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Anatomy of the prostate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220583/morphometric-analysis-of-prostate-zonal-anatomy-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-the-impact-on-age-related-changes-in-japanese-and-american-populations
#1
Toru Matsugasumi, Atsuko Fujihara, So Ushijima, Motohiro Kanazawa, Yasuhiro Yamada, Takumi Shiraishi, Fumiya Hongo, Kazumi Kamoi, Koji Okihara, Andre Luis de Castro Abreu, Masakatsu Oishi, Toshitaka Shin, Suzanne Palmer, Inderbir S Gill, Osamu Ukimura
OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to reliably evaluate prostate zonal anatomy. Objectives of this study was to evaluate the impact of morphometric MRI analysis of the prostate zonal anatomy on aging, prostatic hypertrophy, and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients from Japan and the USA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 307 men, including Japanese (n=156) and American (n=151) patients, who consecutively underwent 3-Tesla MRI and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) due to elevated PSA...
February 20, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197655/prefraction-displacement-and-intrafraction-drift-of-the-prostate-due%C3%A2-to-perineal-ultrasound-probe-pressure
#2
Minglun Li, Nina-Sophie Hegemann, Farkhad Manapov, Anne Kolberg, Patrick Dominik Thum, Ute Ganswindt, Claus Belka, Hendrik Ballhausen
OBJECTIVE: In image-guided EBRT of the prostate, transperineal ultrasound (US) probes exert pressure on the perineum both during planning and treatment. Through tissue deformation and relaxation, this causes target and risk organ displacement and drift. In this study, prefraction shift and intrafraction drift of the prostate are quantified during robotic transperineal 4DUS. METHODS: The position of the prostate was recorded for different positions of the probe before treatment in 10 patients (16 series of measurements)...
February 14, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169182/reproductive-disorders-of-marsupials
#3
REVIEW
Cathy A Johnson-Delaney, Angela M Lennox
Marsupial reproduction differs significantly in anatomy and physiology from that of placental mammals. The gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts empty into a cloaca. Reproductive parameters include gestation and pouch time, as the fetus develops outside of the uterus. Captive marsupials discussed include sugar gliders), short-tailed opossums, Virginia opossums, and Tammar and Bennett's wallabies. Common disease conditions include joey eviction, pouch infections, mastitis, metritis, prostatitis, penile necrosis, and neoplasia...
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166057/proton-therapy-of-prostate-cancer-by-anterior-oblique-beams-implications-of-setup-and-anatomy-variations
#4
M Moteabbed, A Trofimov, G C Sharp, Y Wang, A L Zietman, J A Efstathiou, H-M Lu
Proton therapy of prostate by anterior beams could offer an attractive option for treating patients with hip prosthesis and limiting the high-dose exposure to the rectum. We investigated the impact of setup and anatomy variations on the anterior-oblique (AO) proton plan dose, and strategies to manage these effects via range verification and adaptive delivery. Ten patients treated by bilateral (BL) passive-scattering proton therapy (79.2 Gy in 44 fractions) who underwent weekly verification CT scans were selected...
March 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153700/clinical-use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-across-the-prostate-brachytherapy-workflow
#5
P Blanchard, C Ménard, S J Frank
MRI produces better soft tissue contrast than does ultrasonography or computed tomography for visualizing male pelvic anatomy and prostate cancer. Better visualization of the tumor and organs at risk could allow better conformation of the dose to the target volumes while at the same time minimizing the dose to critical structures and the associated toxicity. Although the use of MRI for prostate brachytherapy would theoretically result in an improved therapeutic ratio, its implementation been slow, mostly because of technical challenges...
January 30, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144173/three-new-species-of-cratera-carbayo-et-al-2013-from-araucaria-forests-with-a-key-to-species-of-the-genus-platyhelminthes-continenticola
#6
Ilana Rossi, Ana Leal-Zanchet
Areas of Araucaria moist forest have been considered to constitute hotspots of land flatworm diversity, harbouring a high number of undescribed species. Herein we describe three new species of land flatworms of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 occurring in such type of forest in south Brazil. The three species are differentiated from their congeners mainly by their colour pattern, anatomy of the pharynx and prostatic vesicle, and details of the penis papilla and male atrium. An identification key to species of the genus in the Neotropical region is provided...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127497/descent-of-mesonephric-duct-to-the-final-position-of-the-vas-deferens-in-human-embryo-and-fetus
#7
Zhe Wu Jin, Hiroshi Abe, Nobuyuki Hinata, Xiang Wu Li, Gen Murakami, José Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
Because the ureter arises from the mesonephric or Wolffian duct (WD), the WD opening should migrate inferiorly along the urogenital sinus or future urethra. However, this process of descent has not been evaluated morphometrically in previous studies and we know little about intermediate morphologies for the descent. In the present work, serial sagittal sections of 15 specimens at gestational age 6-12 weeks and serial horizontal sections of 20 specimens at 6-10 weeks were analyzed. Monitoring of horizontal sections showed that, until 9 weeks, a heart-, lozenge- or oval-shape of the initial urogenital sinus remained in the bladder and urethra...
