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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448535/alpha-1-antitrypsin-supplementation-improves-alveolar-macrophages-efferocytosis-and-phagocytosis-following-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#1
Karina A Serban, Daniela N Petrusca, Andrew Mikosz, Christophe Poirier, Angelia D Lockett, Lauren Saint, Matthew J Justice, Homer L Twigg, Michael A Campos, Irina Petrache
Cigarette smoking (CS), the main risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in developed countries, decreases alveolar macrophages (AM) clearance of both apoptotic cells and bacterial pathogens. This global deficit of AM engulfment may explain why active smokers have worse outcomes of COPD exacerbations, episodes characterized by airway infection and inflammation that carry high morbidity and healthcare cost. When administered as intravenous supplementation, the acute phase-reactant alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces the severity of COPD exacerbations in A1AT deficient (AATD) individuals and of bacterial pneumonia in murine models, but the effect of A1AT on AM scavenging functions has not been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447030/screening-and-optimizing-antimicrobial-peptides-by-using-spot-synthesis
#2
REVIEW
Paula M López-Pérez, Elizabeth Grimsey, Luc Bourne, Ralf Mikut, Kai Hilpert
Peptide arrays on cellulose are a powerful tool to investigate peptide interactions with a number of different molecules, for examples antibodies, receptors or enzymes. Such peptide arrays can also be used to study interactions with whole cells. In this review, we focus on the interaction of small antimicrobial peptides with bacteria. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can kill multidrug-resistant (MDR) human pathogenic bacteria and therefore could be next generation antibiotics targeting MDR bacteria. We describe the screen and the result of different optimization strategies of peptides cleaved from the membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446907/regulation-and-molecular-basis-of-environmental-muropeptide-uptake-and-utilization-in-fastidious-oral-anaerobe-tannerella-forsythia
#3
Angela Ruscitto, Kiyonobu Honma, Vamsee M Veeramachineni, Kiyoshi Nishikawa, Graham P Stafford, Ashu Sharma
Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe associated with periodontitis. This bacterium is auxotrophic for the peptidoglycan amino sugar N-acetylmuramic (MurNAc) and likely relies on scavenging peptidoglycan fragments (muropeptides) released by cohabiting bacteria during their cell wall recycling. Many Gram-negative bacteria utilize an inner membrane permease, AmpG, to transport peptidoglycan fragments into their cytoplasm. In the T. forsythia genome, the Tanf_08365 ORF has been identified as a homolog of AmpG permease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#4
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443813/vacuolar-h-atpase-subunit-vma1p-functions-as-the-molecular-ligand-in-the-vacuole-targeting-fungicidal-activity-of-polymyxin-b
#5
Maki Iida, Keiichi Yamada, Yoshiya Nango, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Akira Ogita, Ken-Ichi Fujita, Toshio Tanaka
Polymyxin B (PMB) is a cationic cyclic peptide that can selectively inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane permeability barrier through binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, a fluorescent PMB derivative (PMB-Ds) was applied to visually confirm the vacuole as a direct lethal target of PMB against fungal cells, which lack LPS. PMB-Ds could be visualized in the normal rounded vacuolar membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, suggesting the presence of a molecular ligand assisting the vacuole-targeting mobilization of the peptide in the organism...
