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Cochrane Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738717/the-habenula-in-neurosurgery-for-depression-a-convergence-of-functional-neuroanatomy-psychiatry-and-imaging
#1
REVIEW
Georgios P Skandalakis, Christos Koutsarnakis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Panagiotis Skandalakis, Elizabeth O Johnson, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: The habenula is a small, mostly underrated structure in the pineal region. Multidisciplinary findings demonstrate an underlying complex connectivity of the habenula with the rest of the brain, subserving its major role in normal behavior and the pathophysiology of depression. These findings suggest the potential application of "habenular psychosurgery" in the treatment of mental disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The remission of two patients with treatment-resistant major depression treated with deep brain stimulation of the habenula supported the hypothesis that the habenula is an effective target for deep brain stimulation and initiated a surge of basic science research...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574736/commentary-randomized-controlled-trials-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-state-of-the-field-and-challenges-for-the-future
#2
Emily Simonoff
This issue of the Journal includes two articles summarizing the evidence from clinical trials aimed at improving symptoms of autism. French and Kennedy (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2018, xx, xxxx) systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at an "early intervention" and focus on trials including children with or at risk of autism under age 6 years. Although no type of intervention were excluded from their review, none of the included 48 RCTs employed pharmacological modalities and the overwhelming majority tested psychological/behavioural interventions aimed at modifying aspects of observed behaviours that are abnormal in children with autism...
April 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571072/european-psychiatric-association-epa-guidance-on-forensic-psychiatry-evidence-based-assessment-and-treatment-of-mentally-disordered-offenders
#3
Birgit A Völlm, Martin Clarke, Vicenç Tort Herrando, Allan O Seppänen, Paweł Gosek, Janusz Heitzman, Erik Bulten
Forensic psychiatry in Europe is a specialty primarily concerned with individuals who have either offended or present a risk of doing so, and who also suffer from a psychiatric condition. These mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) are often cared for in secure psychiatric environments or prisons. In this guidance paper we first present an overview of the field of forensic psychiatry from a European perspective. We then present a review of the literature summarising the evidence on the assessment and treatment of MDOs under the following headings: The forensic psychiatrist as expert witness, risk, treatment settings for mentally disordered offenders, and what works for MDOs...
March 20, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490922/living-network-meta-analysis-compared-with-pairwise-meta-analysis-in-comparative-effectiveness-research-empirical-study
#4
REVIEW
Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Dimitris Mavridis, Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus, George C M Siontis, Matthias Egger, Georgia Salanti
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. DESIGN: Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. DATA SOURCES: Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015...
February 28, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463590/which-patients-benefit-specifically-from-short-term-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-stpp-for-depression-study-protocol-of-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#5
Ellen Driessen, Allan A Abbass, Jacques P Barber, Mary Beth Connolly Gibbons, Jack J M Dekker, Marjolein Fokkema, Peter Fonagy, Steven D Hollon, Elise P Jansma, Saskia C M de Maat, Joel M Town, Jos W R Twisk, Henricus L Van, Erica Weitz, Pim Cuijpers
INTRODUCTION: Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) is an empirically supported treatment that is often used to treat depression. However, it is largely unclear if certain subgroups of depressed patients can benefit specifically from this treatment method. We describe the protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) aimed at identifying predictors and moderators of STPP for depression efficacy. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic literature search in multiple bibliographic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394423/assessing-correlation-of-residency-applicants-interview-dates-with-likelihood-of-matching
#6
Sameer Avasarala, Elizabeth Thompson, Sarah Whitehouse, Sean Drake
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether the timing of an interview relative to the recruitment season was associated with being ranked or matched at an academic medical center. METHODS: Eleven specialties (anesthesiology, diagnostic radiology, emergency medicine, family medicine, general surgery, internal medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, obstetrics-gynecology, orthopedic surgery, and psychiatry) that participated in the National Resident Matching Program were included in the study...