December 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092638/mr-elastography-to-measure-the-effects-of-cancer-and-pathology-fixation-on-prostate-biomechanics-and-comparison-with-t-1-t-2-and-adc
#8
Deirdre M McGrath, Jenny Lee, Warren D Foltz, Navid Samavati, Theo van der Kwast, Michael A S Jewett, Peter Chung, Cynthia Ménard, Kristy K Brock
MRI is under evaluation for image-guided intervention for prostate cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters is determined via correlation with the gold-standard of histopathology. Whole-mount histopathology of prostatectomy specimens can be digitally registered to in vivo imaging for correlation. When biomechanical-based deformable registration is employed to account for deformation during histopathology processing, the ex vivo biomechanical properties are required. However, these properties are altered by pathology fixation, and vary with disease...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077962/the-influence-of-duodenally-delivered-shakuyakukanzoto-shao-yao-gan-cao-tang-on-duodenal-peristalsis-during-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Haruka Fujinami, Shinya Kajiura, Jun Nishikawa, Takayuki Ando, Toshiro Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Anti-cholinergic agents may be used to inhibit duodenal peristalsis, but they may have adverse effects. Shakuyakukanzoto (Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang) has an anti-spasmodic effect and has been used before for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. This randomised clinical trial aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Shakuyakukanzoto on duodenal peristalsis, and its usefulness when administered into the duodenum just before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075206/hydrogel-rectum-prostate-spacers-mitigate-the-uncertainties-in-proton-relative-biological-effectiveness-associated-with-anterior-oblique-beams
#10
Tracy S A Underwood, Justin C Voog, Maryam Moteabbed, Shikui Tang, Edward Soffen, Oren Cahlon, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Anthony L Zietman, Jason A Efstathiou, Harald Paganetti
AIM: Anterior-oblique (AO) proton beams can form an attractive option for prostate patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as they avoid the femoral heads. For a cohort with hydrogel prostate-rectum spacers, we asked whether it was possible to generate AO proton plans robust to end-of-range elevations in linear energy transfer (LET) and modeled relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Additionally we considered how rectal spacers influenced planned dose distributions for AO and standard bilateral (SB) proton beams versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
January 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063817/pulse-sequence-considerations-for-simulation-and-postimplant-dosimetry-of-prostate-brachytherapy
#11
Jingfei Ma, Marinus A Moerland, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Tharakeswara K Bathala, Rajat J Kudchadker, Kristy K Brock, Steven J Frank
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to present a brief review of MRI physics principles pertinent to prostate brachytherapy, and a summary of our experience in optimizing protocols for prostate brachytherapy applications. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We summarized essential MR imaging characteristics and their interplays that need to be considered for prostate brachytherapy applications. These include spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, image contrast, artifacts, geometric distortion, specific absorption rate, and total scan time...
January 4, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058480/everyman-s-prostate-phantom-kiwi-fruit-substitute-for-human-prostates-at-magnetic-resonance-imaging-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#12
Ullrich G Mueller-Lisse, Sophie Murer, Ulrike L Mueller-Lisse, Marissa Kuhn, Juergen Scheidler, Michael Scherr
OBJECTIVES: To apply an easy-to-assemble phantom substitute for human prostates in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: Kiwi fruit were fixed with gel hot and cold compress packs on two plastic nursery pots, separated by a plastic plate, and submerged in tap water inside a 1-L open-spout plastic watering can for T2WI (TR/TE 7500/101 ms), DWI (5500/61 ms, ADC b50-800 s/mm(2) map) and MRS (940/145 ms) at 3...
