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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#1
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822542/short-communication-a-study-of-lactobacillus-isolates-adherence-to-and-influence-on-membrane-integrity-of-human-caco-2-cells
#2
Neethu M Jose, Craig R Bunt, Arlene McDowell, Jasper Z S Chiu, Malik A Hussain
The selection criteria of ideal probiotic bacteria are complex and involve many factors. One key criterion is based on the ability of the probiotic bacteria to adhere to the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the adherence and influence on membrane integrity of 2 selected lactobacilli isolates-Lactobacillus rhamnosus MI13 (dairy food origin) and L. plantarum RC2 (bovine rumen origin)-to Caco-2 cells in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822159/-effect-of-sodium-houttuyfonate-in-combination-with-erythromycin-on-luxs-agr-rna%C3%A2-of-staphylococus-epidermidis
#3
Gan-Fei Xu, Jing-Jing Wang, Da-Qiang Wu, Yan Guan
Quorum sensing of bacteria and its specific gene expression regulation have a very important role in bacterial biofilm formation. LuxS and agr are the key regulatory genes in quorum sensing of Staphylococcus epidermidis, and RNA Ⅲ is the effector molecule of agr system. In order to evaluate the effects of sodium houttuyfonate in combination with erythromycin on the transcription level of S. epidermidis, serial dilution method was used to determine the MIC of sodium houttuyfonate, erythromycin and vancomycin on S...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821717/promysalin-is-a-salicylate-containing-antimicrobial-with-a-cell-membrane-disrupting-mechanism-of-action-on-gram-positive-bacteria
#4
Rahul D Kaduskar, Giulia Della Scala, Zaaima J H Al Jabri, Stefania Arioli, Loana Musso, Marco R Oggioni, Sabrina Dallavalle, Diego Mora
Promysalin was previously described as a narrow spectrum molecule with a unique species-specific activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we demonstrate that promysalin is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a microdilution assay. Promysalin acts on Gram-positive bacteria with a mechanism of action involving cell membrane damage with leakage of intracellular components. The evaluation of MICs and MBCs on 11 promysalin analogs, synthesized utilizing diverted total synthesis, allowed the identification of the structural moieties potentially involved in cell membrane interaction and damage...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821027/preparation-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity-of-oxidized-%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan
#5
Mingjin Zhu, Liming Ge, Yongbo Lyu, Yaxin Zi, Xinying Li, Defu Li, Changdao Mu
The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820387/infectious-polymorphic-toxins-delivered-by-outer-membrane-exchange-discriminate-kin-in-myxobacteria
#6
Christopher N Vassallo, Pengbo Cao, Austin Conklin, Hayley Finkelstein, Christopher S Hayes, Daniel Wall
Myxobacteria are known for complex social behaviors including outer membrane exchange (OME), in which cells exchange large amounts of outer membrane lipids and proteins upon contact. The TraA cell surface receptor selects OME partners based on a variable domain. However, traA polymorphism alone is not sufficient to precisely discriminate kin. Here, we report a novel family of OME-delivered toxins that promote kin discrimination of OME partners. These SitA lipoprotein toxins are polymorphic and widespread in myxobacteria...
August 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819664/antimicrobial-carbon-nanospheres
#7
Yao-Wen Jiang, Ge Gao, Xiaodong Zhang, Hao-Ran Jia, Fu-Gen Wu
Carbon nanomaterials have found numerous applications in various fields. However, their synthesis and functionalization usually require complicated procedures or tough experimental conditions. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of a new type of functional nanomaterial, quaternized carbon nanospheres (QCNSs), with superior antibacterial activity via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment of chitosan and hexadecylbetaine (abbreviated as BS-16). During the hydrothermal process, the direct reaction and carbonization between the amine-containing chitosan and the carboxyl-containing BS-16 were realized within only one step...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819106/identification-and-characterization-of-a-bacterial-homolog-of-chloride-intracellular-channel-clic-protein
#8
Shubha Gururaja Rao, Devasena Ponnalagu, Sowmya Sukur, Harkewal Singh, Shridhar Sanghvi, Yixiao Mei, Ding J Jin, Harpreet Singh
Chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) are non-classical ion channels lacking a signal sequence for membrane targeting. In eukaryotes, they are implicated in cell volume regulation, acidification, and cell cycle. CLICs resemble the omega class of Glutathione S-transferases (GST), yet differ from them in their ability to form ion channels. They are ubiquitously found in eukaryotes but no prokaryotic homolog has been characterized. We found that indanyloxyacetic acid-94 (IAA-94), a blocker of CLICs, delays the growth of Escherichia coli...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816386/chemotaxis-guided-hybrid-neutrophil-micromotor-for-actively-targeted-drug-transport
#9
Jingxin Shao, Mingjun Xuan, Hongyue Zhang, Xiankun Lin, Zhiguang Wu, Qiang He
Engineering self-propelled micromotors with good biocompatibility and biodegradability for actively seeking sites of diseases and targeted drug transport remains a huge challenge. Here we demonstrate that neutrophils with intrinsic chemotaxis ability could be transformed into self-guided biohybrid motors through integrating mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with high loading capability. To realize the compatibility of neutrophil cells with drug-loaded MSNs, bacteria membranes derived from E. coli were coated onto MSNs in advance by using a camouflaging strategy...