February 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902885/overstatements-in-abstract-conclusions-claiming-effectiveness-of-interventions-in-psychiatry-a-meta-epidemiological-investigation
#7
Kiyomi Shinohara, Aya M Suganuma, Hissei Imai, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Toshi A Furukawa
OBJECTIVE: Abstracts of scientific reports are sometimes criticized for exaggerating significant results when compared to the corresponding full texts. Such abstracts can mislead the readers. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of overstatements in abstract conclusions in psychiatry trials. METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials published in 2014 that explicitly claimed effectiveness of any intervention for mental disorders in their abstract conclusion, using the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880347/-using-resource-groups-in-assertive-community-treatment-literature-review-and-recommendation
#8
M Smeerdijk, P H A E G Delespaul, I P M Keet, M A Nugter
In psychiatry there is an increasing interest in giving patients and their relatives control over the goals of treatment and the way in which treatment is carried out. A structural method of organising this within assertive community treatment (ACT) is to let patients and their relatives participate in what is known as a resource group (RG).<br/> AIM: To provide a systematic view of the advantages of giving patients control over their treatment and the way in which it is carried out via ACT, particularly if this control is organised in the form of an RG...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729304/effectiveness-of-the-management-of-major-depressive-episodes-disorder-in-adults-with-comorbid-chronic-physical-diseases-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Pablo Martínez, Ariel Castro, Diego Alonso, Paul A Vöhringer, Graciela Rojas
INTRODUCTION: Depression is a global-scale public health problem, and a significant association has been established between depression and chronic physical diseases. This growing comorbidity poses a challenge to healthcare systems. We aim to assess the effectiveness of the management of major depressive episodes/disorder in adults with comorbid chronic physical diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686564/asperger-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-%C3%AE-eurodevelopmental-continuum-or-separated-clinical-entities
#10
Chr Anomitri, H Lazaratou
This article is an overview of the literature on Asperger's syndrome and schizophrenia and aim to discuss their similarities and differences. Eugen Bleuler who associated the terms "schizophrenia" and "autism" a century ago, viewed autism as a form of solitude of schizophrenic patients representing withdrawal from reality. Ever since, there has been confusion as to the boundaries between these conditions. Nowadays recent research, from a variety of perspectives-genomics, neurodevelopment, psychiatry, etc. has given new information on these conditions...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#11
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119350/a-systematic-review-of-management-strategies-for-children-s-mental-health-care-in-the-emergency-department-update-on-evidence-and-recommendations-for-clinical-practice-and-research
#12
REVIEW
Amanda S Newton, Lisa Hartling, Amir Soleimani, Scott Kirkland, Michele P Dyson, Mario Cappelli
OBJECTIVE: Children with mental health crises require access to specialised resources and services which are not yet standard in general and paediatric EDs. In 2010, we published a systematic review that provided some evidence to support the use of specialised care models to reduce hospitalisation, return ED visits and length of ED stay. We perform a systematic review to update the evidence base and inform current policy statements. METHODS: Twelve databases and the grey literature were searched up to January 2015...
June 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006997/guidelines-for-biological-treatment-of-substance-use-and-related-disorders-part-1-alcoholism-first-revision
#13
REVIEW
Michael Soyka, Henry R Kranzler, Victor Hesselbrock, Siegfried Kasper, Jochen Mutschler, Hans-Jürgen Möller
These practice guidelines for the biological treatment of alcohol use disorders are an update of the first edition, published in 2008, which was developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). For this 2016 revision, we performed a systematic review (MEDLINE/PUBMED database, Cochrane Library) of all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of alcoholism and extracted data from national guidelines. The Task Force evaluated the identified literature with respect to the strength of evidence for the efficacy of each medication and subsequently categorised it into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5)...
