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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450619/immediate-response-mechanisms-of-gram-negative-solvent-tolerant-bacteria-to-cope-with-environmental-stress-cis-trans-isomerization-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-and-outer-membrane-vesicle-secretion
#1
REVIEW
Christian Eberlein, Thomas Baumgarten, Stephan Starke, Hermann J Heipieper
Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic organic solvents...
February 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449493/lipopolysaccharide-is-transported-to-the-cell-surface-by-a-membrane-to-membrane-protein-bridge
#2
David J Sherman, Ran Xie, Rebecca J Taylor, Alexander H George, Suguru Okuda, Peter J Foster, Daniel J Needleman, Daniel Kahne
Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane that serves as a barrier to noxious agents in the environment. This protective function is dependent on lipopolysaccharide, a large glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. Lipopolysaccharide is synthesized at the cytoplasmic membrane and must be transported to the cell surface. To understand this transport process, we reconstituted membrane-to-membrane movement of lipopolysaccharide by incorporating purified inner and outer membrane transport complexes into separate proteoliposomes...
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445369/turgor-pressure-and-possible-constriction-mechanisms-in-bacterial-division
#3
REVIEW
Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson
Bacterial cytokinesis begins with the assembly of FtsZ into a Z ring at the center of the cell. The Z-ring constriction in Gram-negative bacteria may occur in an environment where the periplasm and the cytoplasm are isoosmotic, but in Gram-positive bacteria the constriction may have to overcome a substantial turgor pressure. We address three potential sources of invagination force. (1) FtsZ itself may generate force by curved protofilaments bending the attached membrane. This is sufficient to constrict liposomes in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444108/distribution-of-siderophore-gene-systems-on-a-vibrionaceae-phylogeny-database-searches-phylogenetic-analyses-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#4
Sunniva Katharina Thode, Ewelina Rojek, Mikolaj Kozlowski, Rafi Ahmad, Peik Haugen
Siderophores are small molecules synthesized and secreted by bacteria and fungi to scavenge iron. Extracellular ferri-siderohores are recognized by cognate receptors on the cell surface for transport over membranes. Several siderophore systems from Vibrionaceae representatives are known and well understood, e.g., the molecular structure of the siderophore, the biosynthesis gene cluster and pathway, and the gene expression pattern. Less is known about how these systems are distributed among the ~140 Vibrionaceae species, and which evolutionary processes contributed to the present-day distribution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440573/the-colm-family-polymorphic-toxins-breaching-the-bacterial-cell-wall
#5
Maarten G K Ghequire, Susan K Buchanan, René De Mot
Bacteria host an arsenal of antagonism-mediating molecules to combat for ecologic space. Bacteriocins represent a pivotal group of secreted antibacterial peptides and proteins assisting in this fight, mainly eliminating relatives. Colicin M, a model for peptidoglycan-interfering bacteriocins in Gram-negative bacteria, appears to be part of a set of polymorphic toxins equipped with such a catalytic domain (ColM) targeting lipid II. Diversifying recombination has enabled parasitism of different receptors and has also given rise to hybrid bacteriocins in which ColM is associated with another toxin module...
February 13, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440394/structure-function-analysis-of-manganese-exporter-proteins-across-bacteria
#6
Rilee Zeinert, Eli Martinez, Jennifer Schmitz, Katherine Senn, Bakhtawar Usman, Vivek Anantharaman, L Aravind, Lauren S Waters
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient for organisms, because of its role in cofactoring enzymes and providing protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many bacteria require manganese to form pathogenic or symbiotic interactions with eukaryotic host cells. However, excess manganese is toxic, requiring cells to have manganese export mechanisms. Bacteria are currently known to possess two widely-distributed classes of manganese export proteins, MntP and MntE, but other types of transporters likely exist...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436593/l%C3%A2-histidine-augments-the-oxidative-damage-against-gram%C3%A2-negative-bacteria-by-hydrogen-peroxide
#7
Tamiko Nagao, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Miad Elahi, Ayano Tada, Emika Toyonaga, Hisashi Yamasaki, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Hirokazu Miyoshi, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Tomomi Kuwahara
Excessive damage to DNA and lipid membranes by reactive oxygen species reduces the viability of bacteria. In the present study, the proliferation of recA‑deficient Escherichia coli strains was revealed to be inhibited by 1% L‑histidine under aerobic conditions. This inhibition of proliferation was not observed under anaerobic conditions, indicating that L‑histidine enhances oxidative DNA damage to E. coli cells. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of recA in E...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436150/broad-spectrum-neutralization-of-pore-forming-toxins-with-human-erythrocyte-membrane-coated-nanosponges
#8
Yijie Chen, Mengchun Chen, Yue Zhang, Joo Hee Lee, Tamara Escajadillo, Hua Gong, Ronnie H Fang, Weiwei Gao, Victor Nizet, Liangfang Zhang
Neutralization of bacterial toxins has become a compelling approach to treating bacterial infections as it may pose less selective pressure for the development of bacterial resistance. Currently, the majority of toxin neutralization platforms act by targeting the molecular structure of the toxin, which requires toxin identification and customized design for different diseases. Therefore, their development has been challenged by the enormous number and complexity of bacterial toxins. Herein, biomimetic toxin nanosponges are formulated by coating membranes of human red blood cells (hRBCs) onto polymeric nanoparticles, which act as a toxin decoy to absorb and neutralize a broad-spectrum of hemolytic toxins regardless of their molecular structure...
