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Anatomy of the prostate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159885/two-stage-ionoacoustic-range-verification-leveraging-monte-carlo-and-acoustic-simulations-to-stably-account-for-tissue-inhomogeneity-and-accelerator-specific-time-structure-a-simulation-study
#1
Sarah K Patch, Daniel E M Hoff, Tyler B Webb, Lee G Sobotka, Tianyu Zhao
PURPOSE: Range errors constrain treatment planning by limiting choice of ion beam angles and requiring large margins. Ionoacoustic range verification requires recovering the location of an acoustic source from low frequency signals. A priori information is applied to stably overcome resolution limits of inverse acoustic source imaging in this simulation study. In particular, the accuracy and robustness of ionoacoustic range verification for lateral and oblique delivery of high-energy protons to the prostate is examined...
November 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129577/pelvic-bone-anatomy-vs-implanted-gold-seed-marker-registration-for-image-guided-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-prostate-carcinoma-comparative-analysis-of-inter-fraction-motion-and-toxicities
#2
Madhup Rastogi, Sambit Swarup Nanda, Ajeet Kumar Gandhi, Divakar Dalela, Rohini Khurana, Surendra Prasad Mishra, Anoop Srivastava, S Farzana, Madan Lal Brahma Bhatt, Nuzhat Husain
OBJECTIVES: We compared the prostate motion variability and toxicities between patients treated with gold marker registration based IG-IMRT (IG-IMRT-M) and bony landmark registration based IG-IMRT (IG-IMRT-B). METHODS: T1c-T3b (node negative), intermediate and high risk (non-metastatic) adenocarcinoma of prostate, age ≥18years, Karnofsky Performance Status of ≥70 were included in this retrospective study. The prostate motion variability, acute and late radiation toxicities between the two treatment arms (IG-IMRT-M versus IG-IMRT-B) were compared...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119604/anatomy-and-histology-of-the-prostate-and-glands-of-cowper-in-three-species-of-neotropical-bats
#3
María Daniela Miotti, Marcos I Mollerach, Ruben M Barquez
The reproductive accessory glands (RAG) are essential components in reproduction because their secretion products ensure survival, viability, and sperm motility. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the morphological and histological structure of the RAG in three species of bats of the genus Sturnira (S. erythromos, S. lilium, and S. oporaphilum). The RAG complex comprise a compact gland (prostate), which surrounds the urethra, and a pair of Glands of Cowper at the base of penis. Anatomical and histologically, the prostate are differentiated in two regions, ventral and dorsal...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116960/image-quality-and-geometric-distortion-of-modern-diffusion-weighted-imaging-sequences-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-prostate
#4
Daniel Stocker, Andrei Manoliu, Anton S Becker, Borna K Barth, Daniel Nanz, Markus Klarhöfer, Olivio F Donati
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare qualitative and quantitative image quality and geometric distortion of 4 magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences of the prostate using comparable imaging parameters and similar acquisition times. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Axial T2-weighted turbo spin echo images and axial DWI echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences, including single-shot spin-echo (ss-EPI), readout-segmented multishot (rs-EPI), selective excitation-reduced field of view (sTX-EPI), and prototype single-shot technique applying slice-specific shimming (iShim-EPI) sequences, were acquired at 3 T in 10 healthy volunteers (mean age, 26...
November 8, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099727/supplemental-computational-phantoms-to-estimate-out-of-field-absorbed-dose-in-photon-radiotherapy
#5
Kyle Joseph Gallagher, Jaad Tannous, Racile Nabha, Joelle Ann Feghali, Zeina Ayoub, Wassim T Jalbout, Bassem Youssef, Phillip J Taddei
The purpose of this study was to develop a straightforward method of supplementing patient anatomy and estimating out-of-field absorbed dose for a cohort of pediatric radiotherapy patients with limited recorded anatomy. A cohort of nine children, aged 2 to 14 years, who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for low grade localized brain tumors (LBTs), were randomly selected for this study. The extents of these patients' computed tomography simulation image sets were cranial only. To approximate their missing anatomy, we supplemented the LBT patients' image sets with computed tomography images of patients in a previous study with larger extents of matched sex, height, and mass and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated...