March 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986999/-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-dementia-in-geriatric-psychiatry-care-units-scoping-review
#14
Anne Göhner, Michael Hüll, Sebastian Voigt-Radloff
BACKGROUND: The number of persons suffering from dementia will continuously increase in the coming years; therefore, evidence-based interventions are needed in geriatric psychiatric care. When evidence is poor scoping reviews may help to identify knowledge gaps and needs for research. AIM OF THE ARTICLE: To present an overview of clinical trials on non-pharmacological treatment for elderly with dementia in hospitals, wards and nursing homes, specializing in gerontopsychiatric care...
February 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977851/implementation-of-treatment-guidelines-for-specialist-mental-health-care
#15
REVIEW
Irene Bighelli, Giovanni Ostuzzi, Francesca Girlanda, Andrea Cipriani, Thomas Becker, Markus Koesters, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: A huge gap exists between the production of evidence and its uptake in clinical practice settings. To fill this gap, treatment guidelines, based on explicit assessments of the evidence base, are commonly used in several fields of psychiatry, including schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, it remains unclear whether treatment guidelines have any material impact on provider performance and patient outcomes, and how implementation should be conducted to maximise benefit...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865900/potentially-unnecessary-and-wasteful-clinical-trial-research-detected-in-cumulative-meta-epidemiological-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#16
Philipp Storz-Pfennig
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to estimate the presence and extent to which potentially unnecessary and therefore maybe wasteful clinical trials regarding relevant interventions and outcomes in major clinical areas had been conducted. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: From current Cochrane collaboration systematic reviews in major medical fields (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, psychiatry), 13 different comparisons were sampled. A cumulative meta-analysis was conducted for each and trial sequential analysis applied to determine when in the course of evidence accrual evidence was found sufficient to reach a reliable conclusion...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837574/there-is-no-safe-threshold-for-lead-exposure-%C3%AE-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Th Vorvolakos, S Arseniou, M Samakouri
Lead was one of the most dangerous environmental toxic substances for a long time in western countries, and this is still the case for many places on earth today. Its neurotoxic potential is highly significant but its secure blood level concentration remains unknown. The aim of this study was to approach the above issue from the perspective of social psychiatry. A systematic search was made of Dialog and Datastar interfaces for data regarding the neuropsychiatric complications of direct or chronic exposure to lead, and a review of the relevant literature was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, CAB Global Health and Cochrane...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826323/bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-differences-in-comorbid-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Andrea Amerio, Brendon Stubbs, Anna Odone, Matteo Tonna, Carlo Marchesi, S Nassir Ghaemi
CONTEXT: More than half of the bipolar disorder (BD) cases have an additional diagnosis; one of the most difficult to manage is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although some authors recently investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and BD, the topic remains insufficiently studied. The current study aimed to investigate differences in comorbid OCD between BD-I and BD-II. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the prevalence and predictors of comorbid BD-I/BD-II and OCD...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752078/antidepressant-activity-of-anti-cytokine-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials-of-chronic-inflammatory-conditions
#19
N Kappelmann, G Lewis, R Dantzer, P B Jones, G M Khandaker
Inflammatory cytokines are commonly elevated in acute depression and are associated with resistance to monoaminergic treatment. To examine the potential role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of antidepressant activity of anti-cytokine treatment using clinical trials of chronic inflammatory conditions where depressive symptoms were measured as a secondary outcome. Systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases, search of reference lists and conference abstracts, followed by study selection process yielded 20 clinical trials...
February 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396434/are-stroke-survivors-with-delirium-at-higher-risk-of-post-stroke-dementia-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Akin Ojagbemi, Dominic H Ffytche
OBJECTIVES: The idea that delirium is a risk factor for dementia, broadly defined, is derived from heterogeneous patient samples. We reviewed available evidence as to whether stroke survivors who developed delirium during the acute phase of treatment are at a higher prospective risk of incident post-stroke cognitive impairment or dementia. DESIGN: We searched 8721 records in the Cochrane database for reviews or protocols dealing with the study objective, Medline, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL for observational studies in the general adult population and PubMed for in-process articles...
December 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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