February 13, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429664/removal-of-bacteria-legionella-pneumophila-escherichia-coli-and-bacillus-subtilis-by-super-cavitation
#9
Andrej Šarc, Janez Kosel, David Stopar, Martina Oder, Matevž Dular
In sufficient concentrations, the pathogenic bacteria L. pneumophila can cause a respiratory illness that is known as the "Legionnaires" disease. Moreover, toxic Shiga strains of bacteria E. coli can cause life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because of the recent restrictions imposed on the usage of chlorine, outbreaks of these two bacterial species have become more common. In this study we have developed a novel rotation generator and its effectiveness against bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli was tested for various types of hydrodynamic cavitation (attached steady cavitation, developed unsteady cavitation and supercavitation)...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429082/visualizing-chemoattraction-of-planktonic-cells-to-a-biofilm
#10
Sneha Jani
Bacterial chemotaxis in response to continuous chemical gradients has been extensively studied at the individual cell and population levels using a variety of well-established in vitro methods (Englert et al., Microfluidic techniques for the analysis of bacterial chemotaxis. Methods Mol Biol 571:1-23, 2009). In nature, bacteria are surrounded by heterogeneous chemical gradients; hence, it is essential to understand chemotaxis behavior under such conditions. Here, we describe a setup that allows visualization of the chemotaxis response of motile cells to the complex microenvironment of a biofilm maintained under static conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429078/transmembrane-signal-transduction-in-bacterial-chemosensing
#11
Michael D Manson
Like all living organisms, bacteria must communicate with the world around them. As they typically live as single cells, the communication with their environment must occur at the cell membrane, both in moving molecules in and out and in transmitting information about their surroundings to response elements within the cell. This volume is devoted primarily to methods used to study either the behavior of bacteria in response to their environment or methods used to study events that involve signaling pathways that are initiated by events at the cell membrane...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427074/lipids-in-the-cell-organisation-regulates-function
#12
REVIEW
Ana L Santos, Giulio Preta
Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425935/molecular-dynamics-simulation-studies-suggests-unconventional-roles-of-non-secretary-laccases-from-enteropathogenic-gut-bacteria-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-serotype-d
#13
Krishna Kant Sharma, Deepti Singh, Surender Rawat
Laccase in Cryptococcus neoformans is covalently linked to the carbohydrate moiety of the cell wall, which allows it to get access to the different substrates for catalyzing their oxidation and therefore plays a vital role in the virulence. The laccase gene (3.0 kb) from C. neoformans serotype D was amplified, cloned and sequenced for protein modeling, docking and simulation studies. The three dimensional homology models of laccase protein from C. neoformans and other pathogenic gut bacteria were docked with selected biomolecules like prostaglandins (PG), membrane phospholipids, neurotransmitters (serotonin) using GOLD software...
