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Overweight in childrens

Jennifer M Ohlendorf, Karen Robinson, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal
Early childhood obesity is a persistent health concern with more frequent and significant impact on low-income families. Maternal weight factors impact offspring weight status, but evidence on whether breastfeeding protects against this impact is mixed. This analysis examined a model to predict early childhood obesity risk, simultaneously accounting for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and breastfeeding. The team analyzed 27,016 unique maternal-child dyadic records collected via the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Wisconsin Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) between 2009 and 2011...
November 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Yunhee Kang, Victor Aguayo, Rebecca K Campbell, Laigden Dzed, Vandana Joshi, Jillian L Waid, Suvadra Datta Gupta, Nancy J Haselow, Keith P West
Childhood malnutrition remains endemic in South Asia, although the burden varies by country. We examined the anthropometric status and risk factors for malnutrition among children aged 0-59 months through the 2015 National Nutrition Survey in Bhutan. We assessed in 1,506 children nutritional status (by z-scores of height-for-age [HAZ], weight-for-height [WHZ], and weight-for-age [WAZ]), estimating prevalence, adjusted for survey design, of stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight (<-2 for HAZ, WHZ, and WAZ and >2 for WHZ)...
November 9, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
R Meyer, K Wright, M C Vieira, K W Chong, P Chatchatee, B J Vlieg-Boerstra, M Groetch, G Dominguez-Ortega, S Heath, A Lang, L Archibald-Durham, R Rao, R De Boer, A Assa'ad, E Trewella, C Venter
BACKGROUND: Elimination diets required for the management of food allergies increase the risk for poor growth in children. Currently, no worldwide data exist on this topic and limited published data exist on the impact of atopic comorbidity, type of allergy and foods eliminated on growth. We therefore set out to perform a worldwide survey on growth and impacting factors in food allergic children. METHODS: A prospective growth survey was performed of children (aged 0-16 years) on an elimination diet with confirmed immunoglobulin (Ig)E and non-IgE mediated food allergies...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Amy R Goetz, Dean W Beebe, James L Peugh, Constance A Mara, Bruce P Lanphear, Joseph M Braun, Kimberly Yolton, Lori J Stark
Study Objectives: High birth weight (HBW; ≥ 4000g) is strongly associated with later overweight, yet little is known about how to disrupt this trajectory. The current study examined sleep practices during infancy and toddlerhood among children born HBW or normal birth weight (NBW; 2500-3999g). Methods: Latent growth curve models were used to examine sleep during infancy and toddlerhood among 270 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study...
November 9, 2018: Sleep
Konstantinos D Tambalis, Stamatis Mourtakos, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Labros S Sidossis
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of exclusive breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood and early adulthood obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A random sample of 5,125 dyad children and their mothers was extracted from a national database. With the use of a standardized questionnaire, telephone interviews were carried out for the collection of maternal lifestyle factors (e.g., breastfeeding). The body mass index was determined based on International Obesity Task Force criteria...
November 9, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Melissa Wake, Jessica A Kerr, Pauline W Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parents often do not accurately perceive overweight and/or obesity in their children. Changing this is widely considered an essential first step to reducing child overweight, but recent research suggests that, in fact, this could promote greater weight gain. We aimed to determine the directionality over time between higher child adiposity and parental perception of child overweight. METHODS: Participants were from 2 cohorts of the population-based Longitudinal Study of Australian Children followed biennially since 2004...
November 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Natascha Holbæk Pedersen, Sofie Koch, Kristian Traberg Larsen, Peter Lund Kristensen, Jens Troelsen, Niels Christian Møller, Jan Christian Brønd, Jacob von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Søren Brage, Anders Grøntved
BACKGROUND: In 2014 the Danish Government introduced a wide-ranging school reform that applies to all public schools in Denmark. The reform involves changes in several aspects of the school structure and content. In a physical activity promotion perspective, a distinctive feature of the school reform is that it has become mandatory to integrate an average of 45 min of daily physical activity in the regular school day. The overarching objective of the PHASAR study is to evaluate the implementation and effect of this ambitious policy-driven physical activity promotion initiative on physical activity and overweight...
