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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156011/pulmonary-resection-for-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-based-on-survival-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Hyunsuk Frank Roh, Jihoon Kim, Seung Hyuk Nam, Jung Mogg Kim
We investigated the survival benefit of pulmonary resection for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. To weigh the survival benefit of pulmonary resection for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis who have undergone surgical treatment combined with medical chemotherapy compared with medical chemotherapy alone, we did a meta-analysis of available studies containing a hazard ratio for pulmonary resection. Among 1726 articles, 6 clinical reports, with a mean sample size of 47 patients per report, met the inclusion criteria...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155891/the-burden-of-gynecomastia-among-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-zomba-malawi
#2
Victor Singano, Alemayehu Amberbir, Daniela Garone, Christopher Kandionamaso, Jack Msonko, Monique van Lettow, Kondwani Kalima, Yamikani Mataka, Gift Kawalazira, Gabriel Mateyu, Aunex Kwekwesa, Alfred Matengeni, Joep J van Oosterhout
BACKGROUND: Many Africans who are on life-saving ART face challenges from a variety of toxicities. After the introduction of a standardized first-line efavirenz-containing ART regimen, reports of gynecomastia appeared in Malawian popular media, however data on the prevalence and risk factors of gynecomastia from Africa are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in males ≥18 years registered on ART at the HIV clinic in Zomba Central Hospital. Men who reported to have ever experienced breast or nipple enlargement received a standard questionnaire and underwent physical examination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155819/determinants-of-site-of-tuberculosis-disease-an-analysis-of-european-surveillance-data-from-2003-to-2014
#3
Giovanni Sotgiu, Dennis Falzon, Vahur Hollo, Csaba Ködmön, Nicolas Lefebvre, Andrei Dadu, Marieke van der Werf
BACKGROUND: We explored host-related factors associated with the site of tuberculosis (TB) disease using variables routinely collected by the 31 EU/EEA countries for national surveillance. METHODS: Logistic regression models were fitted to case-based surveillance data reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for TB cases notified from 2003 to 2014. Missing data on HIV infection and on susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin for many patients precluded the inclusion of these variables in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153061/-defining-of-gene-mutations-and-minimal-inhibitory-concentrations-in-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#4
Esra Yıldırım, Meltem Uzun
Tuberculosis is a very important disease all over the world despite the advanced diagnostic and treatment regimens. Resistant tuberculosis, which has increased in recent years in particular, is a global problem and prevents the fight against tuberculosis. For this reason, it is important to determine the etiologic agent early and its sensitivity against antituberculosis drugs. Resistance profiles of the isolates and the gene mutations causing resistance are determined for epidemiological purposes and mutation regions of the isolates are being investigated on the basis of countries...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152599/a-novel-clinical-sign-in-intraocular-tuberculosis-active-chorioretinitis-within-chorioretinal-atrophy
#5
Avinash Pathengay, Bhavik Panchal, Himadri Choudhury, Soumyava Basu, Nidhi Relhan, Harry W Flynn
Purpose: To report a novel clinical sign in patients with intraocular tuberculosis. The current study is an observational consecutive case series of patients diagnosed with intraocular tuberculosis managed at a tertiary eye care centre from June 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015. Observations: The diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was made in 6 patients based on ocular features suggestive of tuberculosis along with a positive tuberculin skin testing and chest X-ray consistent with tuberculosis...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152049/indolylalkyltriphenylphosphonium-analogues-are-membrane-depolarizing-mycobactericidal-agents
#6
Ming Li, Samuel A Nyantakyi, Pooja Gopal, Dinah Binte Aziz, Thomas Dick, Mei-Lin Go
Agents that selectively target the mycobacterial membrane could potentially shorten treatment time for tuberculosis, reduce relapse, and curtail emergence of resistant strains. The lipophilicity and extensive charge-delocalized state of the triphenylphosphonium cation strongly favor accumulation within bacterial membranes. Here, we explored the antimycobacterial activities and membrane-targeting properties of indolylalkyltriphenylphosphonium analogues. The most active analogues preferentially inhibited growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC50 2-4 μM) and were bactericidal against Mycobacterium bovis BCG (MBC99 3 μM)...
