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frailty prevention

Enrico Girardi, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Laura Camoni, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Guaraldi, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori, Stefano Bonora, Cristina Mussini, Antonella Cingolani, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Silvia Adami, Luca Degli Esposti, Margherita Andretta
HIV disease has dramatically changed in the last two decades from a progressive, lethal disease to a chronic manageable condition. These changes are due to the availability of potent antiretroviral combination therapy, which also have the potential to contribute significantly to the control of the epidemic. Among persons living with HIV, incidence of immunosuppression-related opportunistic illnesses has clearly decreased, while an increase was observed in the prevalence of age-related noncommunicable comorbidities, including cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, bone and hepatic disease, due to chronic inflammatory state and to an overall aging of the population of persons with HIV...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Osvaldo P Almeida, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Keith D Hill, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Older adults with depression have increased risk of frailty and death. OBJECTIVE: To determine if history of depression hinders future physical and functional capacity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective longitudinal cohort study of 1148 men aged 70-87 years who were living in the Perth metropolitan community in 2001-2004 and completed a follow-up assessment of physical and functional capacity in 2011-2012. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Outcomes were collected in 2011-2012 and included 4 measures of physical function (timed up-and-go, timed sit-to-stand, functional reach, and step test) and the assessment of basic (activities of daily living) and instrumental activities of daily living...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jack Kit-Chung Ng, Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan, Kai-Ming Chow, Phyllis Mei-Shan Cheng, Man-Ching Law, Wing-Fai Pang, Chi-Bon Leung, Philip Kam-Tao Li, Cheuk-Chun Szeto
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies showed that frailty is prevalent in both pre-dialysis and dialysis patients. However, the prevalence and prognostic implication of frailty in Chinese peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remain unknown. METHODS: We used a validated questionnaire to determine the Frailty Score of 193 unselected prevalent PD patients. All patients were then followed for 2 years for their need of hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Amongst the 193 patients, 134 (69...
October 24, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Magnolia Cardona-Morrell, Amanda Chapman, Robin M Turner, Ebony Lewis, Blanca Gallego-Luxan, Michael Parr, Ken Hillman
AIM: To investigate associations between clinical parameters - beyond the evident physiological deterioration and limitations of medical treatment - with in-hospital death for patients receiving Rapid Response System (RRS) attendances. METHODS: Retrospective case-control analysis of clinical parameters for 328 patients aged 60 years and above at their last RRS call during admission to a single teaching hospital in the 2012-2013 calendar years. Generalised estimating equation modelling was used to compare the deceased with a randomly selected sample of those who had RRS calls and survived admission (controls), matched by age group, sex, and hospital ward...
October 18, 2016: Resuscitation
Shosuke Satake, Hidenori Arai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many frailty screening instruments have been proposed due to the lack of consensus on a unified operational definition of frailty. This review reports on recent frailty screening tools in addition to revisiting the frailty concept. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are two representative frailty models, both have issues that prevent them from being implemented in clinical settings despite their remarkable advantages. Due to their different characteristics, these models are thought to be complementary rather than substitutive...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Edward J Wing
With the wider availability of antiretrovirals, the world's HIV population is aging. More than 10% of the 34.5 million HIV+ individuals worldwide are over the age of 50 and the average age continues to increase. In the US more than 50% of the 1.3 million people with HIV are over 50 and by the year 2030 it is estimated that 70% will be over the age of 50. Although the life expectancy of HIV+ people has increased dramatically, it still lags behind HIV- individuals. There is controversy about whether HIV itself accelerates the aging process...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Hiromi Rakugi
European guidelines (ESH-ESC2013) for the elderly have discussed well about treatment blood pressure (BP) levels and targeting BP levels. In general, elderly patients with systolic BP (SBP) ≥160 mmHg including individuals older than 80 years in good physical and mental conditions are recommended reducing SBP to between 150 and 140 mmHg. Furthermore, fit elderly patients <80 years old are recommended to consider antihypertensive treatment at SBP values ≥140 mmHg with a target SBP <140 mmHg. On the other hand, frail elderly patients are recommended to leave decisions on antihypertensive therapy to the treating physician, and based on monitoring of the clinical effects of treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Ilse Reinders, Marjolein Visser, Laura Schaap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on current literature, observational studies on obesity and high waist circumference show most convincing results for an association with frailty. The independent role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration remains unclear, mainly due to a lack of studies and a lack of accurate measurement of body composition by computed tomography or MRI...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Olivier Bruyère, Etienne Cavalier, Fanny Buckinx, Jean-Yves Reginster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recently published evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the physiopathology of physical frailty in elderly populations and its role in the management of this geriatric condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Some recent studies have found a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, considered the best marker of vitamin D status, in frail individuals. All prospective studies consistently report that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of becoming frail...
