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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820679/tuberculosis-related-diabetes-is-it-reversible-after-complete-treatment
#1
Huma Aftab, Dirk L Christensen, Atiqa Ambreen, Mohammad Jamil, Peter Garred, Jørgen H Petersen, Susanne D Nielsen, Ib C Bygbjerg
Individuals with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) were screened for diabetes (DM) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Pakistan. A significant decrease in FPG was observed when TB was treated. Of those with newly diagnosed DM, 46% and 62% no longer had hyperglycemia after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Individuals with known DM also showed a significant decrease in fasting plasma levels when treated for TB, but after 3 months none had normoglycemia, and after 6 months 9.2% were normoglycemic. Thus, TB-related DM may abate when the stress terminates, as is the case in gestational DM...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819600/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-of-the-lumbar-spine-in-a-six-year-old-child-a-case-report
#2
Siddharth Sanjay Shah, Aakanksha Arvind Goregaonkar, Arvind Balkrishna Goregaonkar
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a challenging paradigm shift faced by the TB control programs worldwide today. The treatment is further compounded with unique management difficulties faced in pediatric patients. Treatment of XDR-TB requires prolonged chemotherapy with second-line drugs which offer lesser potency and increased risk of drug-related side effects. We present a case of spinal XDR-TB in a child, managed with extended second-line antitubercular chemotherapy (ATT)...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819470/causes-of-death-and-factors-associated-with-early-mortality-of-hiv-infected-adults-admitted-to-korle-bu-teaching-hospital
#3
Adriana Saavedra, Nia Campinha-Bacote, Maurice Hajjar, Ernest Kenu, Fizza Syeda Gillani, Adjoa Obo-Akwa, Margaret Lartey, Awewura Kwara
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to identify common causes of death as well as the factors associated with the high inpatient mortality rate of HIV-infected patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH). METHODS: The retrospective study reviewed the medical records of 547 HIV-infected adults aged 18 years or older admitted to the KBTH between the months of January 2012 and October 2013. Using standardized abstraction forms, clinical and demographic data of eligible patients was collected...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819046/tuberculous-tales-an-east-london-experience
#4
REVIEW
Apeksha M Shah, Dominika Raciborska, Matthew Stevens, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Veronica L C White, Benjamin Turner
Tuberculous meningitis presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and considering its long history and increasing global incidence, the evidence base for its treatment is relatively scanty. Many UK neurologists will have little first-hand experience of this deadly condition, and if faced with a patient with possible tuberculous meningitis will find decision making less than straightforward. In parts of East London (UK) the rates of tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis are among the highest in Western Europe, and so the neurologists and respiratory physicians at the Royal London Hospital have encountered many such patients over the years...
August 17, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818169/tuberculosis-of-open-cholecystectomy-wound
#5
Nauman Ahmed, Hammad Naeem Hammad Naeem Rana
Tuberculosis of the wound is a rare entity. A50-year lady presented with an "on and off discharging wound" from the postoperative wound site of open cholecystectomy, which was done 7 years ago. Patient did not respond to standard antibiotic treatment regimens; and also the culture remained equivocal during this period. We explored the wound and found a mass in subcutaneous tissue. Resection of mass was done and wound left open for closure by secondary intention. Histopathology of the resected mass revealed tuberculosis...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817723/sequence-analysis-of-the-rifampicin-resistance-determining-region-rrdr-of-rpob-gene-in-multidrug-resistance-confirmed-and-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis-patients-of-punjab-pakistan
#6
Salma Hameed, Kartyk Moganeradj, Nasir Mahmood, Timothy D McHugh, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Catherine Arnold
Molecular screening of new patients suspected for TB could help in the effective control of TB in Pakistan as it is a high TB burden country. It will be informative to understand the prevalence of multi drug resistance for a better drug regimen management in this geographical area. The Rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) sequencing was used to identify mutations associated with drug resistance in DNA extracts from 130 known multidrug resistant (MDR) cultured strains and compared with mutations observed in DNA extracts directly from 86 sputum samples from consecutive newly diagnosed cases in Lahore, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817682/experimental-study-of-tuberculosis-from-animal-models-to-complex-cell-systems-and-organoids
#7
REVIEW
Kaori L Fonseca, Pedro N S Rodrigues, I Anna S Olsson, Margarida Saraiva
Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease to mankind that has killed more people than any other infectious disease. Despite many efforts and successes from the scientific and health communities, the prospect of TB elimination remains distant. On the one hand, sustainable public health programs with affordable and broad implementation of anti-TB measures are needed. On the other hand, achieving TB elimination requires critical advances in three areas: vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment. It is also well accepted that succeeding in advancing these areas requires a deeper knowledge of host-pathogen interactions during infection, and for that, better experimental models are needed...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817675/deaths-during-tuberculosis-treatment-among-paediatric-patients-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#8
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Muktar A Gadanya, Auwalu U Gajida, Taiwo G Amole, Imam W Bello, Safiya Gambo, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of children that started TB treatment between 2010 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817570/increased-hepatotoxicity-among-hiv-infected-adults-co-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni-in-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Amon I Marti, Soledad Colombe, Peter J Masikini, Samuel E Kalluvya, Luke R Smart, Bahati M Wajanga, Hyasinta Jaka, Robert N Peck, Jennifer A Downs
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about hepatotoxicity in patients with schistosome and HIV co-infections. Several studies have reported increased liver enzymes and bilirubin levels associated with schistosome infection. We investigated whether HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who had S. mansoni co-infection had a higher prevalence of hepatotoxicity than those without. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the presence and grade of hepatotoxicity among 305 HIV-infected outpatients who had been on medium-term (3-6 months) and long-term (>36 months) antiretroviral therapy in a region of northwest Tanzania where S...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817561/comparing-efficacies-of-moxifloxacin-levofloxacin-and-gatifloxacin-in-tuberculosis-granulomas-using-a-multi-scale-systems-pharmacology-approach
#10
Elsje Pienaar, Jansy Sarathy, Brendan Prideaux, Jillian Dietzold, Véronique Dartois, Denise E Kirschner, Jennifer J Linderman
Granulomas are complex lung lesions that are the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB). Understanding antibiotic dynamics within lung granulomas will be vital to improving and shortening the long course of TB treatment. Three fluoroquinolones (FQs) are commonly prescribed as part of multi-drug resistant TB therapy: moxifloxacin (MXF), levofloxacin (LVX) or gatifloxacin (GFX). To date, insufficient data are available to support selection of one FQ over another, or to show that these drugs are clinically equivalent. To predict the efficacy of MXF, LVX and GFX at a single granuloma level, we integrate computational modeling with experimental datasets into a single mechanistic framework, GranSim...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816081/correlates-of-poor-treatment-outcomes-in-patients-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-centre-in-rivers-state
#11
Ezinne C Iwunze, Ibitein N Okeafor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815923/biophysical-screening-of-a-focused-library-for-the-discovery-of-cyp121-inhibitors-as-novel-antimycobacterials
#12
Christian Brengel, Andreas Thomann, Alexander Schifrin, Giuseppe Allegretta, Ahmed A M Kamal, Joerg Haupenthal, Isabell Schnorr, Sang Hyun Cho, Scott Gary Franzblau, Martin Empting, Jens Eberhard, Rolf W Hartmann
The development of novel antimycobacterial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is urgently required due to the appearance of multi-drug resistance (MDR) combined with a complicated long-term treatment. CYP121 was shown to be a promising novel target for inhibition of mycobacterial growth. In this study, we describe the rational discovery of new CYP121 inhibitors by a systematic screening based on biophysical and microbiological methods. Best hits originating from only one structural class gave first information about molecular motifs required for binding and activity...
August 16, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814276/treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-hunan-province-china
#13
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Hengzhong Yi, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Kunyun Yang, Liqiong Bai, Darren J Gray, Archie C A Clements, Zuhui Xu
BACKGROUND: The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has posed additional challenges for global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, as limited treatment options are available and treatment outcomes are often sub-optimal. This study determined treatment outcomes among a cohort of MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients in Hunan Province, China, and identified factors associated with poor treatment outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using data obtained from medical records of TB patients in Hunan Chest Hospital, and from the internet-based TB management information system managed by the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province, for the period 2011 to 2014...
