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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922644/temperature-dependent-polymorphism-of-pyrazinamide-an-in-situ-raman-and-dft-study
#1
Poornima Sharma, Rajib Nandi, Debraj Gangopadhyay, Anurag Singh, Ranjan K Singh
The α and γ polymorphs of drug pyrazinamide have been detected with the help of temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic technique. Pyrazinamide is a very useful drug used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and plays a significant role in destroying the dormant tubercle bacilli which are not destroyed by other common TB drugs. Temperature dependent Raman spectra suggest polymorphic phase change from α→γ form of pyrazinamide between 145 and 146°C. In situ Raman spectra of pyrazinamide between 145 and 146°C show the conversion of α→γ form by the shift in CO stretching vibration accompanied by several other changes...
September 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920417/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-contaminated-feed-on-the-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-kidneys-of-piglets
#2
Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, Woong Lee, Jin Young Jeong, Yookyung Lee, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Min Seok Kim, Dong-Woon Kim, Dongjo Yu, Ara Cho, Young Kyoon Oh, Sung Dae Lee
Objective: Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods: Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919720/text-messaging-to-decrease-tuberculosis-treatment-attrition-in-tb-hiv-coinfection-in-uganda
#3
Sabine M Hermans, Sawsan Elbireer, Harriet Tibakabikoba, Bas J Hoefman, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: Low tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion rates in sub-Saharan Africa are an important driver of multidrug resistance. Mobile technology-based interventions have been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to test the effect of a short-message service (SMS) intervention on loss to follow-up (LFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, all adult, literate, HIV-infected patients with mobile phone access diagnosed with TB between November 2010 and October 2011 in an urban clinic in Uganda were eligible to receive adherence and appointment reminders and educational quizzes during the first 8 weeks of TB treatment...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919150/in-vitro-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-azole-drugs-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#5
Belén R Imperiale, Ángel A Cataldi, Nora S Morcillo
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis has been associated with the persistence of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the organism of infected individuals, who are reservoirs of the bacilli and the source for spreading the disease in the community. New active anti-TB drugs exerting their metabolic action at different stages and on latent/dormant bacilli are urgently required to avoid endogenous reactivations and to be part of treatments of multi- and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB)...
September 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918407/burden-of-non-adherence-to-latent-tuberculosis-infection-drug-therapy-and-the-potential-cost-effectiveness-of-adherence-interventions-in-canada-a-simulation-study
#7
Anik R Patel, Jonathon R Campbell, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Fawziah Marra, James C Johnston, Kirsten Smillie, Richard T Lester
OBJECTIVE: Pharmaceutical treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reduces the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB); however, poor adherence tempers the protective effect. We aimed to estimate the health burden of non-adherence, the maximum allowable cost of hypothetical new adherence interventions to be cost-effective and the potential value of existing adherence interventions for patients with low-risk LTBI in Canada. DESIGN: A microsimulation model of LTBI progression over 25 years...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917925/synthesis-of-synthetic-mannan-backbone-polysaccharides-found-on-the-surface-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-as-a-vaccine-adjuvant-and-their-immunological-properties
#8
Chakree Wattanasiri, Jiraporn Paha, Marisa Ponpuak, Somsak Ruchirawat, Siwarutt Boonyarattanakalin
Surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) play crucial roles in modulating host immune responses. Thorough understandings of immunological properties of the Mtb's surface components are essential for the development of tuberculosis treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, the accessibility to the molecules on the surface of Mtb is limited by the structural complexity due to their various macromolecular nature and the hazard of culturing Mtb. In this study, we reveal a practical synthesis of lipomannan (LM) backbone polysaccharides - the core glycans found on Mtb's surface...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915796/correlates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-failure-in-child-household-contacts-with-infectious-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-settings-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cohort-study
#9
Florence Nafula Okwara, John Paul Oyore, Fred Nabwire Were, Samson Gwer
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912729/multiplicity-of-mathematical-modeling-strategies-to-search-for-molecular-and-cellular-insights-into-bacteria-lung-infection
#10
REVIEW
Martina Cantone, Guido Santos, Pia Wentker, Xin Lai, Julio Vera
Even today two bacterial lung infections, namely pneumonia and tuberculosis, are among the 10 most frequent causes of death worldwide. These infections still lack effective treatments in many developing countries and in immunocompromised populations like infants, elderly people and transplanted patients. The interaction between bacteria and the host is a complex system of interlinked intercellular and the intracellular processes, enriched in regulatory structures like positive and negative feedback loops. Severe pathological condition can emerge when the immune system of the host fails to neutralize the infection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912539/diphenyleneiodonium-chloride-dpic-displays-broad-spectrum-bactericidal-activity
#11
Manitosh Pandey, Alok Kumar Singh, Ritesh Thakare, Sakshi Talwar, Pratiksha Karaulia, Arunava Dasgupta, Sidharth Chopra, Amit Kumar Pandey
