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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028495/non-cytotoxic-effect-of-green-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-and-its-antibacterial-activity
#1
B Senthil, T Devasena, B Prakash, A Rajasekar
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were green synthesized using ethanolic extract of fenugreek leaves and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) techniques. The HRTEM results revealed the formation of highly stable, mono dispersed, spherical shaped AgNPs with the size ranging from 20 to 30nm. The presence of flavonoids and their interaction with the AgNPs were confirmed using FTIR...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028485/a-study-on-%C3%AE-glucan-binding-protein-%C3%AE-gbp-and-its-involvement-in-phenoloxidase-cascade-in-indian-white-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-indicus
#2
Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Muthu Amala, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The present study reports the purification of novel immune molecule β-1, 3 glucan binding protein from the heamolymph of the Indian white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus (Fiβ-GBP). The purified Fiβ-GBP had 95kDa molecular weight in SDS-PAGE analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis revealed that the purified Fiβ-GBP showed similarity to various crustacean proteins; 48 and 46% similarity was observed for β-1, 3 glucan binding protein of Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis, with MOWSE score of 3...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028315/nanoparticles-of-short-cationic-peptidopolysaccharide-self-assembled-by-hydrogen-bonding-with-antibacterial-effect-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#3
Zheng Hou, Yogesh Vikhe Shankar, Yang Liu, Feiqing Ding, Jothy Lachumy Subramanion, Vikashini Ravikumar, Rubí Zamudio-Vázquez, Damien Keogh, Huiwen Lim, Moon Yue Feng Tay, Surajit Bhattacharjya, Scott A Rice, Jian Shi, Hongwei Duan, Xue-Wei Liu, Yuguang Mu, Nguan Soon Tan, Kam Michael Chiu Tam, Kevin Pethe, Mary B Chan-Park
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and polymers are active against many multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria but only a limited number of these compounds are in clinical use due to their unselective toxicity. The typical strategy for achieving selective antibacterial efficacy with low mammalian cell toxicity is through balancing the ratio of cationicity to hydrophobicity. Herein, we report a cationic nanoparticle self-assembled from chitosan-graft-oligolysine (CSM5-K5) chains with ultra-low molecular weight (1450 Daltons) that selectively kills bacteria...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027017/palladium-bionanoparticles-production-from-acidic-pd-ii-solutions-and-spent-catalyst-leachate-using-acidophilic-fe-iii-reducing-bacteria
#4
Naoko Okibe, Daisuke Nakayama, Takahiro Matsumoto
The acidophilic, Fe(III)-reducing heterotrophic bacteria Acidocella aromatica PFBC(T) and Acidiphilium cryptum SJH were utilized to produce palladium (Pd) bionanoparticles via a simple 1-step microbiological reaction. Monosaccharide (or intracellular NADH)-dependent reactions lead to visualization of intra/extra-cellular enzymatic Pd(0) nucleation. Formic acid-dependent reactions proceeded via the first slow Pd(0) nucleation phase and the following autocatalytic Pd(II) reduction phase regardless of the presence or viability of the cells...
October 12, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024903/bacteria-mould-and-yeast-spore-inactivation-studies-by-scanning-electron-microscope-observations
#5
Siti N M Rozali, Elham A Milani, Rebecca C Deed, Filipa V M Silva
Spores are the most resistant form of microbial cells, thus difficult to inactivate. The pathogenic or food spoilage effects of certain spore-forming microorganisms have been the primary basis of sterilization and pasteurization processes. Thermal sterilization is the most common method to inactivate spores present on medical equipment and foods. High pressure processing (HPP) is an emerging and commercial non-thermal food pasteurization technique. Although previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of thermal and non-thermal spore inactivation, the in-depth mechanisms of spore inactivation are as yet unclear...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022867/response-to-photo-oxidative-stress-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-mutants-impaired-in-different-functions
#6
Viviana Teresa Orlandi, Fabrizio Bolognese, Eleonora Martegani, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Claudio Medana, Paola Barbieri
Clinicians often have to deal with infections that are difficult to control because they are caused by superbugs resistant to many antibiotics. Alternatives to antibiotic treatment include antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The photodynamic process causes bacterial death, inducing oxidative stress through the photoactivation of photosensitizer molecules in the presence of oxygen. No PDT-resistant bacteria have been selected to date, thus the response to photo-oxidative stress in non-phototrophic bacteria needs further investigation...
October 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022370/toxicity-and-immunomodulatory-efficacy-of-biosynthesized-silver-myconanosomes-on-pathogenic-microbes-and-macrophage-cells
#7
Faria Fatima, Neelam Pathak, Smita Rastogi Verma, Preeti Bajpai
Silver myconanosomes prepared from Alternaria brassicae may exhibit potential antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity due to their inimitable character. The prepared myconanosomes were characterized by using differential light scattering, zeta potential, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopic analyses. Mycologically produced AgNPs were found as spherical and irregular shaped measuring size range between 55.4 and 70.23 nm. The antimicrobicidal activity of these AgNPs against pathogenic microbes was evaluated by agar well diffusion method...