August 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813536/tuberculosis-patients-in-an-indian-mega-city-where-do-they-live-and-where-are-they-diagnosed
#14
Ramnath Subbaraman, Beena E Thomas, Senthil Sellappan, Chandra Suresh, Lavanya Jayabal, Savari Lincy, Agnes L Raja, Allison McFall, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Kenneth H Mayer, Soumya Swaminathan
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major source of mortality in urban India, with many structural challenges to optimal care delivery. In the government TB program in Chennai, India's fourth most populous city, there is a 49% gap between the official number of smear-positive TB patients diagnosed and the official number registered in TB treatment within the city in 2014. We hypothesize that this "urban registration gap" is partly due to rural patients temporarily visiting the city for diagnostic evaluation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811354/safety-and-efficacy-of-baricitinib-through-128-weeks-in-an-open-label-longterm-extension-study-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Edward C Keystone, Mark C Genovese, Douglas E Schlichting, Inmaculada de la Torre, Scott D Beattie, Terence P Rooney, Peter C Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of baricitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) up to 128 weeks in a phase IIb study (NCT01185353). METHODS: After a 24-week blinded period, eligible patients entered an initial 52-week open-label extension (OLE); patients receiving 8 mg once daily (QD) continued with that dose and all others received 4 mg QD. Doses could be escalated to 8 mg QD at 28 or 32 weeks at investigator discretion when ≥ 6 tender and ≥ 6 swollen joints were present...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811344/the-capacity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-to-survive-iron-starvation-might-enable-it-to-persist-in-iron-deprived-microenvironments-of-human-granulomas
#16
Krishna Kurthkoti, Hamel Amin, Mohlopheni J Marakalala, Saleena Ghanny, Selvakumar Subbian, Alexandra Sakatos, Jonathan Livny, Sarah M Fortune, Michael Berney, G Marcela Rodriguez
This study was conducted to investigate the role of iron deprivation in the persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis We present evidence of iron restriction in human necrotic granulomas and demonstrate that under iron starvation M. tuberculosis persists, refractive to antibiotics and capable of restarting replication when iron is made available. Transcriptomics and metabolomic analyses indicated that the persistence of M. tuberculosis under iron starvation is dependent on strict control of endogenous Fe utilization and is associated with upregulation of pathogenicity and intrinsic antibiotic resistance determinants...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810911/outcomes-from-patients-with-presumed-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-five-reference-centers-in-brazil
#17
D M P Ramalho, P F C Miranda, M K Andrade, T Brígido, M P Dalcolmo, E Mesquita, C F Dias, A N Gambirasio, J Ueleres Braga, A Detjen, P P J Phillips, I Langley, P I Fujiwara, S B Squire, M M Oliveira, A L Kritski
BACKGROUND: The implementation of rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) is a current global priority for TB control. However, data are scarce on patient-relevant outcomes for presumptive diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (pDR-TB) evaluated under field conditions in high burden countries. METHODS: Observational study of pDR-TB patients referred by primary and secondary health units. TB reference centers addressing DR-TB in five cities in Brazil. Patients age 18 years and older were eligible if pDR-TB, culture positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, if no prior DST results from another laboratory were used by a physician to start anti-TB treatment...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#18
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810312/-analysis-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-6-107-cases-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-chengdu-area
#19
D M Wang, Q F Li, M Zhu, Y H Xu, J Luo, Y J Li, J Zhong, Z J Wu
Objective: To analyze the infection and drug resistance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in order to provide useful references for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 6 107 suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, including lymph node, pleural, peritoneal, meningeal, urinary tract, and bone tuberculosis, were collected retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2015 in Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu. There were 4 033 male and 2 074 female patients, and the average age was 37 years...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809501/microencapsulated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-a-hybrid-platform-for-pulmonary-antibiotic-delivery
#20
Diana P Gaspar, Maria Manuela Gaspar, Carla V Eleutério, Ana Grenha, Mateo Blanco, Lídia M D Gonçalves, Pablo Taboada, António J Almeida, Carmen Remuñán-López
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing rifabutin (RFB), with pulmonary administration purposes, were developed through a technique that avoids the use of organic solvents or sonication. To facilitate their pulmonary delivery, the RFB-loaded SLN were included in microspheres of appropriate size using suitable excipients (mannitol and trehalose) through a spray-drying technique. Confocal analysis microscopy showed that microspheres are spherical and that SLN are efficiently microencapsulated and homogeneously distributed throughout the microsphere matrices...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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