November 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051038/image-guided-radiation-therapy-strategies-for-pelvic-lymph-node-irradiation-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-motion-and-margins
#6
Lucy Kershaw, Laila van Zadelhoff, Wilma Heemsbergen, Floris Pos, Marcel van Herk
PURPOSE: To quantify the relative motion of the pelvic lymph nodes (LNs), seminal vesicles (SV) and prostate and define indicative margins for image-guided radiotherapy based on bony anatomy or prostate correction strategies for a 3 or 6 degrees-of-freedom couch. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nineteen patients had a planning computed tomography (CT) scan followed by a mean of 11 repeated CT scans during radiation therapy. The prostate, SV, and external and internal iliac LN regions on the left and right were outlined on each CT scan...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038334/anatomy-and-histology-of-the-human-and-murine-prostate
#7
Michael Ittmann
The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described.
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965315/surgical-techniques-for-managing-post-prostatectomy-erectile-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Fabio Castiglione, David J Ralph, Asif Muneer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Due to the increasing numbers of radical prostatectomies (RP) performed for prostate cancer, a substantial number of patients are now suffering from post-operative erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study is to summarize the current literature on surgical techniques for managing post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles published up to Jan 2017 using the following search terms: "prostatectomy AND erectile dysfunction", "prostatectomy AND penile prostheses", and "prostatectomy AND penile implants"...
September 30, 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963047/first-case-of-2-synchronous-gluteal-arteries-aneurysms-treated-by-endovascular-plug-embolization-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Andrea Esposito, Danilo Menna, Matteo Salcuni, Ferdinando Di Leo, Pietro Benedetto, Antonio Trani, Antonino Pierluigi Cappiello
INTRODUCTION: Gluteal artery aneurysms (GAAs) are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all arterial aneurysms. Most of them are post-traumatic in nature and involve the superior gluteal artery (SGA), while injuries of the inferior gluteal artery (IGA) have been reported less frequently. We report an unusual case of a patient with double saccular GAA of unknown etiology, involving both the SGA and IGA, successfully treated by endovascular embolization. CASE REPORT: A 80-year-old man referred to our hospital complaining of the progressive onset of left buttock pain and swelling exacerbated by sitting position in the last 4 months...
September 28, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951749/evaluation-of-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-ultrasound-fusion-optimization-for-low-dose-rate-prostate-brachytherapy
#10
Stephen Abel, Paul Renz, Olivier Gayou, Jie Tang, E Day Werts, Mark Trombetta
PURPOSE: Intraoperative planning with transrectal ultrasound (US) is used for accurate seed placement and optimal dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. However, prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown superiority in delineation of prostate anatomy. Accordingly, MRI/US fusion may be useful for accurate intraoperative planning. We analyzed planning with MRI/US fusion to compare differences in dosimetry and volume to that derived from the postoperative computed tomography (CT)...
August 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941739/the-influence-of-inter-fractional-anatomy-variation-on-secondary-cancer-risk-estimates-following-radiotherapy
#11
Camilla Hanquist Stokkevåg, Grete May Engeseth, Liv Bolstad Hysing, Kristian Smeland Ytre-Hauge, Ludvig Paul Muren
PURPOSE: In silico studies comparing estimated risks of radiation-induced secondary cancer (SC) are frequently performed in assessment of radiotherapy techniques. Since inter-patient anatomy variations can result in considerable differences in estimated risk we aimed to explore the influence of inter-fractional organ motion patterns on SC risk. METHODS: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans were generated on the planning CT (pCT) scans of eight prostate cancer patients...
September 20, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859491/analysis-of-accessory-pudendal-artery-transection-on-erections-during-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy
#12
Stephen B Williams, Blanca E Morales, Linda M Huynh, Kathryn Osann, Douglas W Skarecky, Thomas E Ahlering
PURPOSE: To compare the recovery of erections and potency following the transection of accessory pudendal arteries (APAs) in men undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) compared with men with normal vascular anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 880 consecutive patients who underwent RARP from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014 were included with prospectively collected data in cross-sectional analysis. Erectile function (EF) was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5, a percent erection fullness compared to preoperative status, and two Expanded Prostate Cancer Index (EPIC) questions: (1) are erections firm enough for penetration and (2) are they satisfactory? RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-one (33...
