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Bacterial fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543188/cd44-deletion-leading-to-attenuation-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-results-from-alterations-in-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#1
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Hongbing Guan, Narendra P Singh, Brandon Busbee, Alexa Gandy, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, Saurabh Chatterjee, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been shown to be associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the pivotal role played by CD44 in the regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we determined whether these effects resulted from an alteration in gut microbiota and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in CD44KO mice. Fecal transfer from naïve CD44KO but not CD44WT mice, into EAE-induced CD44WT mice, led to significant amelioration of EAE...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542209/cigarette-smoke-inhibits-lps-induced-fabp5-expression-by-preventing-c-jun-binding-to-the-fabp5-promoter
#2
Deviyani Rao, Anne-Laure Perraud, Carsten Schmitz, Fabienne Gally
Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with repeated and sustained infections linked to disease pathogenesis and exacerbations. The airway epithelium constitutes the first line of host defense against infection and is known to be impaired in COPD. We have previously identified Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5) as an important anti-inflammatory player during respiratory infections and showed that overexpression of FABP5 in primary airway epithelial cells protects against bacterial infection and inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539453/epigenetic-metabolite-acetate-inhibits-class-i-ii-histone-deacetylases-promotes-histone-acetylation-and-increases-hiv-1-integration-in-cd4-t-cells
#3
Jean-François Bolduc, Laurent Hany, Corinne Barat, Michel Ouellet, Michel J Tremblay
In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4(+) T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with an increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration in the genome of CD4(+) T cells...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538678/effects-of-commercial-apple-varieties-on-human-gut-microbiota-composition-and-metabolic-output-using-an-in-vitro-colonic-model
#4
Athanasios Koutsos, Maria Lima, Lorenza Conterno, Mattia Gasperotti, Martina Bianchi, Francesca Fava, Urska Vrhovsek, Julie A Lovegrove, Kieran M Tuohy
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538201/effects-of-adding-trace-elements-on-rice-straw-anaerobic-mono-digestion-focus-on-changes-in-microbial-communities-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#5
Yafan Cai, Binbin Hua, Lijuan Gao, Yuegao Hu, Xufeng Yuan, Zongjun Cui, Wanbin Zhu, Xiaofen Wang
Although trace elements are known to aid anaerobic digestion, their mechanism of action is still unclear. High-throughput sequencing was used to reveal the mechanism by which adding trace elements affects microbial communities and their action. The results showed that the highest methane yields, with addition of Fe, Mo, Se and Mn were 289.2, 289.6, 285.3, 293.0mL/g volatile solids (VS), respectively. The addition of Fe, Mo, Se and Mn significantly (P<0.05) reduced the level of volatile fatty acids (VFAs)...
April 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537545/paenibacillus-lacus-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-water-reservoir
#6
Wen-Ming Chen, Kai-Rou Lin, Shih-Yi Sheu
A bacterial strain, designated Agd-32T, was isolated from a water sample taken from the Agongdian Reservoir in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain Agd-32T were Gram-stain-variable, aerobic, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, endospore-forming, rod-shaped and surrounded by a thick capsule. Strain Agd-32T contained anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the predominant fatty acids. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, and the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophosphoglycolipid, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified lipid...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536926/structural-changes-of-gut-microbiota-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-features
#7
Wei Li, Xiaoli Wu, Xu Hu, Tao Wang, Shan Liang, Yunfeng Duan, Feng Jin, Bin Qin
The aim of this study was to compare the structure of gut microbiota in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls; and to explore correlations between gut microbiota and PD clinical features. We analyzed fecal bacterial composition of 24 PD patients and 14 healthy volunteers by using 16S rRNA sequencing. There were significant differences between PD and healthy controls, as well as among different PD stages. The putative cellulose degrading bacteria from the genera Blautia (P=0.018), Faecalibacterium (P=0...
May 20, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536286/mutations-that-alter-the-bacterial-cell-envelope-increase-lipid-production
#8
Kimberly C Lemmer, Weiping Zhang, Samantha J Langer, Alice C Dohnalkova, Dehong Hu, Rachelle A Lemke, Jeff S Piotrowski, Galya Orr, Daniel R Noguera, Timothy J Donohue
Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides By screening an R. sphaeroides Tn5 mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#9
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535958/dispersal-and-assimilation-of-an-aquaculture-waste-subsidy-in-a-low-productivity-coastal-environment
#10
C A White, P D Nichols, D J Ross, T Dempster
To understand dispersal and assimilation of aquaculture waste subsidies in a naturally low-productivity environment, we applied a novel, rapid transmethylation technique to analyse sediment and biota fatty acid composition. This technique was initially validated at Atlantic salmon farms in Macquarie Harbour, Australia, where sediments were collected at farm and control locations. Subsequently, sediment, benthic polychaete and zooplankton were sampled at sites 0, 50, 250, 500 and 1000m distant from multiple cages...