August 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815827/outer-membrane-lipid-homeostasis-via-retrograde-phospholipid-transport-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Rahul Shrivastava, Xiang'Er Jiang, Shu-Sin Chng
Biogenesis of the outer membrane (OM) in Gram-negative bacteria, which is essential for viability, requires the coordinated transport and assembly of proteins and lipids, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and phospholipids (PLs), into the membrane. While pathways for LPS and OM protein assembly are well-studied, how PLs are transported to and from the OM is not clear. Mechanisms that ensure OM stability and homeostasis are also unknown. The trans-envelope Tol-Pal complex, whose physiological role has remained elusive, is important for OM stability...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815533/hijacking-of-membrane-contact-sites-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#11
Isabelle Derré
Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to hijack host cellular processes to promote their survival and replication inside host cells. Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to the strategies employed by these pathogens to manipulate various vesicular trafficking pathways. But in the past 5 years, studies have brought to light that intracellular bacteria also target non-vesicular trafficking pathways. Here we review how three vacuolar pathogens, namely, Legionella, Chlamydia, and Coxiella hijack components of cellular MCS with or without the formation of stable MCS...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815210/lpxk-is-essential-for-growth-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-atcc-19606-relationship-to-toxic-accumulation-of-lipid-a-pathway-intermediates
#12
Jun-Rong Wei, Daryl L Richie, Mina Mostafavi, Louis E Metzger, Christopher M Rath, William S Sawyer, Kenneth T Takeoka, Charles R Dean
Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 can grow without lipid A, the major component of lipooligosaccharide. However, we previously reported that depletion of LpxH (the fourth enzyme in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway) prevented growth of this strain due to toxic accumulation of lipid A pathway intermediates. Here, we explored whether a similar phenomenon occurred with depletion of LpxK, a kinase that phosphorylates disaccharide 1-monophosphate (DSMP) at the 4' position to yield lipid IVA. An A. baumannii ATCC 19606 derivative with LpxK expression under the control of an isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-regulated expression system failed to grow without induction, indicating that LpxK is essential for growth...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814799/on-mechanism-behind-uv-a-light-enhanced-antibacterial-activity-of-gallic-acid-and-propyl-gallate-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#13
Qingyang Wang, Erick Falcao de Oliveira, Solmaz Alborzi, Luis J Bastarrachea, Rohan V Tikekar
Possible mechanisms behind the enhanced antimicrobial activity of gallic acid (GA) and its ester propyl gallate (PG) in the presence of UV-A light against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were investigated. GA by itself is a mild antimicrobial and has a pro-oxidant ability. We found that the presence of UV-A light increases the uptake of GA by the bacteria. Once GA is internalized, the interaction between GA and UV-A induces intracellular ROS formation, leading to oxidative damage. Concurrently, GA + UV-A also inhibits the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), magnifying the imbalance of redox status of E...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813662/a-liver-capsular-network-of-monocyte-derived-macrophages-restricts-hepatic-dissemination-of-intraperitoneal-bacteria-by-neutrophil-recruitment
#14
Frederic Sierro, Maximilien Evrard, Simone Rizzetto, Michelle Melino, Andrew J Mitchell, Manuela Florido, Lynette Beattie, Shaun B Walters, Szun Szun Tay, Bo Lu, Lauren E Holz, Ben Roediger, Yik Chun Wong, Alessandra Warren, William Ritchie, Claire McGuffog, Wolfgang Weninger, David G Le Couteur, Florent Ginhoux, Warwick J Britton, William R Heath, Bernadette M Saunders, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Fabio Luciani, Kelli P A MacDonald, Lai Guan Ng, David G Bowen, Patrick Bertolino
The liver is positioned at the interface between two routes traversed by pathogens in disseminating infection. Whereas blood-borne pathogens are efficiently cleared in hepatic sinusoids by Kupffer cells (KCs), it is unknown how the liver prevents dissemination of peritoneal pathogens accessing its outer membrane. We report here that the hepatic capsule harbors a contiguous cellular network of liver-resident macrophages phenotypically distinct from KCs. These liver capsular macrophages (LCMs) were replenished in the steady state from blood monocytes, unlike KCs that are embryonically derived and self-renewing...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809546/staphylococcus-aureus-cidc-is-a-pyruvate-menaquinone-oxidoreductase