November 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795212/a-review-of-adverse-events-related-to-prostatic-artery-embolization-for-treatment-of-bladder-outlet-obstruction-due-to-bph
#13
Airton Mota Moreira, André Moreira de Assis, Francisco Cesar Carnevale, Alberto Azoubel Antunes, Miguel Srougi, Giovanni Guido Cerri
INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive procedures have gained great importance among the treatments for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) due to their low morbidity. Prostate artery embolization has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for patients with large volume BPH, not suited for surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Low adverse events rates have been reported following prostate artery embolization and may include dysuria, urinary infection, hematuria, hematospermia, acute urinary retention and rectal bleeding...
October 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730763/dna-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-lung-and-oral-cavity-carcinomas-the-role-of-histogenetic-origin
#14
Konstantina N Spetsotaki, Evangelos Tsiambas, Athanasios Stamatelopoulos, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Ioannis Kastanioudakis, Pericles Tomos, Vasileios Ragos
DNA mismatch repair system (DNA MMR) is a crucial genetic mechanism for DNA homeostasis in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. During DNA replication and also recombination, point intra-nucleotide errors including base deletion, insertion, and mis-incorporation happen. These raised abnormalities in the newly synthesized DNA strand could affect negatively the stability of the molecule and the function of the corresponding genes. DNA MMR proteins prevent these errors by recognizing and repairing them, securing directly the normal anatomy of the DNA double strand and indirectly the expression of the genes...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726055/an-igrt-margin-concept-for-pelvic-lymph-nodes-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#15
M Groher, P Kopp, M Drerup, H Deutschmann, F Sedlmayer, Frank Wolf
PURPOSE: Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. METHODS: We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate...
July 19, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725597/canine-prostate-models-in-preclinical-studies-of-minimally-invasive-interventions-part-i-canine-prostate-anatomy-and-prostate-cancer-models
#16
REVIEW
Fei Sun, Claudia Báez-Díaz, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo
The high prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa) in elderly men and technical advances in early detection of localized PCa have led to continued efforts to develop new therapeutic options of minimally invasive nature in current urologic oncology community. Increasing newly emerging therapies are undergoing preclinical tests on the technical feasibility, efficacy and safety in animal experiments. The dog is an ideal large animal because of its similar anatomy to human and the capability allowing the use of the same medical devices applied in future clinical trials...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677000/bladder-cancer-diagnosis-with-ct-urography-test-characteristics-and-reasons-for-false-positive-and-false-negative-results
#17
Tony W Trinh, Daniel I Glazer, Cheryl A Sadow, V Anik Sahni, Nina L Geller, Stuart G Silverman
PURPOSE: To determine test characteristics of CT urography for detecting bladder cancer in patients with hematuria and those undergoing surveillance, and to analyze reasons for false-positive and false-negative results. METHODS: A HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective review of reports from 1623 CT urograms between 10/2010 and 12/31/2013 was performed. 710 examinations for hematuria or bladder cancer history were compared to cystoscopy performed within 6 months...
July 4, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667393/-interventional-treatment-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-embolization-of-the-testicular-vein
#18
REVIEW
M Rauch, H Strunk
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Embolization of the testicular veins (Gat-Goren technique) is an interventional procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In addition to standard urological procedures, such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P), arterial embolization of the prostate is considered as the interventional radiological method of choice. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Embolization of the testicular veins is technically identical to the embolization of varicoceles in infertile men and represents a less invasive treatment...
August 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653306/the-gross-anatomy-of-the-male-reproductive-system-of-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus
#19
G Akbari, M Babaei, D Kianifard, D Mohebi
Hedgehogs are small spiny-coated insectivores. Due to their low body weight, calm character, and easy maintenance, they are kept as pets. It is therefore worthwhile to care about hedgehogs' health problems and to provide pet owners with information about their reproduction. Moreover, it is necessary to be familiar with their anatomy so as to satisfy the need to improve nutrition and medical care, even surgery. This study was carried out on five adult male European hedgehogs euthanized in a chloroform chamber...
June 27, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633957/displacement-patterns-of-stranded-i-125-seeds-after-permanent-brachytherapy-of-the-prostate-dosimetry-in-the-operating-room-put-into-perspective
#20
Marcel J Steggerda, Ferrie van den Boom, Thelma Witteveen, Luc M F Moonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The reliability of post-implant dosimetry in the OR depends on the geometrical variability of implant and anatomy after the procedure. The purpose was to gain detailed information on seed displacement patterns in different sectors of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 33 patients with stranded seed implants the seed geometry and the dose distribution were compared between the situation in the OR just after the procedure, based on ultrasound images, and the situation after 1month, based on registered CT and MR images...
June 17, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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