May 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524014/composition-and-enzymatic-activity-in-bulk-milk-from-dairy-farms-with-conventional-or-robotic-milking-systems
#11
Monika Johansson, Åse Lundh, Ruben de Vries, Kerstin Svennersten Sjaunja
The objective of the studies reported in this research communication was to investigate differences in composition and enzymatic activities in bulk milk samples provided from Swedish dairy farms with different management systems, i.e. automated (AMS) and conventional milking systems (CMS). A bulk milk sample was collected from each of 104 dairy farms, 51 using AMS and 53 using CMS, located in the same geographical region. Sampling took place within two consecutive days during the indoor period (October). Milk samples were analysed for contents of total fat and protein, free fatty acids (FFA), caseins and whey proteins, somatic cell count (SCC), pH, plasmin and plasminogen derived activities, and total proteolysis...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524013/probiotic-supplementation-effects-on-milk-fatty-acid-profile-in-ewes
#12
Shahab Payandeh, Farokh Kafilzadeh, Manuela Juárez, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Darab Ghadimi, Andrés L Martínez Marín
We hypothesised that probiotic feeding would alter the fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep's milk. Sixteen lactating ewes, kept under the same feeding and management practices, were randomly allocated to receive either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with a commercial multi-strain bacterial probiotic. Milk fat FA contents were monitored fortnightly for eight consecutive weeks from 14 d after lambing. Probiotic supplementation increased the contents of butyric and caproic acids in milk fat and had no negative effects on other relevant FA from the human's health point of view (i...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#13
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522200/biological-disintegration-of-microalgae-for-biomethane-recovery-prediction-of-biodegradability-and-computation-of-energy-balance
#14
S Kavitha, R Yukesh Kannah, J Rajesh Banu, S Kaliappan, M Johnson
The present study investigates the synergistic effect of combined bacterial disintegration on mixed microalgal biomass for energy efficient biomethane generation. The rate of microalgal biomass lysis, enhanced biodegradability, and methane generation were used as indices to assess efficiency of the disintegration. A maximal dissolvable organics release and algal biomass lysis rate of about 1100, 950 and 800mg/L and 26, 23 and 18% was achieved in PA+C (protease, amylase+cellulase secreting bacteria), C (cellulase alone) and PA (protease, amylase) microalgal disintegration...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521318/breastfeeding-childhood-asthma-and-allergic-disease
#15
Wendy H Oddy
The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517978/the-effect-of-carbon-nanoparticles-on-biological-properties-of-polyester-nanocomposites
#16
Zygmunt Staniszewski, Agnieszka Piegat, Wieslawa Okroj, Magdalena Walkowiak-Przybylo, Witold Jakubowski, Bogdan Walkowiak, Boguslaw Budner, Waldemar Mroz, Peter Sobolewski, Miroslawa El Fray
The aim of present study was to determine the hemocompatibility, cellular response of endothelial cells and bacterial adhesion to a new polyester nanocomposite. The carbon nanoparticle nanocomposite was prepared via in situ polymerization of monomers to obtain material of hardness 55 Sh D similar to polyurethanes used in medical applications, for example, in heart-assisting devices. The carbon nanoparticle-containing polyester exhibits markedly reduced bacterial colonization, as compared to commercially available polyurethanes...
May 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512464/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-proliferation-on-the-special-microbes-mediated-by-phenolic-acids-in-the-radix-pseudostellariae-rhizosphere-under-continuous-monoculture-regimes
#17
Hongmiao Wu, Junjian Xu, Juanying Wang, Xianjin Qin, Linkun Wu, Zhicheng Li, Sheng Lin, Weiwei Lin, Quan Zhu, Muhammad U Khan, Wenxiong Lin
As potent allelochemicals, phenolic acids are believed to be associated with replanting disease and cause microflora shift and structural disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured Radix pseudostellariae. The transcriptome sequencing was used to reveal the mechanisms underlying the differential response of pathogenic bacterium Kosakonia sacchari and beneficial bacterium Bacillus pumilus on their interactions with phenolic acids, the main allelochemicals in root exudates of R. pseudostellariae in the monoculture system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509971/description-of-chryseobacterium-timonianum-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-patient-with-pneumonia
#18
Rita Abou Abdallah, Teresa Cimmino, Sophie Baron, Frédéric Cadoret, Caroline Michelle, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Fadi Bittar
Using a polyphasic taxonomic strategy, an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, yellow pigmented rod isolated from a sputum sample of a patient with pneumonia was characterised. This bacterial strain, designated G972(T), could not be identified by our systematic MALDI-TOF screening on a MicroFlex. This led to the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which shows 98.57% sequence identity with that of Chryseobacterium indologenes 16777(T), the phylogenetic closely related type strain of a species with standing in nomenclature, which putatively classifies it as a new species...
May 16, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506763/neonatal-hyperoxia-disrupts-the-intestinal-barrier-and-impairs-intestinal-function-in-rats
#19
Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chung-Ming Chen
Animal studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and disrupts the intestinal barrier. This study evaluated the effects of brief hyperoxia exposure on intestinal function in newborn rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to room air or normobaric hyperoxia (85% O2) for 1week. The rats were euthanized on Postnatal Day 7, and their terminal ilea and sera were collected for histological analyses and intestinal permeability measurements, respectively. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined...
May 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506517/fish-oil-supplementation-benefits-the-murine-host-during-the-acute-phase-of-a-parasitic-infection-from-trypanosoma-cruzi
#20
Maria I Lovo-Martins, Aparecida D Malvezi, Rosiane V da Silva, Nágela G Zanluqui, Vera L H Tatakihara, Niels O S Câmara, Ana Paula L de Oliveira, Jean P S Peron, Marli C Martins-Pinge, Kevin L Fritsche, Phileno Pinge-Filho
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are known to modulate a variety of immune cell functions. On occasion, this has led to diminished host resistance to certain viral and bacterial infections. Little is known about the impact of n-3 PUFA on host resistance to parasitic infection, however, based on results from a small study conducted more than two decades ago, we hypothesized that providing mice LC n-3 PUFA will diminish host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic pathogen responsible for Chagas disease...
April 25, 2017: Nutrition Research
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