October 12, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021255/the-molecular-mechanism-of-n-acetylglucosamine-side-chain-attachment-to-the-lancefield-group-a-carbohydrate-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#8
Jeffrey S Rush, Rebecca J Edgar, Pan Deng, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Nina M van Sorge, Andrew J Morris, Konstantin V Korotkov, Natalia Korotkova
In many Lactobacillales species (i.e. lactic acid bacteria), peptidoglycan is decorated by polyrhamnose polysaccharides that are critical for cell envelope integrity and cell shape and also represent key antigenic determinants. Despite the biological importance of these polysaccharides, their biosynthetic pathways have received limited attention. The important human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, synthesizes a key antigenic surface polymer-the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC). GAC is covalently attached to peptidoglycan and consists of a polyrhamnose polymer, with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chains, which is an essential virulence determinant...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021252/a-chemical-and-biological-toolbox-for-type-vd-secretion-characterization-of-the-phospholipase-a1-autotransporter-fpla-from-fusobacterium-nucleatum
#9
Michael A Casasanta, Christopher C Yoo, Hans B Smith, Alison J Duncan, Kyla Cochrane, Ann C Varano, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Daniel J Slade
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral pathogen that is linked to multiple human infections and colorectal cancer. Strikingly, F. nucleatum achieves virulence in the absence of large, multi-protein secretion systems (Type I, II, III, IV, and VI) which are widely used by Gram-negative bacteria for pathogenesis. By contrast, F. nucleatum strains contain genomic expansions of Type V secreted effectors (autotransporters) that are critical for host cell adherence, invasion, and biofilm formation. Here we present the first characterization of a F...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021250/electrostatic-lipid-protein-interactions-sequester-the-curli-amyloid-fold-on-the-lipopolysaccharide-membrane-surface
#10
Hema M Swasthi, Samrat Mukhopadhyay
Curli is a functional amyloid protein in the extracellular matrix of enteric Gram-negative bacteria. Curli is assembled at the cell surface and consists of CsgA, the major subunit of curli, and a membrane-associated nucleator protein, CsgB. Oligomeric intermediates that accumulate during the lag phase of amyloidogenesis are generally toxic, but the underlying mechanism by which bacterial cells overcome this toxicity during curli assembly at the surface remains elusive. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of curli amyloidogenesis and provide molecular insights into the strategy by which bacteria can potentially bypass the detrimental consequences of toxic amyloid intermediates...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020531/mechanisms-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria-mediated-by-silver-nanoparticles
#11
Chitrada Kaweeteerawat, Preeyawis Na Ubol, Sanirat Sangmuang, Sasitorn Aueviriyavit, Rawiwan Maniratanachote
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in industry, consumer products, and medical appliances due to their efficient antimicrobial properties. However, information on environmental toxicity and bacterial impact of these particles is not completely elucidated. Results showed that AgNPs produced growth inhibition and oxidative stress in bacteria Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive), with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 12 and 7 mg/L, respectively. Surprisingly, bacteria pre-exposed to sublethal dose of AgNPs exhibited increased resistance toward antibiotics (ampicillin and Pen-Strep) with IC50 elevated by 3-13-fold...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018620/mechanisms-of-action-and-in-vivo-antibacterial-efficacy-assessment-of-five-novel-hybrid-peptides-derived-from-indolicidin-and-ranalexin-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Hassan Mahmood Jindal, Keivan Zandi, Kien Chai Ong, Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Sara Maisha Rasid, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Shamala Devi Sekaran
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are of great potential as novel antibiotics for the treatment of broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms including resistant bacteria. In this study, the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic efficacy of the hybrid peptides were examined. METHODS: TEM, SEM and ATP efflux assay were used to evaluate the effect of hybrid peptides on the integrity of the pneumococcal cell wall/membrane. DNA retardation assay was assessed to measure the impact of hybrid peptides on the migration of genomic DNA through the agarose gel...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017942/as-cath4-and-5-two-vertebrate-derived-natural-host-defense-peptides-enhance-the-immuno-resistance-efficiency-against-bacterial-infections-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#13
Zhilai Guo, Xue Qiao, Ruomei Cheng, Nannan Shi, Aili Wang, Tingting Feng, Yan Chen, Fen Zhang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Host defense peptides (HDPs), a class of conserved components of animal innate immune system, possess direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens and broadly participate in boosting and modulating host immune responses. Cathelicidins is an important family of HDPs that has been identified exclusively in vertebrates. Considering the relatively conserved innate immune system between invertebrates and vertebrates, it is speculated that HDPs from vertebrates may also possess modulating functions on invertebrate innate immune system...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994756/screening-assays-to-characterize-novel-endothelial-regulators-involved-in-the-inflammatory-response
