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Anatomy of the prostate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909613/the-novel-laparoscopic-training-3d-model-in-urology-with-surgical-anatomic-remarks-fresh-frozen-cadaveric-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Emre Huri, Mehmet Ezer, Eddie Chan
Laparoscopic surgery is routinely used to treat many urological conditions and it is the gold standard treatment option for many surgeries such as radical nephrectomy. Due to the difficulty of learning, laparoscopic training should start outside the operating room. Although it is a very different model of laparoscopic training; the aim of this review is to show the value of human cadaveric model for laparoscopic training and present our experience in this area. Fresh frozen cadaveric model in laparoscopic training, dry lab, cadaveric model, animal models and computer based simulators are the most commonly used models for laparoscopic training...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908182/prostate-deformation-from-inflatable-rectal-probe-cover-and-dosimetric-effects-in-prostate-seed-implant-brachytherapy
#2
Jun Lian, Yeqin Shao, Larry D Potter, Ronald C Chen, Jordan A Holmes, Eleanor A Pryser, Jie Shen, Dinggang Shen, Andrew Z Wang
PURPOSE: Prostate brachytherapy is an important treatment technique for patients with localized prostate cancer. An inflatable rectal ultrasound probe cover is frequently utilized during the procedure to adjust for unfavorable prostate position relative to the implant grid. However, the inflated cover causes prostate deformation, which is not accounted for during dosimetric planning. Most of the therapeutic dose is delivered after the procedure when the prostate and surrounding organs-at-risk are less deformed...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872005/the-role-of-pelvic-floor-muscles-in-male-sexual-dysfunction-and-pelvic-pain
#3
REVIEW
Deborah Cohen, Joshua Gonzalez, Irwin Goldstein
INTRODUCTION: Sexual function is essential to good health and well-being in men. The relationship between male sexual function, pelvic floor function, and pelvic pain is complex and only beginning to be appreciated. AIM: The objectives of the current review are to examine these complex relationships, and to demonstrate how pelvic floor physical therapy can potentially improve the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction and dysfunction of ejaculation and orgasm...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867173/evaluation-of-in-vivo-volumetric-dosimetry-for-prostate-cancer-using-electronic-portal-imaging-device
#4
Toshikazu Imae, Shigeharu Takenaka, Yuuichi Watanabe, Yukari Okano, Makoto Nedu, Shigeki Saegusa, Yukihiro Takeuchi, Keiichi Yano, Akihiro Haga, Kenshirou Shiraishi, Hideomi Yamashita, Keiichi Nakagawa
PURPOSE: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is capable of acquiring projection images using electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Commercial EPID-based dosimetry software, dosimetry check (DC), allows in vivo dosimetry using projection images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo dosimetry for prostate cancer using VMAT. METHOD: VMAT plans were generated for eight patients with prostate cancer using treatment planning system (TPS), and patient quality assurances (QAs) were carried out with phantom...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856758/tissue-scale-personalized-modeling-and-simulation-of-prostate-cancer-growth
#5
Guillermo Lorenzo, Michael A Scott, Kevin Tew, Thomas J R Hughes, Yongjie Jessica Zhang, Lei Liu, Guillermo Vilanova, Hector Gomez
Recently, mathematical modeling and simulation of diseases and their treatments have enabled the prediction of clinical outcomes and the design of optimal therapies on a personalized (i.e., patient-specific) basis. This new trend in medical research has been termed "predictive medicine." Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health problem and an ideal candidate to explore tissue-scale, personalized modeling of cancer growth for two main reasons: First, it is a small organ, and, second, tumor growth can be estimated by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA, a PCa biomarker in blood), which may enable in vivo validation...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770469/toward-imaging-the-body-at-10-5-tesla
#6
M Arcan Ertürk, Xiaoping Wu, Yiğitcan Eryaman, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Edward J Auerbach, Russell L Lagore, Lance DelaBarre, J Thomas Vaughan, Kâmil Uğurbil, Gregor Adriany, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. METHODS: Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699090/visualization-of-prostatic-nerves-by-polarization-sensitive-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Yeoreum Yoon, Seung Hwan Jeon, Yong Hyun Park, Won Hyuk Jang, Ji Youl Lee, Ki Hean Kim
Preservation of prostatic nerves is critical to recovery of a man's sexual potency after radical prostatectomy. A real-time imaging method of prostatic nerves will be helpful for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), which provides both structural and birefringent information of tissue, was applied for detection of prostatic nerves in both rat and human prostate specimens, ex vivo. PS-OCT imaging of rat prostate specimens visualized highly scattering and birefringent fibrous structures superficially, and these birefringent structures were confirmed to be nerves by histology or multiphoton microscopy (MPM)...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679762/prostatic-leiomyoma-a-case-report
#8
Annelies Ringoir, Bernard Rappe, Karl Dhaene, Denis Schallier
A pure leiomyoma of the prostate is a rare tumor. Less than 30 cases about prostatic leiomyoma have been reported. Pathologic anatomy examination is the only medium for definitive diagnosis and is important to rule out malignancies such as leiomyosarcoma. We describe an accidental finding of a tumor in the right prostate lobe of a 54 year old man, who was diagnosed with prostatic leiomyoma and treated with open radical prostatectomy.