November 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151636/bedaquiline-fallible-hope-against-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#7
REVIEW
Priya Singh, Rashmi Kumari, Rup Lal
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly bacterial infectious disease caused by intra-cellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). There were an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015 and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB among individuals with HIV. Drug-discovery for its cure is very slow in comparison with the causative organism's fast pace of mutations conferring drug resistance. Moreover, the field of drug-discovery of anti-TB drugs is constantly being challenged by the drug resistant strains of Mtb...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150737/risk-of-active-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-inflammatory-arthritis-receiving-tnf-inhibitors-a-look-beyond-the-baseline-tuberculosis-screening-protocol
#8
Alina Soare, Ana Maria Gheorghiu, Victoria Aramă, Dragoș Bumbăcea, Rucsandra Dobrotă, Raida Oneaţă, Simona Pintilie, Mihaela Milicescu, Ioan Ancuţa, Andrei Martin, Mariana Sasu, Claudia Ciofu, Liviu Macovei, Victor Stoica, Mihai Bojincă, Carina Mihai
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major concern in patients receiving TNF inhibitors (TNFi). This study aimed to assess the incidence of active TB and the efficacy of TB prevention measures used over the years, and to determine risk factors for developing TB, in a single-centre cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) receiving TNFi. Data of all patients in whom treatment with TNFi was initiated in our rheumatology clinic until December 1st 2014 have been retrospectively analysed...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149917/treatment-outcome-with-a-short-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-regimen-in-nine-african-countries
#10
A Trébucq, V Schwoebel, Z Kashongwe, A Bakayoko, C Kuaban, J Noeske, S Hassane, B Souleymane, A Piubello, F Ciza, V Fikouma, M Gasana, M Ouedraogo, M Gninafon, A Van Deun, D M Cirillo, K G Koura, H L Rieder
<h2>SETTING:</h2>Nine countries in West and Central Africa.<h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2>To assess outcomes and adverse drug events of a standardised 9-month treatment regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients never previously treated with second-line drugs.<h2>DESIGN:</h2>Prospective observational study of MDR-TB patients treated with a standardised 9-month regimen including moxifloxacin, clofazimine, ethambutol (EMB) and pyrazinamide (PZA) throughout, supplemented by kanamycin, prothionamide and high-dose isoniazid during an intensive phase of a minimum of 4 to a maximum of 6 months...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#11
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148766/heterodimeric-diterpenoids-isolated-from-euphorbia-ebracteolata-roots-and-their-inhibitory-effects-on-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#12
Yunlong Wei, Chao Wang, Zhongbin Cheng, Xiangge Tian, Jingming Jia, Yonglei Cui, Lei Feng, Chengpeng Sun, Baojing Zhang, Xiaochi Ma
Two heterodimeric diterpenoids (1 and 2) comprising abietane lactone and nor-rosane constituent units were isolated from Euphorbia ebracteolata roots. Compound 1 exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase (IC50 = 7.94 μM), with a Ki value of 10.8 μM. In silico molecular docking has been performed to investigate the inhibition mechanism. Compound 2 inhibited the acetyl transfer activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis GlmU (IC50 = 41.85 μM), which is a novel tuberculosis treatment target.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145819/recurrent-tuberculosis-in-finland-1995-2013-a-clinical-and-epidemiological-cohort-study
#13
Virve Korhonen, Hanna Soini, Tuula Vasankari, Jukka Ollgren, Pieter W Smit, Petri Ruutu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the epidemiology and prevalence of potential risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) recurrence in a population-based registry cohort of 8084 TB cases between 1995 and 2013. METHODS: An episode of recurrent TB was defined as a case re-registered in the National Infectious Disease Register at least 360 days from the date of the initial registration. A regression model was used to estimate risk factors for recurrence in the national cohort...
November 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145454/reduction-of-hiv-associated-excess-mortality-by-antiretroviral-treatment-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-kenya
#14
Dickens O Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Kevin P Cain, Faith Ngari, Enos O Masini, Martien W Borgdorff
BACKGROUND: Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We sought to determine excess mortality associated with HIV and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on reducing mortality among tuberculosis patients in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Kenya national tuberculosis program data of patients enrolled from 2013 through 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145443/lessons-learned-from-continued-tb-outbreaks-in-a-high-school
#15
Young Kim, Byeong Ki Kim, Hong Jo Choi, Sung Weon Ryu, Eui Sook Kim, Yoon Soo Chang, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hyung Cha, Je Hyeong Kim, Chol Shin, Seung Heon Lee
We investigated the aftereffects of confirmatory QuantiFERON testing (QFT) added to a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). We reviewed the pre and post course of sequential tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks in a high school where massive 43 active TB cases had been found within one year before delayed contact investigation. And we investigated the TB development in relation to initial TST and QFT during mean follow-up of 3.9 ± 0.9 years. After delayed contact investigation for two subsequent TB outbreaks, 925 contacts were divided into the following 3 groups: TST- (n = 632), TST+/QFT+ (n = 24), TST+/QFT- (n = 258)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143876/deregulation-of-genes-associated-with-alternate-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Kalpana Sriraman, Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Dhananjaya Saranath, Anirvan Chatterjee, Nerges Mistry
Alternate mechanisms of drug resistance involving intrinsic defense pathways play an important role in development of drug resistance. Deregulation of drug efflux, cellular metabolism, and DNA repair have been indicated to have effect on drug tolerance and persistence. Here we chose eight genes from these pathways to investigate their association with development of multidrug resistance (MDR). We generated mono drug resistant and MDR strains of rifampicin and isoniazid and examined the differential expression of genes belonging to efflux, DNA repair and cell wall lipid synthesis pathways...
November 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142889/rapid-detection-of-streptomycin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-rpsl-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism
#17
Sediqe Karimi, Hossein Mirhendi, Fatemh Riyahi Zaniani, Soroor Erfani Manesh, Mahshd Salehi, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
Background: Molecular methods for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are potentially more rapid than conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing, facilitating the commencement of appropriate treatment for patients with DR-TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate and develop polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays for the detection of mutations within rpsL, and for the determination of streptomycin (STR) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142798/verification-of-diagnosis-in-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-discussion
#18
Amanda M Dave, Abed Adelrahman, Vishist Mehta, Stephen Cavalieri, Renuga Vivekanadan
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis), is a pulmonary infection that is spread by airborne droplet transmission. The development and spread of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosisgreatly jeopardize TB control efforts. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old male, visiting from China, who presented to the emergency department complaining of hemoptysis of 10 days' duration. Cultures were positive for acid fast bacteria and negative for fungi...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142744/-who-has-to-do-it-at-the-end-of-the-day-programme-officials-or-hospital-authorities-airborne-infection-control-at-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-dr-tb-centres-of-karnataka-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142411/the-effect-of-polyherbal-medicines-used-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-on-other-opportunistic-organisms-of-humans-infected-with-tuberculosis
#20
Elizabeth Bosede Famewo, Anna Maria Clarke, Anthony Jide Afolayan
Background: In many immunocompromised patients, opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections are common. Polyherbal medicines examined in this study are used by the indigenous people of South Africa for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other opportunistic infections associated with TB. Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of nine polyherbal remedies against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria respectively and three fungi...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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