ661T, was isolated from soil of ginseng in Anseong, South Korea. Cells of strain CJ661T were white-coloured, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped. Strain CJ661T grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CJ661T showed that it belongs to the genus Ramlibacter within the family Comamonadaceae and was most closely related to Ramlibacter ginsenosidimutans KCTC 22276T (98.1 %), followed by Ramlibacter henchirensis DSM 14656T (97...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920847/spirosoma-carri-sp-nov-isolated-from-an-automobile-air-conditioning-system
#18
Dong-Uk Kim, Hyosun Lee, Suyeon Lee, Sooyeon Park, Jung-Hoon Yoon, So Yoon Park, Jong-Ok Ka
A Gram-stain-negative and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated TX0406T, was isolated from an automobile evaporator core collected in Korea. The cells were non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped. The strain grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.0-7.0 (optimum, 6.5) and in the presence of 0-1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetically, the strain was related to members of the genus Spirosoma(93.7-90.7 % 16S rRNA sequence similarities) and showed the highest sequence similarity of 93.7 % to Spirosomapulveris JSH5-14T...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920842/marivibrio-halodurans-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-marine-bacterium-in-the-family-rhodospirillaceae-isolated-from-underground-rock-salt
#19
Shaoxing Chen, Yao Xu, Chen Zheng, Li-Xia Ke
Gram-negative, spiral or curved rod-shaped cells of a bacterial strain, designated ZC80T, were isolated from a rock salt sample collected at Yunnan salt mine, China. Analysis of the strain's 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed a clear affiliation of this novel strain within the family Rhodospirillaceae. Strain ZC80T formed a robust cluster with Pelagibius litoralis CL-UU02T at a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity level of 88.1 %. Strain ZC80T shared no more than 91.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of other species in the family Rhodospirillaceae...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920840/flavobacterium-dispersum-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-freshwater-spring
#20
Wen-Ming Chen, Ching-Ling Su, Shih-Yi Sheu
A novel bacterial strain MVW-23T was isolated from a freshwater spring in Taiwan. The strain was Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, motile by gliding, rod-shaped and formed translucent yellow colonies. Optimal growth occurred at 20-30 °C, pH 7.0, and in the presence of 0.5-1 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MVW-23T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity with respect to Flavobacterium denitrificans ED5T (97...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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