November 2016: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618320/tumors-and-tumorlike-conditions-of-the-anal-canal-and-perianal-region-mr-imaging-findings
#9
Venkateswar R Surabhi, Christine O Menias, Ahmed M Amer, Mohamed Elshikh, Venkata S Katabathina, Amy K Hara, William C Baughman, Ania Kielar, Khaled M Elsayes, Cary L Siegel
Tumors and tumorlike conditions of the anus and perianal region originate from the anal canal and anal margin or result from direct extension of tumors from adjacent organs. The anatomy of the anal canal is complex, and its different histologic characteristics can lead to diverse pathologic conditions. The anal canal extends from the anorectal junction to the anal verge. The World Health Organization classification of anal canal tumors includes (a) anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the precursor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and (b) invasive tumors...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612887/variations-of-weight-of-prostate-gland-in-different-age-groups-of-bangladeshi-cadaver
#10
E Z Epsi, M Khalil, S Mannan, M S Azam, Z Ahmed, S Farjan, A Kabir, I Ara, S Ajmery, U K Zaman, S Amin
Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587974/first-report-of-the-genus-cratera-platyhelminthes-geoplanidae-in-argentina-with-description-of-a-new-species-and-comments-on-the-species-of-the-genus
#11
Lisandro Negrete, Francisco Brusa
A new species of land planarians of the genus Cratera is described. Cratera viridimaculata sp. n. was recorded in the Atlantic Forest Ecoregion, in north-eastern Argentina, and represents the first report of the genus Cratera outside Brazil. The new species is about 50 mm in length and externally characterized by a color pattern consisting of a light green olive pigmentation on the dorsum, stippled with dark gray fine spots, and dorsal eyes. Other features regarding the internal anatomy are the presence of a glandular margin, Cutaneous Muscular Index (CMI) of 10-13%, pharynx cylindrical, prostatic vesicle extrabulbar, tubular and C-shaped, with a proximal bifurcated portion, penis papilla protrusible with ejaculatory duct widened in its distal portion, and female atrium funnel-shaped...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585736/fiducial-marker-guided-prostate-radiotherapy-a-review
#12
Angela G M O'Neill, Suneil Jain, Alan R Hounsell, Joe M O'Sullivan
Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is an essential tool in the accurate delivery of modern radiotherapy techniques. Prostate radiotherapy positioned using skin marks or bony anatomy may be adequate for delivering a relatively homogeneous whole-pelvic radiotherapy dose, but these surrogates are not reliable when using reduced margins, dose escalation or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Fiducial markers (FMs) for prostate IGRT have been in use since the 1990s. They require surgical implantation and provide a surrogate for the position of the prostate gland...
December 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582612/tips-and-tricks-for-difficult-prostatic-artery-embolization
#13
REVIEW
Sandeep Bagla, Ari J Isaacson
Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a promising, new, safe, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it can be a one of the most technically difficult interventional radiology procedures because of the challenging anatomy involved. To help achieve technical success and limit complications, the authors present here a series of tips and tricks that have been proven useful from prior PAE experience.