April 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443079/pleomorphism-and-viability-of-the-lyme-disease-pathogen-borrelia-burgdorferi-exposed-to-physiological-stress-conditions-a-correlative-cryo-fluorescence-and-cryo-scanning-electron-microscopy-study
#6
Marie Vancová, Nataliia Rudenko, Jiří Vaněček, Maryna Golovchenko, Martin Strnad, Ryan O M Rego, Lucie Tichá, Libor Grubhoffer, Jana Nebesářová
To understand the response of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi exposed to stress conditions and assess the viability of this spirochete, we used a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning microscopy approach. This approach enables simple exposition of bacteria to various experimental conditions that can be stopped at certain time intervals by cryo-immobilization, examination of cell viability without necessity to maintain suitable culture conditions during viability assays, and visualization of structures in their native state at high magnification...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442909/tat-functionalized-liposomes-for-the-treatment-of-meningitis-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Caterina Bartomeu Garcia, Di Shi, Thomas J Webster
Bacterial meningitis has become a global concern, because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It has been demonstrated that liposomes can enter bacteria, thus providing a possible treatment for numerous infections, including meningitis. Fusogenic liposomes are pH-sensitive with a high capacity to fuse with the bacteria membrane and promote intracellular drug release. Moreover, this ability can be improved by using cell-penetrating peptides (such as Tat47-57, which is a peptide derived from the Tat protein of HIV)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442606/the-exit-strategy-an-approach-for-identifying-bacterial-proteins-exported-during-host-infection
#8
E F Perkowski, K E Zulauf, D Weerakoon, J D Hayden, T R Ioerger, D Oreper, S M Gomez, J C Sacchettini, M Braunstein
Exported proteins of bacterial pathogens function both in essential physiological processes and in virulence. Past efforts to identify exported proteins were limited by the use of bacteria growing under laboratory (in vitro) conditions. Thus, exported proteins that are exported only or preferentially in the context of infection may be overlooked. To solve this problem, we developed a genome-wide method, named EXIT (exported in vivotechnology), to identify proteins that are exported by bacteria during infection and applied it to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during murine infection...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441577/membrane-vesicles-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-prokaryotes
#9
REVIEW
Sara Domingues, Kaare M Nielsen
Membrane vesicles (MVs) are released from all living cells. MVs are lumen-containing spheres of lipid-bilayers derived from the cell surface. MVs are biologically active and contain various components, including genetic material. Both chromosomal and plasmid DNA, as well as different types of RNA have been detected in MVs. Vesicle-mediated transfer of genes coding for antibiotic resistance, virulence and metabolic traits has been reported in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and in Archaea. MVs can persist over time in natural environments...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440618/design-of-antibacterial-polyethersulfone-membranes-via-covalently-attaching-hydrogel-thin-layers-loaded-with-ag-nanoparticles
#10
Min He, Qian Wang, Rui Wang, Yi Xie, Weifeng Zhao, Changsheng Zhao
In order to inhibit the bacteria attachment and the subsequent formation of bio-films on polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA)/poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) antibacterial hydrogel thin layers were covalently attached onto the membranes, followed by loading Ag nanoparticles. In our strategy, double bonds were firstly introduced onto PES membrane surfaces to provide anchoring sites, and then the hydrogel layers were synthesized on the membrane surfaces via UV light initiated cross-linking copolymerization...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439040/the-impact-of-membrane-phospholipid-alterations-in-escherichia-coli-on-cellular-function-and-bacterial-stress-adaptation
#11
Veronica W Rowlett, Venkata K P S Mallampalli, Anja Karlstaedt, William Dowhan, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, William Margolin, Heidi Vitrac
Bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to sense and rapidly adapt to challenging and ever-changing environmental conditions. The ability to alter membrane lipid composition, a key component of the cellular envelope, is crucial for bacterial survival and adaptation in response to environmental stress. However, the precise roles played by membrane phospholipids in bacterial physiology and stress adaptation are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to define the role of membrane phospholipids in adaptation to stress and maintenance of bacterial cell fitness...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438890/short-ftsz-filaments-can-drive-asymmetric-cell-envelope-constriction-at-the-onset-of-bacterial-cytokinesis
#12
Qing Yao, Andrew I Jewett, Yi-Wei Chang, Catherine M Oikonomou, Morgan Beeby, Cristina V Iancu, Ariane Briegel, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J Jensen
FtsZ, the bacterial homologue of eukaryotic tubulin, plays a central role in cell division in nearly all bacteria and many archaea. It forms filaments under the cytoplasmic membrane at the division site where, together with other proteins it recruits, it drives peptidoglycan synthesis and constricts the cell. Despite extensive study, the arrangement of FtsZ filaments and their role in division continue to be debated. Here, we apply electron cryotomography to image the native structure of intact dividing cells and show that constriction in a variety of Gram-negative bacterial cells, including Proteus mirabilis and Caulobacter crescentus, initiates asymmetrically, accompanied by asymmetric peptidoglycan incorporation and short FtsZ-like filament formation...
April 24, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432035/expression-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-activation-of-the-non-canonical-inflammasome-pathway-in-brain-pericytes
#13
Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Mihály Kozma, Péter Nagyőszi, Krisztina Nagy, Csilla Fazakas, János Haskó, Kinga Molnár, Attila E Farkas, Attila G Végh, György Váró, Péter Galajda, Imola Wilhelm, István A Krizbai
Cerebral pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries. Increasing evidence suggests that they play important role in controlling neurovascular functions, i.e. cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These cells can also influence neuroinflammation which is highly regulated by the innate immune system. Therefore, we systematically tested the pattern recognition receptor expression of brain pericytes. We detected expression of NOD1, NOD2, NLRC5, NLRP1-3, NLRP5, NLRP9, NLRP10 and NLRX mRNA in non-treated cells...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431522/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-neisseria-meningitidis-wildtype-and-dpra-null-mutant-strains-links-dna-processing-to-pilus-biogenesis
#14
Getachew Tesfaye Beyene, Shewit Kalayou, Tahira Riaz, Tone Tonjum
BACKGROUND: DNA processing chain A (DprA) is a DNA binding protein which is ubiquitous in bacteria, and is required for DNA transformation to various extents among bacterial species. However, the interaction of DprA with competence and recombination proteins is poorly understood. Therefore, the proteomes of whole Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) wildtype and dprA mutant cells were compared. Such a comparative proteomic analysis increases our understanding of the interactions of DprA with other Nm components and may elucidate its potential role beyond DNA processing in transformation...