January 5, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048897/su-f-j-156-the-feasibility-of-mr-only-imrt-planning-for-prostate-anatomy
#13
R Vaitheeswaran, K R Sivaramakrishnan, Prashant Kumar, Raja Gattamaneni, Girish Kumar
PURPOSE: For prostate anatomy, previous investigations have shown that simulated CT (sCT) generated from MR images can be used for accurate dose computation. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of MR-only IMRT planning for prostate case. METHODS: Regular CT (rCT) and MR images of the same patient were acquired for prostate anatomy. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) i.e. target and risk structures are delineated on the rCT. A simulated CT (sCT) is generated from the MR image using the method described by Schadewaldt N et al...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048870/su-f-j-81-evaluation-of-automated-deformable-registration-between-planning-computed-tomography-ct-and-daily-cone-beam-ct-images-over-the-course-of-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#14
J Matney, J Hammers, O Kaidar-Person, A Wang, R Chen, S Das, L Marks, P Mavroidis
PURPOSE: To compute daily dose delivered during radiotherapy, deformable registration needs to be relatively fast, automated, and accurate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of commercial deformable registration software for deforming between two modalities: planning computed tomography (pCT) images acquired for treatment planning and cone beam (CB) CT images acquired prior to each fraction of prostate cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: A workflow was designed using MIM Software™ that aligned and deformed pCT into daily CBCT images in two steps: (1) rigid shifts applied after daily CBCT imaging to align patient anatomy to the pCT and (2) normalized intensity-based deformable registration to account for interfractional anatomical variations...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048863/su-f-j-105-towards-a-novel-treatment-planning-pipeline-delivering-pareto-optimal-plans-while-enabling-inter-and-intrafraction-plan-adaptation
#15
C Kontaxis, S Breedveld, G Bol, A Sharfo, B Heijmen, J Lagendijk, B Raaymakers
PURPOSE: To develop a new IMRT treatment planning methodology suitable for the new generation of MR-linear accelerator machines. The pipeline is able to deliver Pareto-optimal plans and can be utilized for conventional treatments as well as for inter- and intrafraction plan adaptation based on real-time MR-data. METHODS: A Pareto-optimal plan is generated using the automated multicriterial optimization approach Erasmus-iCycle. The resulting dose distribution is used as input to the second part of the pipeline, an iterative process which generates deliverable segments that target the latest anatomical state and gradually converges to the prescribed dose...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048616/tu-fg-202-01-modern-intracavitary-gyn-brachytherapy
#16
O Craciunescu
: The greater use of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) in brachytherapy, for both image based planning and image guided procedures, presents a number of challenges for the physicist involved. MR is widely acknowledged as the imaging modality of choice to appreciate a patient's pelvic anatomy and is thus used more often for brachytherapy of gynecologic and prostate cancers. Incorporating MR in brachytherapy treatments requires changes throughout the clinical workflow from implantation through target definition, applicator digitization and post-implant evaluation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048362/su-f-j-161-prostate-contouring-in-patients-with-bilateral-hip-prostheses-impact-of-using-artifact-reduced-ct-images-and-mri
#17
A Elzibak, A Loblaw, G Morton, D Vesprini, S Liu, H Chung, M Davidson
PURPOSE: To investigate the usefulness of metal artifact reduction in CT images of patients with bilateral hip prostheses (BHP) for contouring the prostate and determine if the inclusion of MR images provides additional benefits. METHODS: Five patients with BHP were CT scanned using our clinical protocol (140kV, 300mAs, 3mm slices, 1.5mm increment, Philips Medical Systems, OH). Images were reconstructed with the orthopaedic metal artifact reduction (O-MAR) algorithm...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048248/su-f-t-44-a-comparison-of-the-pre-plan-intra-operative-plan-and-post-implant-dosimetry-for-a-prostate-implant-case-using-prefabricated-linear-polymer-encapsulated-pd-103
#18
R Sheu, A Powers, H McGee, R Stock, Y Lo
PURPOSE: To investigate the reproducibility and limitations of Pd-103 prostate brachytherapy using fixed length linear sources (CivaString). METHODS: An LDR prostate brachytherapy case which was preplanned on MR images with prefabricated linear polymer-encapsulated Pd-103 sources (CivaString) was studied and compared with ultrasound based intra-operative planning and CT based post-implant dosimetry. We evaluated the following parameters among the three studies: prostate geometry (volume and cross sectional area), needle position and alignment deviations, and dosimetry parameters (D90)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048210/su-g-jep1-10-feasibility-of-cyberknife-tracking-using-the-previously-implanted-permanent-brachytherapy-seed-cloud
#19
J Cheung, J Cunha, A Sudhyadhom, C McGuinness, M Roach, M Descovich
PURPOSE: Robotic radiosurgery is a salvage treatment option for patients with recurrent prostate cancer. We explored the feasibility of tracking the bolus of permanent prostate implants (PPI) using image recognition software optimized to track spinal anatomy. METHODS: Forty-five inert iodine seeds were implanted into a gelatin-based prostate phantom. Four superficial gold seeds were inserted to provide ground-truth alignment. A CT scan of the phantom (120 kVp, 1 mm slice thickness) was acquired and a single-energy iterative metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm was used to enhance the quality of the DRR used for tracking...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048208/su-g-jep4-13-continuous-intra-fractional-monitoring-of-the-prostate-using-dynamic-kv-collimation-and-tube-current-modulation
#20
D Parsons, J Robar
PURPOSE: The focus of this work is to improve the available kV image quality for continuous intra-fraction monitoring of the prostate. This is investigated using a novel blade collimation system enabling modulated volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging of prostate fiducial markers. METHODS: A four-blade dynamic kV collimator was used to track a VOI during gantry rotation. Planar image quality was investigated as a function of collimator dimension, while maintaining the same dose to isocenter, for a 22...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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