February 3, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423561/colistin-causes-profound-morphological-alteration-but-minimal-cytoplasmic-membrane-perforation-in-populations-of-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Noëlle H O'Driscoll, T P Tim Cushnie, Kerr H Matthews, Andrew J Lamb
Whilst colistin (polymyxin E) represents the last mainstream treatment option for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, details of its mechanism of action remain to be fully resolved. In this study, the effects of sub-inhibitory, inhibitory-bactericidal, and supra-bactericidal levels of colistin on the membrane integrity and morphology of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated using potassium loss, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Supra-bactericidal colistin concentrations induced just 4-12% intracellular potassium loss from bacteria after 24 h...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417199/role-and-mechanism-of-cell-surface-hydrophobicity-in-the-adaptation-of-sphingobium-hydrophobicum-to-electronic-waste-contaminated-sediment
#15
Xingjuan Chen, Da Song, Jingjing Xu, Enze Li, Guoping Sun, Meiying Xu
Sphingomonads are isolated at exceptionally high frequency from organic polluted environments and assumed to be more hydrophobic than other Gram-negative bacteria. However, the potential roles of cell-surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in the cell survival in polluted environment, as well as the mechanisms underlying the CSH of sphingomonads, remain unclear. Sphingobium hydrophobicum C1T is a highly hydrophobic sphingomonad isolated from electronic-waste contaminated sediment. In this study, we found that exposure to the typical pollutants in electronic-waste contaminated sediment, such as the heavy metal ion Pb and the organic compound deca-brominated diphenyl ether (deca-BDE), resulted in the development of even higher CSH of the hydrophobic strain C1T; but no significant change was observed in the low CSH of its hydrophilic variant C2...
February 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417046/subversion-of-the-endocytic-and-secretory-pathways-by-bacterial-effector-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Mary M Weber, Robert Faris
Intracellular bacteria have developed numerous strategies to hijack host vesicular trafficking pathways to form their unique replicative niches. To promote intracellular replication, the bacteria must interact with host organelles and modulate host signaling pathways to acquire nutrients and membrane for the growing parasitophorous vacuole all while suppressing activation of the immune response. To facilitate host cell subversion, bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial virulence factors, termed effectors, into the host cell that mimic, agonize, and/or antagonize the function of host proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415144/purification-and-characterization-of-1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-with-a-substrate-preference-for-polyunsaturated-fatty-acyl-donors-from-the-eicosapentaenoic-acid-producing-bacterium-shewanella-livingstonensis-ac10
#17
Takuya Ogawa, Asako Tanaka, Jun Kawamoto, Tatsuo Kurihara
1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (designated as PlsC in bacteria) catalyzes the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid and is responsible for the de novo production of phosphatidic acid, a precursor for the synthesis of various membrane glycerophospholipids. Because PlsC is an integral membrane protein, it is generally difficult to solubilize it without causing its inactivation, which has been hampering its biochemical characterization despite its ubiquitous presence and physiological importance. Most biochemical studies of PlsC have been carried out by using crude membrane preparations or intact cells...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415042/comparing-autotransporter-%C3%AE-domain-configurations-for-their-capacity-to-secrete-heterologous-proteins-to-the-cell-surface
#18
Wouter S P Jong, Maaike Schillemans, Corinne M Ten Hagen-Jongman, Joen Luirink, Peter van Ulsen
Monomeric autotransporters have been extensively used for export of recombinant proteins to the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. A bottleneck in the biosynthesis of such constructs is the passage of the outer membrane, which is facilitated by the β-domain at the C terminus of an autotransporter in conjunction with the Bam complex in the outer membrane. We have evaluated eight β-domain constructs for their capacity to secrete fused proteins to the cell surface. These constructs derive from the monomeric autotransporters Hbp, IgA protease, Ag43 and EstA and the trimeric autotransporter Hia, which all were selected because they have been previously used for secretion of recombinant proteins...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414707/analyzing-thermal-stability-of-cell-membrane-of%C3%A2-salmonella-using-time-multiplexed-impedance-sensing
#19
Aida Ebrahimi, Laszlo N Csonka, Muhammad A Alam
Heat treatment is one of the most widely used methods for inactivation of bacteria in food products. Heat-induced loss of bacterial viability has been variously attributed to protein denaturation, oxidative stress, or membrane leakage; indeed, it is likely to involve a combination of these processes. We examine the effect of mild heat stress (50-55°C for ≤12 min) on cell permeability by directly measuring the electrical conductance of samples of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to answer a fundamental biophysical question, namely, how bacteria die under mild heat stress...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414515/towards-a-complete-structural-deciphering-of-type-vi-secretion-system
#20
REVIEW
Van Son Nguyen, Badreddine Douzi, Eric Durand, Alain Roussel, Eric Cascales, Christian Cambillau
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic nanomachine present in many Gram-negative bacteria. Using a contraction mechanism similar to that of myophages, bacteriocins or anti-feeding prophages, it injects toxic effectors into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. T6SS assembles three large ensembles: the trans-membrane complex (TMC), the baseplate and the tail. Recently, the tail structure has been elucidated by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) in extended and contracted forms. The structure of the trans-membrane complex has been deciphered using a combination of X-ray crystallography and EM...
February 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
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