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Anatomy of the prostate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730763/dna-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-lung-and-oral-cavity-carcinomas-the-role-of-histogenetic-origin
#1
Konstantina N Spetsotaki, Evangelos Tsiambas, Athanasios Stamatelopoulos, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Ioannis Kastanioudakis, Pericles Tomos, Vasileios Ragos
DNA mismatch repair system (DNA MMR) is a crucial genetic mechanism for DNA homeostasis in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. During DNA replication and also recombination, point intra-nucleotide errors including base deletion, insertion, and mis-incorporation happen. These raised abnormalities in the newly synthesized DNA strand could affect negatively the stability of the molecule and the function of the corresponding genes. DNA MMR proteins prevent these errors by recognizing and repairing them, securing directly the normal anatomy of the DNA double strand and indirectly the expression of the genes...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726055/an-igrt-margin-concept-for-pelvic-lymph-nodes-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#2
M Groher, P Kopp, M Drerup, H Deutschmann, F Sedlmayer, Frank Wolf
PURPOSE: Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. METHODS: We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate...
July 19, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725597/canine-prostate-models-in-preclinical-studies-of-minimally-invasive-interventions-part-i-canine-prostate-anatomy-and-prostate-cancer-models
#3
REVIEW
Fei Sun, Claudia Báez-Díaz, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo
The high prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa) in elderly men and technical advances in early detection of localized PCa have led to continued efforts to develop new therapeutic options of minimally invasive nature in current urologic oncology community. Increasing newly emerging therapies are undergoing preclinical tests on the technical feasibility, efficacy and safety in animal experiments. The dog is an ideal large animal because of its similar anatomy to human and the capability allowing the use of the same medical devices applied in future clinical trials...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677000/bladder-cancer-diagnosis-with-ct-urography-test-characteristics-and-reasons-for-false-positive-and-false-negative-results
#4
Tony W Trinh, Daniel I Glazer, Cheryl A Sadow, V Anik Sahni, Nina L Geller, Stuart G Silverman
PURPOSE: To determine test characteristics of CT urography for detecting bladder cancer in patients with hematuria and those undergoing surveillance, and to analyze reasons for false-positive and false-negative results. METHODS: A HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective review of reports from 1623 CT urograms between 10/2010 and 12/31/2013 was performed. 710 examinations for hematuria or bladder cancer history were compared to cystoscopy performed within 6 months...
July 4, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667393/-interventional-treatment-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-embolization-of-the-testicular-vein
#5
REVIEW
M Rauch, H Strunk
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Embolization of the testicular veins (Gat-Goren technique) is an interventional procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In addition to standard urological procedures, such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P), arterial embolization of the prostate is considered as the interventional radiological method of choice. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Embolization of the testicular veins is technically identical to the embolization of varicoceles in infertile men and represents a less invasive treatment...
June 30, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653306/the-gross-anatomy-of-the-male-reproductive-system-of-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus
#6
G Akbari, M Babaei, D Kianifard, D Mohebi
Hedgehogs are small spiny-coated insectivores. Due to their low body weight, calm character, and easy maintenance, they are kept as pets. It is therefore worthwhile to care about hedgehogs' health problems and to provide pet owners with information about their reproduction. Moreover, it is necessary to be familiar with their anatomy so as to satisfy the need to improve nutrition and medical care, even surgery. This study was carried out on five adult male European hedgehogs euthanized in a chloroform chamber...
June 27, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633957/displacement-patterns-of-stranded-i-125-seeds-after-permanent-brachytherapy-of-the-prostate-dosimetry-in-the-operating-room-put-into-perspective
#7
Marcel J Steggerda, Ferrie van den Boom, Thelma Witteveen, Luc M F Moonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The reliability of post-implant dosimetry in the OR depends on the geometrical variability of implant and anatomy after the procedure. The purpose was to gain detailed information on seed displacement patterns in different sectors of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 33 patients with stranded seed implants the seed geometry and the dose distribution were compared between the situation in the OR just after the procedure, based on ultrasound images, and the situation after 1month, based on registered CT and MR images...