April 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430277/rapid-single-cell-detection-and-identification-of-pathogens-by-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#15
N E Dina, H Zhou, A Colniţă, N Leopold, T Szoke-Nagy, C Coman, C Haisch
For the successful treatment of infections, real-time analysis and enhanced multiplex capacity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness of the developed detection method are critical. In this work, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was employed with the final aim of identification and discrimination of pathogenic bacteria, based on their detected SERS fingerprint at the single-cell level. Several genera of bacteria that are found in most of the isolated infections in bacteraemia were successfully identified in less than 5 minutes without the use of antibodies or other specific receptors...
April 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430241/probing-the-germination-kinetics-of-ethanol-treated-bacillus-thuringiensis-spores
#16
Guiwen Wang, Huanjun Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Lixin Peng, Yuan Peng, Yong-Qing Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial insecticide. To clarify the mechanism of bacterial resistance to ethanol toxicity, the present study investigated the effects of 70% (v/v) ethanol at a moderate temperature (65°C) on Bt spore germination by single-cell Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy. We found that over 80% of Bt spores were inviable after 30 min of treatment. Moreover, ethanol treatment affected spore germination; the time for initiation of rapid calcium dipicolinate (CaDPA) release (i...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429753/impact-of-surface-active-guanidinium-tetramethylguanidinium-and-cholinium-based-ionic-liquids-on-vibrio-fischeri-cells-and-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-liposomes
#17
Antti H Rantamäki, Suvi-Katriina Ruokonen, Evangelos Sklavounos, Lasse Kyllönen, Alistair W T King, Susanne K Wiedmer
We investigated the toxicological effect of seven novel cholinium, guanidinium, and tetramethylguanidinium carboxylate ionic liquids (ILs) from an ecotoxicological point of view. The emphasis was on the potential structure-toxicity dependency of these surface-active ILs in aqueous environment. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were defined for each IL using Vibrio (Aliivibrio) fischeri marine bacteria. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes were used as biomimetic lipid membranes to study the interactions between the surface-active ILs and the liposomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429671/ethanolamine-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract-mechanisms-patterns-and-importance
#18
J Zhou, X Xiong, K Wang, L Zou, D Lv, Y Yin
Nutritional exchanges and cooperation between bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and the mammalian host play an important role in health and disease. Ethanolamine is an essential dietary lipid nutrient for animals and is abundant in both intestinal and bacterial cell membranes. Ethanolamine can be utilized by intestinal eukaryotic cells via the cytidine phosphoethanolamine pathway for de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine, and certain bacteria are able to catabolize it as a major carbon and/or nitrogen source with the help of ethanolamine utilization proteins...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428948/understanding-the-entanglement-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets-in-cystic-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Saira R Martínez-Alemán, Lizbeth Campos-García, José P Palma-Nicolas, Romel Hernández-Bello, Gloria M González, Alejandro Sánchez-González
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the CF trans-membrane conductance regulator. These mutations result in abnormal secretions viscous airways of the lungs, favoring pulmonary infection and inflammation in the middle of neutrophil recruitment. Recently it was described that neutrophils can contribute with disease pathology by extruding large amounts of nuclear material through a mechanism of cell death known as Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) into the airways of patients with CF...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426936/cholesterol-assisted-bacterial-cell-surface-engineering-for-photodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#20
Hao-Ran Jia, Ya-Xuan Zhu, Zhan Chen, Fu-Gen Wu
Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (PDT) which enables effective killing of regular and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a promising treatment modality for bacterial infection. However, because most photosensitizer (PS) molecules fail to strongly interact with the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, this technique is only suitable for treating Gram-positive bacterial infection, which largely hampers its practical applications. Herein, we revealed for the first time that cholesterol could significantly facilitate the hydrophobic binding of PSs to the bacterial surface, achieving the hydrophobic interaction-based bacterial cell surface engineering that could effectively photo-inactivate both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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