#14
María Ángeles Higueras, Lidia Jiménez-García, Sandra Herranz, Sonsoles Hortelano, Alfonso Luque
The endothelial layer is essential for maintaining homeostasis in the body by controlling many different functions. Regulation of the inflammatory response by the endothelial layer is crucial to efficiently fight against harmful inputs and aid in the recovery of damaged areas. When the endothelial cells are exposed to an inflammatory environment, such as the outer component of gram-negative bacteria membrane, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), they express soluble pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Ccl5, Cxcl1 and Cxcl10, and trigger the activation of circulating leukocytes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994410/structure-of-the-conserved-francisella-virulence-protein-fvfa
#15
Subramania Kolappan, Karen Y Lo, Chiao Ling Jennifer Shen, Julian A Guttman, Lisa Craig
Francisella tularensis is a potent human pathogen that invades and survives in macrophage and epithelial cells. Two identical proteins, FTT_0924 from F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and FTL_1286 from F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS, have previously been identified as playing a role in protection of the bacteria from osmotic shock and its survival in macrophages. FTT_0924 has been shown to localize to the inner membrane, with its C-terminus exposed to the periplasm. Here, crystal structures of the F. novicida homologue FTN_0802, which we call FvfA, in two crystal forms are reported at 1...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993557/biological-functions-of-glucolipids-in-bacillus-subtilis
#16
Satoshi Matsuoka
Glyceroglycolipids are very important in Gram-positive bacteria and cyanobacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, a model organism for the Gram-positive bacteria, the ugtP mutant, which lacks glyceroglucolipids, shows abnormal morphology. Lack of glucolipids has many consequences: abnormal localization of the cytoskeletal protein MreB and activation of some extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors (σ(M), σ(V) and σ(X)) in the log phase are two examples. Conversely, the expression of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (MGlcDG) by 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase from Acholeplasma laidlawii (alMGS) almost completely suppresses the ugtP disruptant phenotype...
October 6, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990602/self-sustainable-high-power-density-bio-solar-cells-for-lab-on-a-chip-applications
#17
Lin Liu, Seokheun Choi
A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip system that generates its own power is essential for stand-alone, independent, self-sustainable point-of-care diagnostic devices to work in limited-resource and remote regions. Miniaturized biological solar cells (or micro-BSCs) can be the most suitable power source for those lab-on-a-chip applications because the technique resembles the earth's natural ecosystem - living organisms work in conjunction with non-living components of their environment to create a self-assembling and self-maintaining system...
October 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988129/assessment-of-synergistic-antibacterial-activity-of-combined-biosurfactants-revealed-by-bacterial-cell-envelop-damage
#18
Santanu Sana, Sriparna Datta, Dipa Biswas, Dipanjan Sengupta
Besides potential surface activity and some beneficial physical properties, biosurfactants express antibacterial activity. Bacterial cell membrane disrupting ability of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa C2 and a lipopeptide type biosurfactant, BS15 produced by Bacillus stratosphericus A15 was examined against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli K8813. Broth dilution technique was followed to examine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the biosurfactants. The combined effect of rhamnolipid and BS15 against S...
October 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983718/pediocin-like-bacteriocins-new-perspectives-on-mechanism-of-action-and-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Natalia S Ríos Colombo, Miriam C Chalón, Silvia A Navarro, Augusto Bellomio
This review attempts to analyze the mechanism of action and immunity of class IIa bacteriocins. These peptides are promising alternative food preservatives and they have a great potential application in medical sciences. Class IIa bacteriocins act on the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive cells dissipating the transmembrane electrical potential by forming pores. However, their toxicity and immunity mechanism remains elusive. Here we discuss the role of the mannose phosphotransferase system (man-PTS) as the receptor for class IIa bacteriocins and the influence of the membrane composition on the activity of these antimicrobial peptides...
October 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983096/chlorinated-emodin-as-a-natural-antibacterial-agent-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-through-dual-influence-on-bacterial-cell-membranes-and-dna
#20
Feixia Duan, Guang Xin, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
The rise in infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of effective medicines requires the discovery of new antibacterial agents. Naturally chlorinated emodin 1,3,8-trihydroxy-4-chloro-6-methyl-anthraquinone (CE) from fungi and lichens was found to markedly inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, especially common drug-resistant bacterial strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). CE was confirmed to cause significant potassium leakage, cell membrane depolarization and damage to the selective permeability of cell membranes in bacterial cells, resulting in bacterial cell death...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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