#15
Xinyan Zhang, Kenneth W Bayles, Sorin Luca
Recent studies have revealed an important role for the Staphylococcus aureus CidC enzyme in cell death during the stationary phase and in biofilm development, and have contributed to our understanding of the metabolic processes important in the induction of bacterial programmed cell death (PCD). To gain more insight into the characteristics of this enzyme, we performed an in-depth biochemical and biophysical analysis of its catalytic properties. In vitro experiments show that this flavoprotein catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate and carbon dioxide...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808685/structure-of-a-1-5-mda-adhesin-that-binds-its-antarctic-bacterium-to-diatoms-and-ice
#16
Shuaiqi Guo, Corey A Stevens, Tyler D R Vance, Luuk L C Olijve, Laurie A Graham, Robert L Campbell, Saeed R Yazdi, Carlos Escobedo, Maya Bar-Dolev, Victor Yashunsky, Ido Braslavsky, David N Langelaan, Steven P Smith, John S Allingham, Ilja K Voets, Peter L Davies
Bacterial adhesins are modular cell-surface proteins that mediate adherence to other cells, surfaces, and ligands. The Antarctic bacterium Marinomonas primoryensis uses a 1.5-MDa adhesin comprising over 130 domains to position it on ice at the top of the water column for better access to oxygen and nutrients. We have reconstructed this 0.6-μm-long adhesin using a "dissect and build" structural biology approach and have established complementary roles for its five distinct regions. Domains in region I (RI) tether the adhesin to the type I secretion machinery in the periplasm of the bacterium and pass it through the outer membrane...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808346/evidence-that-listeria-innocua-modulates-its-membrane-s-stored-curvature-elastic-stress-but-not-fluidity-through-the-cell-cycle
#17
Samuel Furse, Martin Jakubec, Frode Rise, Huw E Williams, Catherine E D Rees, Øyvind Halskau
This paper reports that the abundances of endogenous cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine halve during elongation of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria innocua. The lyotropic phase behaviour of model lipid systems that describe these modulations in lipid composition indicate that the average stored curvature elastic stress of the membrane is reduced on elongation of the cell, while the fluidity appears to be maintained. These findings suggest that phospholipid metabolism is linked to the cell cycle and that changes in membrane composition can facilitate passage to the succeding stage of the cell cycle...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808010/voltage-gated-calcium-flux-mediates-escherichia-coli-mechanosensation
#18
Giancarlo N Bruni, R Andrew Weekley, Benjamin J T Dodd, Joel M Kralj
Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807885/biogenesis-and-function-of-escrt-dependent-extracellular-vesicles
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Juan, Maximilian Fürthauer
From bacteria to humans, cells secrete a large variety of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Only relatively recently has it however started to become clear that the exovesicular transport of proteins and RNAs is important for normal physiology and numerous pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles can be formed through the release of the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes as so-called exosomes, or through direct, ectosomal, budding from the cell surface. Through their ability to promote the bending of membranes away from the cytoplasm, the components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) have been implicated in both exo- and ectosomal biogenesis...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807687/influence-of-tween-80-on-the-production-and-structure-of-water-insoluble-curdlan-from-agrobacterium-sp
#20
Ying Liang, Li Zhu, Minjie Gao, Zhiyong Zheng, Jianrong Wu, Xiaobei Zhan
In order to explore the mechanism by which Tween-80 enhances the production of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp., the effects of Tween-80 on the production and structure of curdlan and Agrobacterium sp. were evaluated. Maximum curdlan production (51.94g/L) was achieved when 16g/L Tween-80 was added at the beginning of the cell growth stage. The addition of Tween-80 at higher concentration inhibited cell growth. However, the addition of 16g/L Tween-80 enhanced the production of curdlan with a looser ultrastructure, significantly weakened the envelopment of curdlan on Agrobacterium sp...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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