November 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kathryn Walton, Tory Ambrose, Angela Annis, David Wl Ma, Jess Haines
BACKGROUND: With 1 in 4 Canadian preschoolers considered overweight or obese, identifying risk factors for excess weight gain and developing effective interventions aimed at promoting healthy weights and related behaviours among young children have become key public health priorities. Despite the need for this research, engaging and maintaining participation is a critical challenge for long-term, family-based studies. The aim of this study is to describe the implementation and evaluation of a parent-only advisory council designed to engage participants in the implementation and evaluation of a longitudinal, family-based obesity prevention intervention...
November 8, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Felipe J Uribe-Salas, María Del Carmen Portillo-Téllez, Juan Parra-Ávila, Suzel Hernández-Corral, Regina Alonso-Tovar, María Soledad Acevedo-Casillas, Juan Felipe-Mayo
Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased worldwide. In this context, the lack of awareness of excess weight among overweight and obese children is a public health concern that needs to be explored in the Northern border of Mexico. Methods: Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from children from third to sixth grades of basic education. The Children's Body Image Scale was applied to evaluate perceived and ideal BMI comparing against calculated BMI...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Atakan Comba, Emre Demir, Nadiye Barış Eren
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine nutritional status and related factors among schoolchildren in Çorum, Central Anatolia, Turkey. DESIGN: Schoolchildren's height and weight were measured to calculate BMI and BMI Z-scores. Height, weight and BMI Z-scores were analysed and nutritional status classified according to the WHO. SETTING: Central Anatolia, Turkey.ParticipantsSchoolchildren aged 5-17 years (n 1684) participated in study. RESULTS: Of children, 4·2% were stunted, 6·9% thin, 13·8% overweight and 6·6% were obese...
November 8, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Fabian Vasquez, Camila Corvalan, Ricardo Uauy, Juliana Kain
Childhood obesity in Chile is one of the highest in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of excessive weight gained or maintained over a 3-year period, on markers of metabolic homeostasis in young children. This is a longitudinal study which includes 243 children followed from 4 to 7 years. We assessed BMI, body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height (WH) and trunk fat as well as the following metabolic parameters: glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and metabolic risk score...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Chiaki Tanaka, Xanne Janssen, Mark Pearce, Kathryn Parkinson, Laura Basterfield, Ashley Adamson, John J Reilly
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported on the associations between obesity and sedentary behavior (SB) or physical activity (PA) in children. This study examined longitudinal and bidirectional associations between adiposity and SB and PA in children. METHODS: Participants were 356 children in England. PA was measured at 7 and 9 years of age using accelerometry. Outcome and exposures were time in SB and PAs and concurrent body mass index z score and fat index (FI)...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Simone A French, Nancy E Sherwood, Sara Veblen-Mortenson, A Lauren Crain, Meghan M JaKa, Nathan R Mitchell, Anne Marie Hotop, Jerica M Berge, Alicia S Kunin Batson, Kim Truesdale, June Stevens, Charlotte Pratt, Layla Esposito
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a multicomponent obesity prevention intervention among diverse, low-income preschoolers. METHODS: Parent-child dyads (n = 534) were randomized to the Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthful Kids (NET-Works) intervention or usual care in Minneapolis, MN (2012-2017). The intervention consisted of home visits, parenting classes, and telephone check-ins. The primary outcomes were adjusted 24- and 36-month body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Compared with usual care, the NET-Works intervention showed no significant difference in BMI change at 24 (-0...