September 2016: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579412/transperitoneal-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-should-be-considered-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-pelvic-kidneys
#14
Sophie Plagakis, Darren Foreman, Peter Sutherland, Andrew Fuller
We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys.
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574591/postprostatectomy-erectile-dysfunction-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Paolo Capogrosso, Andrea Salonia, Alberto Briganti, Francesco Montorsi
In the current era of the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, erectile dysfunction (ED) represents an important issue, with up to 68% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) complaining of postoperative erectile function (EF) impairment. In this context, it is crucial to comprehensively consider all factors possibly associated with the prevention of post-RP ED throughout the entire clinical management of PCa patients. A careful assessment of both oncological and functional baseline characteristics should be carried out for each patient preoperatively...
August 2016: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567749/ectopic-insertion-of-a-duplicated-ureter-into%C3%A2-prostatic-urethra-demonstration-by%C3%A2-3d%C3%A2-multi-detector-computed-tomography-urography
#16
Jun Deng, Xiongbing Lu, Ying Liu
Ectopic insertion of the ureter in the genitourinary tract is a rare congenital disorder, usually associated with ureteral duplication. Identification of the insertion open is critical for ureteric re-implantation. However, the challenge in the diagnosis of ectopic insertion of the ureter usually is to identify its insertion, particularly when the affected ureter is not dilated. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) urography with nonionic iodinated contrast media delineates the ureteric course in the normal functioning kidney in the excretory phase [1]...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553936/stiffness-of-benign-and-malignant-prostate-tissue-measured-by-shear-wave-elastography-a-preliminary-study
#17
Olivier Rouvière, Christelle Melodelima, Au Hoang Dinh, Flavie Bratan, Gaele Pagnoux, Thomas Sanzalone, Sébastien Crouzet, Marc Colombel, Florence Mège-Lechevallier, Rémi Souchon
OBJECTIVES: To measure benign and malignant prostate tissue stiffness using shear-wave elastography (SWE). METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients underwent transrectal SWE in the axial and sagittal planes before prostatectomy. After reviewing prostatectomy specimens, two radiologists measured stiffness in regions corresponding to cancers, lateral and median benign peripheral zone (PZ) and benign transition zone (TZ). RESULTS: Cancers were stiffer than benign PZ and TZ...
August 23, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476121/review-of-prostate-anatomy-and-embryology-and-the-etiology-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#18
REVIEW
LaTayia Aaron, Omar E Franco, Simon W Hayward
Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease...
August 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470715/land-flatworms-of-the-genus-pasipha-platyhelminthes-geoplanidae-in-argentina-with-description-of-three-new-species
#19
Lisandro Negrete, Francisco Brusa
The genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990 currently includes 22 species, most of them recorded in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Recently, Pasipha hauseri was documented in north-eastern Argentina, thus extending its distribution range. This paper reports new records of the genus Pasipha in the Interior Atlantic Forest ecoregion in Argentina, with the description of three new species: Pasipha atla sp. nov., Pasipha johnsoni sp. nov., and Pasipha mbya sp. nov. These new species exhibit similarities in internal anatomy, such as pharynx cylindrical, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with folded walls and proximally forked, male atrium highly folded, being at least two times longer than the female atrium and with small folds in their proximal portion...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469495/a-multiple-image-based-method-to-evaluate-the-performance-of-deformable-image-registration-in-the-pelvis
#20
Ziad Saleh, Maria Thor, Aditya P Apte, Gregory Sharp, Xiaoli Tang, Harini Veeraraghavan, Ludvig Muren, Joseph Deasy
Deformable image registration (DIR) is essential for adaptive radiotherapy (RT) for tumor sites subject to motion, changes in tumor volume, as well as changes in patient normal anatomy due to weight loss. Several methods have been published to evaluate DIR-related uncertainties but they are not widely adopted. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate intra-patient DIR for two highly deformable organs-the bladder and the rectum-in prostate cancer RT using a quantitative metric based on multiple image registration, the distance discordance metric (DDM)...
August 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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