June 17, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627007/optical-molecular-imaging-guided-radiation-therapy-part-1-integrated-x-ray-and-bioluminescence-tomography
#8
Junwei Shi, Thirupandiyur S Udayakumar, Zhiqun Wang, Nesrin Dogan, Alan Pollack, Yidong Yang
PURPOSE: X-ray CT faces challenges in differentiating tumors from surrounding healthy tissues. A bioluminescence tomography (BLT) system which can directly reconstruct the internal luminescent tumors, was developed and integrated with CT system to accurately guide radiation dose delivery. METHODS: The BLT system, employing a lens-coupled CCD camera, was physically registered with an onboard cone beam CT system in an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART)...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590314/novel-imaging-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#9
Hanan Goldberg, Robert J Hamilton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of death in men. Imaging evaluation of PCa is challenging because of the prostate's deep pelvic location, its complex zonal anatomy and its multifocal nature. Novel imaging modalities are needed to improve detection, reassessment in biochemical relapse, and disease progression in advanced metastatic stages. RECENT FINDINGS: Current imaging modalities have distinct strengths...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582632/prostate-cancer-a-correlative-study-of-multiparametric-mr-imaging-and-digital-histopathology
#10
Jin Tae Kwak, Sandeep Sankineni, Sheng Xu, Baris Turkbey, Peter L Choyke, Peter A Pinto, Vanessa Moreno, Maria Merino, Bradford J Wood
Purpose To correlate multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative digital histopathologic analysis (DHA) of the prostate. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. Forty patients (median age, 60 years; age range, 44-71 years) who underwent prostate MR imaging consisting of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging along with subsequent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy gave informed consent to be included...
June 5, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579419/the-effect-of-catheter-displacement-and-anatomical-variations-on-the-dose-distribution-in-mri-guided-focal-hdr-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#11
Metha Maenhout, Jochem R N van der Voort van Zyp, Maxence Borot de Battisti, Max Peters, Marco van Vulpen, Maurice van den Bosch, Marinus A Moerland
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of catheter displacement and anatomical variations of prostate and organs at risk on dose distribution in MRI-guided 19 Gy single fraction focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of the prostate. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventeen patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a prospective trial investigating focal HDR-BT in a 1.5 T MRI-HDR-BT facility. The diagnostic MRI delineations were registered with intraoperative MR scan, and a single fraction of 19 Gy was applied to the visible tumor...
June 1, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508252/anatomical-variants-in-prostate-artery-embolization-a-pictorial-essay
#12
Francisco Cesar Carnevale, Guilherme Rebello Soares, Andre Moreira de Assis, Airton Mota Moreira, Sardis Honoria Harward, Giovanni Guido Cerri
Prostate artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as a new treatment option for patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The main challenges related to this procedure are navigating arteries with atherosclerosis and anatomical variations, and the potential risk of non-target embolization to pelvic structures due to the presence of collateral shunts and reflux of microparticles. Knowledge of classical vascular anatomy and the most common variations is essential for safe embolization, good clinical practice, and optimal outcomes...
May 15, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501565/prostate-zonal-anatomy-correlates-with-the-detection-of-prostate-cancer-on-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-ultrasound-fusion-targeted-biopsy-in-patients-with-a-solitary-pi-rads-v2-scored-lesion
#13
Jamil S Syed, Kevin A Nguyen, Cayce B Nawaf, Ansh M Bhagat, Steffen Huber, Angelique Levi, Peter Humphrey, Jeffrey C Weinreb, Peter G Schulam, Preston C Sprenkle
PURPOSE: To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) assessment method in patients with a single suspicious finding on prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 176 patients underwent MRI/ultrasound fusion-targeted prostate biopsy after the detection of a single suspicious finding on mpMRI. The PPV for cancer detection was determined based on PI-RADS v2 assessment score and location...