December 2018: American Journal of Public Health
G Ricci, D Tomassoni, I Pirillo, A Sirignano, M Sciotti, S Zaami, I Grappasonni
Obesity related to metabolic syndrome is gaining an increasing importance as the main risk factor for diseases and disability in the European region. We herein review the increasing trend of obesity and overweight in males and females from Europe, preventive programs addressed to children, youngsters, adult population and subjects with particular diseases which can profit from healthy nutrition. The main feature is that some European countries have implemented programs on World Health Organization (WHO) proposals, while some others have focused attention only on some aspects...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Kok Wee Chong, Karen Wright, Anne Goh, Rosan Meyer, Rajeshwar Rao
Background: Although it is known that children with food allergies are at risk of impaired growth, this has not been well studied in South-East Asia. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to survey the growth of children with food allergies in Singapore and the factors impacting it. Methods: Anthropometric data, demographic data, type of food allergy, foods eliminated, and atopic comorbidities were recorded. Malnutrition was defined using World Health Organization standards (≤-2 z -score for weight-for-height [WH], weight-for-age [WA], and height-for-age [HA])...
October 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
Bryan Rudolph, Nicole Bjorklund, Nadia Ovchinsky, Debora Kogan-Liberman, Adriana Perez, Mark Liszewski, Terry L Levin, Michelle Ewart, Qiang Liu, Xiaonan Xue, Shankar Viswanathan, Howard D Strickler
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with obesity and is the most common liver disease in the developed world. In children with suspected NAFLD, present guidelines suggest consideration of alternative diagnoses via extensive blood testing, though the yield of this work up is unknown. Furthermore, the gold standard diagnostic test for NAFLD remains liver biopsy, making the development of non-invasive tests critically important. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives are: 1) to determine the accuracy of elastography and multiple serum biomarkers - each assessed individually and as algorithms (including those previously tested in adults) - for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and early fibrosis in children and (2) to examine the utility of extensive testing for rare alternative diagnoses in overweight or obese children with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) suspected to have NAFLD...
October 27, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Sara Bonafini, Alice Giontella, Angela Tagetti, Denise Marcon, Martina Montagnana, Marco Benati, Rossella Gaudino, Paolo Cavarzere, Mirjam Karber, Michael Rothe, Pietro Minuz, Franco Antonazzi, Claudio Maffeis, Wolf Hagen Schunck, Cristiano Fava
Obesity is often accompanied by metabolic and haemodynamic disorders such as hypertension, even during childhood. Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), vasoactive and natriuretic metabolites that contribute to blood pressure (BP) regulation. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may compete with AA for CYP450-dependent bioactive lipid mediator formation...
November 5, 2018: Nutrients
Lorenza Di Genova, Laura Penta, Anna Biscarini, Giuseppe Di Cara, Susanna Esposito
Obesity and asthma are complex disorders related to gene-environment interactions and various lifestyle factors. At present, they represent two of the most significant paediatric health problems worldwide, particularly in industrialized nations. The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate possible therapeutic strategies to manage asthma in children with overweight/obesity. PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published from January 2008 to June 2018 using the following key words: "asthma" and "overweight" or "obesity" or "obese" and "children" or "paediatric"...
November 2, 2018: Nutrients
Michelle A Kominiarek, Marcela C Smid, Lisa Mele, Brian M Casey, Yoram Sorokin, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, John M Thorp, George R Saade, Alan T N Tita, Dwight J Rouse, Baha Sibai, Jay D Iams, Brian M Mercer, Jorge Tolosa, Steve N Caritis
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with child neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from two parallel, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled thyroxine replacement trials in pregnant women with either hypothyroxinemia or subclinical hypothyroidism who delivered at term. Body mass index was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25...
November 5, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Anne Stey, Joni Ricks-Oddie, Sheila Innis, Shawn J Rangel, R Lawrence Moss, Bruce L Hall, Albert Dibbins, Erik D Skarsgard
Objective: WHO uses anthropometric classification scheme of childhood acute and chronic malnutrition based on low body mass index (BMI) ('wasting') and height for age ('stunting'), respectively. The goal of this study was to describe a novel two-axis nutritional classification scheme to (1) characterise nutritional profiles in children undergoing abdominal surgery and (2) characterise relationships between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative morbidity. Design: This was a retrospective observational cohort study...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
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