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics globally has lead to an increase in emergence of drug-resistant pathogens under both nosocomial, as well as more worryingly, in community setting as well. Further, a decrease in the corporate interest and financial commitment has exerted increasing pressure on a rapidly dwindling antimicrobial drug discovery and developmental program. In this context, we have screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC, Sigma) against Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to identify potent novel antimicrobial molecules amongst non-antibiotic molecules...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912165/holistic-care-of-complicated-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings-with-limited-resources
#12
Trevor Duke, Sharon Kasa Tom, Harry Poka, Henry Welch
In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911979/opening-pandora-s-box-mechanisms-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resuscitation
#13
REVIEW
Ashley V Veatch, Deepak Kaushal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) characteristically causes an asymptomatic infection. While this latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is not contagious, reactivation to active tuberculosis disease (TB) causes the patient to become infectious. A vaccine has existed for TB for a century, while drug treatments have been available for over 70 years; despite this, TB remains a major global health crisis. Understanding the factors which allow the bacillus to control responses to host stress and mechanisms leading to latency are critical for persistence...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911362/assessment-of-the-quality-of-anti-tuberculosis-medicines-in-almaty-kazakhstan-2014
#14
D Nabirova, G Schmid, R Yusupova, M Kantarbayeva, S I Ismailov, D Moffett, R W O Jähnke, J P Nuorti
SETTING: In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a survey of the quality of four anti-tuberculosis drugs in the former Soviet Union countries. Kazakhstan had the highest proportion of substandard drugs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs used in Kazakhstan in 2014. DESIGN: Fourteen anti-tuberculosis drugs from the Almaty Interdistrict TB Dispensary were randomly selected and screened for quality using Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab™ testing...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911361/detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-test-in-south-africa
#15
S Reddy, S Ntoyanto, Y Sakadavan, T Reddy, S Mahomed, M Dlamini, B Spooner, G Ramjee, A Coutsoudis, N Ngomane, K Naidoo, K Mlisana, P Kiepiela
SETTING: In South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal is the epicentre of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, where approximately 70% of people with tuberculosis (TB) are co-infected with HIV. Undiagnosed TB contributes to high mortality in HIV-infected patients. Delays in diagnosing TB and treatment initiation result in prolonged transmission and increased infectiousness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the LoopampTM MTBC Detection kit (TB-LAMP; based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay), smear microscopy and Xpert test with the gold standard of mycobacterial culture...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911359/interferon-gamma-response-to-the-treatment-of-active-pulmonary-and-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
L Liang, R Shi, X Liu, X Yuan, S Zheng, G Zhang, W Wang, J Wang, K England, L E Via, Y Cai, L C Goldfeder, L E Dodd, C E Barry, R Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. OBJECTIVE: To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. DESIGN: Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911357/pulmonary-tuberculosis-diagnostic-practices-among-people-living-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-lesotho
#17
D E O'Connor, K Frederix, S Saito, L B Maama, Y Hirsch-Moverman, B Pitt, E Hayes-Larson, L Lebelo, M Shale, A A Howard
SETTING: Twelve health facilities in Berea District, Lesotho, that participated in the Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial evaluating a combination intervention package to improve early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tuberculosis treatment success among patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To assess TB and HIV diagnostic practices among TB-HIV patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911356/high-completion-rates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-swaziland
#18
L V Adams, N Mahlalela, E A Talbot, M Pasipamire, S Ginindza, M Calnan, S Haumba
SETTING: Five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care facilities in Swaziland. OBJECTIVE: To assess adherence and treatment completion of a 6-month course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) provided to HIV-infected patients through a self-selected model of facility-based, community-based or peer-supported IPT delivery coordinated with antiretroviral refills. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. RESULTS: Between February and August 2015, we enrolled 908 patients, with follow-up until February 2016...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911354/drug-resistance-patterns-among-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#19
S K Sharma, J Chaubey, B K Singh, R Sharma, A Mittal, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: xtra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a growing public health concern, and data on drug resistance are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 2468 clinically diagnosed EPTB patients received at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL) of a tertiary centre in India were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, liquid culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) using automated BACTEC MGIT™ 960™. Line-probe assay (LPA) was performed on all culture-positive isolates...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911353/persistently-high-early-mortality-despite-rapid-diagnostics-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-in-south-africa
#20
K Schnippel, C Firnhaber, N Ndjeka, F Conradie, L Page-Shipp, R Berhanu, E Sinanovic
OBJECTIVE: To describe the timing and predictors of mortality among multidrug- and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) patients reported in the South African electronic drug-resistant TB register (EDRweb), 2012-2014. DESIGN: We present time-to-event survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. Identity numbers were matched to the National Vital Statistics Register. RESULTS: Of the 20 653 patients included in the analysis (median age 35 years, interquartile range 28-43), over half were male (n = 10 944, 53...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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