May 10, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482845/clinical-implementation-of-a-knowledge-based-planning-tool-for-prostate-vmat
#14
Richard Powis, Andrew Bird, Matthew Brennan, Susan Hinks, Hannah Newman, Katie Reed, John Sage, Gareth Webster
BACKGROUND: A knowledge based planning tool has been developed and implemented for prostate VMAT radiotherapy plans providing a target average rectum dose value based on previously achievable values for similar rectum/PTV overlap. The purpose of this planning tool is to highlight sub-optimal clinical plans and to improve plan quality and consistency. METHODS: A historical cohort of 97 VMAT prostate plans was interrogated using a RayStation script and used to develop a local model for predicting optimum average rectum dose based on individual anatomy...
May 8, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447959/using-measurable-dosimetric-quantities-to-characterize-the-inter-structural-tradeoff-in-inverse-planning
#15
Hongcheng Liu, Peng Dong, Lei Xing
Traditional inverse planning relies on the use of weighting factors to balance the conflicting requirements of different structures. The manual trial-and-error determination of the weighting factors has long been recognized as a time-consuming part of treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to develop an inverse planning framework that parameterizes the dosimetric tradeoff among the structures with physically meaningful quantities to simplify the search for clinically sensible plans. In this formalism, instead of using the weighting factors, permissible variation range of the prescription dose or dose volume histogram (DVH) of the involved structures are used to characterize the "importance" of the structures...
April 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345835/evolution-of-the-histo-epidemiological-profile-of-urological-cancers-in-togo
#16
Tchin Darré, Koué Folligan, Tchilabalo Matchonna Kpatcha, Kokou Kanassoua, Edoe Sewa, Sassil Daré, Kodjo Tengue, Koffi Amégbor, Gado Napo Koura
Background: Urological cancers are an important public health issue and pose problems with diagnosis and adequate management in developing countries. Our aim was to determine and report epidemiological and histological features of urological cancers in Togo. Materials and methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted of cases of urological cancers observed in the laboratory of pathological anatomy of the CHU Tokoin over the last 4 years (2012-2016). The parameters studied were frequency, age, sex, sites of development and histological type...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343953/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-and-cost-effective-animal-tissue-model-for-training-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate
#17
Sichuan Hou, Gillian Ross, Iain Tait, Paul Halliday, Benjie Tang
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a new and cost-effective animal tissue training model for practicing resection skills of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A porcine kidney was prepared and restructured to simulate the relevant anatomy of the human prostate. The restructured prostate was connected to an artificial urethra and bladder. Face, content, and construct validity of the model was carried out using a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, and comparison in task performance between participants and experts was made using observational clinical human reliability analysis...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338305/prostate-cancer-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#18
Benjamin A Sherer, Krishnan Warrior, Karl Godlewski, Martin Hertl, Oyedolamu Olaitan, Ajay Nehra, Leslie Allan Deane
As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs) being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP) is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immunosuppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy...
March 24, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306555/assessment-of-dosimetric-impact-of-system-specific-geometric-distortion-in-an-mri-only-based-radiotherapy-workflow-for-prostate
#19
C Gustafsson, F Nordström, E Persson, J Brynolfsson, L E Olsson
Dosimetric errors in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only radiotherapy workflow may be caused by system specific geometric distortion from MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on planned dose distribution and delineated structures for prostate patients, originating from this distortion. A method was developed, in which computer tomography (CT) images were distorted using the MRI distortion field. The displacement map for an optimized MRI treatment planning sequence was measured using a dedicated phantom in a 3 T MRI system...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297298/dosimetric-and-volumetric-changes-in-the-rectum-and-bladder-in-patients-receiving-cbct-guided-prostate-imrt-analysis-based-on-daily-cbct-dose-calculation
#20
David Pearson, Sukhdeep K Gill, Nina Campbell, Krishna Reddy
Delivered dose can be calculated by transferring the planned treatment beams onto the daily CBCT. Bladder and rectum volumetric doses were calculated and correlated to the daily bladder and rectum fullness. Patients for this study underwent hypofractionated prostate IMRT to 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Daily CBCT was utilized for image guidance. A clinically acceptable plan was created using a CTV-to-PTV uniform margin of 5 mm. Image fusion was performed to transfer the bladder and rectum contours onto each CBCT...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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