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Angela M Sanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the concept of anorexia of aging, including its complex pathophysiology and the multifaceted interventions required to prevent adverse health consequences from this geriatric syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Anorexia of aging is extremely common, occurring in up to 30% of elderly individuals; however, this diagnosis is frequently missed or erroneously attributed to a normal part of the aging process. With aging, impairments in smell and taste can limit the desire to eat...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Don D Sin, Zafar Zafari, Gerard Criner, John E Connett, Stephen Lazarus, Meilan Han, Fernando Martinez, Richard Albert
Exacerbations are a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence suggests the presence of substantial between-individual variability (heterogeneity) in exacerbation rates. The question of whether individuals vary in their tendency towards experiencing severe (versus mild) exacerbations, or whether there is an association between exacerbation rate and severity, has not yet been studied. We used data from the MACRO Study, a 1-year randomized trial of the use of azithromycin for prevention of COPD exacerbations (United States and Canada, 2006-2010; n = 1,107, mean age = 65...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Aideen C M Young, Karen Glaser, Timothy D Spector, Claire J Steves
Our study examines the contribution of genetic and environmental factors (both shared and unique) to frailty, measured using the Rockwood Frailty Index (FI) in a sample of twins from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry. The FI was based on 39 items of potential health deficit. Study participants were 3,375 volunteer adult twins (840 monozygotic and 802 dizygotic twin-pairs) 40.0-84.5 years old. First, we used structural equation modeling to estimate the relative contribution of genetics and of the shared and unique environment to variance in FI adjusted for age...
October 10, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
V Soler, S Sourdet, L Balardy, G Abellan van Kan, D Brechemier, M E Rougé-Bugat, N Tavassoli, M Cassagne, F Malecaze, F Nourhashémi, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate visual performance and factors associated with abnormal vision in patients screened for frailty at the Geriatric Frailty Clinic (GFC) for Assessment of Frailty and Prevention of Disability at Toulouse University Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cross-sectional, single-centre study. SETTING: Institutional practice. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were screened for frailty during a single-day hospital stay between October 2011 and October 2014 (n = 1648)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
C Le Cossec, A-L Perrine, N Beltzer, C Fuhrman, L Carcaillon-Bentata
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of pre-frailty, frailty and multimorbidity in individuals without disability in France. To describe independent determinants of each indicators. DESIGN: Two nationally representative cross-sectional French surveys. SETTINGS: Wave 2012 of the Health, Health Care and Insurance Survey (Enquête Santé et Protection Sociale, ESPS) and data from the Disability Healthcare Household section Survey (Enquête Handicap Santé - Ménages, HSM) from 2008...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
A Madhavan, L A LaGorio, M A Crary, W J Dahl, G D Carnaby
OBJECTIVES: This review clarifies current information regarding the prevalence of and risk factors associated with dysphagia (swallowing disorders) in the community dwelling elderly (CDE). A better understanding of prevalence and characteristics of dysphagia in the CDE will help to determine the scope of this problem. Understanding the scope of dysphagia is a critical first step towards early identification, management, and prevention of dysphagia related morbidities in the CDE. METHODS: Studies identified from multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE (Pubmed), PsychInfo, Google Scholar, EBSCO, PROQUEST, Web of Science and WorldCat dissertations and theses) evaluating prevalence and risk factors for dysphagia in the CDE were reviewed...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Tiago da S Alexandre, Ligiana P Corona, Tábatta R P Brito, Jair L F Santos, Yeda A O Duarte, Maria L Lebrão
OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender differences in incidence and determinants of the components of the frailty phenotype. METHOD: A total of 1,413 older adults were selected in 2006. To estimate the incidence of each frailty component, only individuals who did not exhibit a given component at baseline (independently of the presence of other components) were included in the study. The variables of interest were socioeconomic, behavioral, clinical, anthropometric factors and physical performance...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Richard Dodds, Avan Aihie Sayer
Sarcopenia and frailty are important conditions that become increasingly prevalent with age. Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, and frailty can be defined as multi-system impairment associated with increased vulnerability to stressors. There is overlap between the two conditions, especially in terms of the physical aspects of the frailty phenotype: low grip strength, gait speed and muscle mass. These measures have been associated with a wide range of ageing outcomes and can be assessed in the clinical setting...
October 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
DaeHyun Kim, Hidenori Arai, SungHi Kim
AIM: Social activity seems to be important for the prevention of cognitive impairment and frailty. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether social activities are associated with the development of cognitive impairment in Korean older people. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korean National Longitudinal Study on Aging. A total of 2495 Korean community-dwelling older adults (1163 men and 1332 women) aged between 65 and 79 years at the first wave of the Korean National Longitudinal Study on Aging were used for analysis...
September 26, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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