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Anatomy of the prostate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777008/multispectral-fluorescence-imaging-as-a-tool-to-separate-healthy-and-disease-related-lymphatic-anatomies-during-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-procedures
#1
Philippa Meershoek, Gijs H KleinJan, Matthias N van Oosterom, Esther M Wit, Danny M van Willigen, Kevin P Bauwens, Erik J van Gennep, Alexandre M Mottrie, Henk G van der Poel, Fijs van Leeuwen
To reduce the invasive nature of extended pelvic lymph node dissections (ePLND) in prostate cancer, we have developed a multicolor fluorescence guidance approach that enables the discrimination between prostate draining lymph nodes (LNs) and lower limb draining LNs. Methods: In five porcine models multispectral-fluorescence guidance was performed using da Vinci Si- and Xi-robot consoles. They received fluorescein into the lower limb(s) and indocyanine green (ICG)-nanocolloid into the prostate. Results: Fluorescein was detected in 29 LNs (average of 3...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774590/heritage-of-stanislaw-ciechanowski-1869-1945-discoverer-of-pathogenesis-of-prostatic-hyperplasia-passionis-insignia-signis-fulgent-mirificis
#2
Andrzej Wincewicz, Piotr Woltanowski, Stanisław Sulkowski
BACKGROUND: Prostatic enlargement was first correctly recognized as a prostatic hyperplasia by professor of anatomic pathology, Stanisław Ciechanowski (1869-1945) in Cracow on contrary to Parisian urologist Jean Casimir Félix Guyon's concepts of progressing atherosclerosis as a morphological cause of prostatic overgrowth and mechanical insufficiency of lower urinary tract. METHODS: Primary resources were analyzed about Stanisław Ciechanowski mainly from depositories of the Section of Special Collection, Stanisław Konopka Main Medical Library Warsaw and Polish bibliograhy of Estreichers at Jagiellonian University...
May 18, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730280/impact-of-database-quality-in-knowledge-based-treatment-planning-for-prostate-cancer
#3
Phillip D H Wall, Robert L Carver, Jonas D Fontenot
PURPOSE: This article investigates dose-volume prediction improvements in a common knowledge-based planning (KBP) method using a Pareto plan database compared with using a conventional, clinical plan database. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two plan databases were created using retrospective, anonymized data of 124 volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate cancer patients. The clinical plan database (CPD) contained planning data from each patient's clinically treated VMAT plan, which were manually optimized by various planners...
March 13, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644478/reconstruction-of-membranous-urethral-strictures
#4
REVIEW
Javier C Angulo, Reynaldo G Gómez, Dmitriy Nikolavsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Due to the proximity of the rhabdosphincter and cavernous nerves to the membranous urethra, reconstruction of membranous urethral stricture implies a risk of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. To avoid these complications, endoscopic management of membranous urethral strictures is traditionally favored, and bulboprostatic anastomosis is reserved as the main classical approach for open reconstruction of recalcitrant membranous urethral stricture. The preference for the anastomotic urethroplasty among reconstructive urologists is likely influenced by the familiarity and experience with trauma-related injuries...
April 11, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617205/a-novel-method-to-extend-a-partial-body-ct-for-the-reconstruction-of-dose-to-organs-beyond-the-scan-range
#5
Gleb A Kuzmin, Matthew M Mille, Jae Won Jung, Choonik Lee, Christopher Pelletier, Gamal Akabani, Choonsik Lee
Epidemiological investigation is an important approach to assessing the risk of late effects after radiotherapy, and organ dosimetry is a crucial part of such analysis. Computed tomography (CT) images, if available, can be a valuable resource for individualizing the dosimetry, because they describe the specific anatomy of the patient. However, CT images acquired for radiation treatment planning purposes cover only a portion of the body near the target volume, whereas for epidemiology, the interest lies in the more distant normal tissues, which may be located outside the scan range...
April 4, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609953/determination-of-prostate-volume-a-comparison-of-contemporary-methods
#6
Adam Bezinque, Andrew Moriarity, Crystal Farrell, Henry Peabody, Sabrina L Noyes, Brian R Lane
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate volume (PV) determination provides important clinical information. We compared PVs determined by digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with or without three-dimensional (3D) segmentation software, and surgical prostatectomy weight (SPW) and volume (SPV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review from 2010 to 2016 included patients who underwent radical prostatectomy ≤1 year after multiparametric prostate MRI...
March 30, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604086/em-enhanced-us-based-seed-detection-for-prostate-brachytherapy
#7
Ehsan Dehghan, Shyam Bharat, Cynthia Kung, Antonio Bonillas, Luc Beaulieu, Jean Pouliot, Jochen Kruecker
PURPOSE: Intraoperative dosimetry in low-dose-rate (LDR) permanent prostate brachytherapy requires accurate localization of the implanted seeds with respect to the prostate anatomy. Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) imaging, which is the main imaging modality used during the procedure, is not sufficiently robust for accurate seed localization. We present a method for integration of electromagnetic (EM) track-ing into LDR prostate brachytherapy procedure by fusing it with TRUS imaging for seed localization...
March 31, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594026/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-active-surveillance-a-modern-approach
#8
REVIEW
Francesco Giganti, Caroline M Moore
In recent years, active surveillance has been increasingly adopted as a conservative management approach to low and sometimes intermediate risk prostate cancer, to avoid or delay treatment until there is evidence of higher risk disease. A number of studies have investigated the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in this setting. MpMRI refers to the use of multiple MRI sequences (T2-weighted anatomical and functional imaging which can include diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, spectroscopy)...
February 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577446/the-anatomy-of-the-male-inferior-hypogastric-plexus-what-should-we-know-for-nerve-sparing-surgery
#9
Raphael Röthlisberger, Valerie Aurore, Susanne Boemke, Hannes Bangerter, Mathias Bergmann, George N Thalmann, Valentin Djonov
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the nerve supply to the structures in the male lesser pelvis and review its clinical relevance, especially during nerve sparing surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three formalin-embalmed and 16 Thiel-embalmed male hemipelves were used. They were microdissected after repeated treatments with nitric acid diluted 1:10 with milliQ-water. RESULTS: The inferior hypogastric plexus is a fan-ike structure lateral from the rectum on the fascia of the levator ani...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573022/exploration-of-male-urethral-sphincter-complex-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-based-fiber-tracking
#10
Shantanu Sinha, Usha Sinha, Vadim Malis, Valmik Bhargava, Kyoko Sakamoto, Mahadevan Rajasekaran
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a major clinical problem arising primarily from age-related degenerative changes to the sphincter muscles. However, the precise anatomy of the normal male sphincter muscles has yet to be established. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may offer a unique insight into muscle microstructure and fiber architecture. PURPOSE: To explore the anatomy of the urethral sphincter muscles pertinent to urinary continence function using DT-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Prospective cohort study...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537613/characterization-of-a-novel-liquid-fiducial-marker-for-multimodal-image-guidance-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-of-prostate-cancer
#11
Robin De Roover, Wouter Crijns, Kenneth Poels, Ronald Peeters, Cédric Draulans, Karin Haustermans, Tom Depuydt
PURPOSE: Liquid fiducial markers have shown to be a promising alternative to solid gold markers in terms of imaging artifact reduction, patient comfort, and compatibility with different imaging modalities. This study aims to investigate the performance of the novel BioXmark® liquid marker for state-of-the-art multimodal imaging used in prostate cancer (PCa) radiotherapy, encompassing kV CT/CBCT, multiparametric MRI, and kV x-ray imaging. In addition, automatic detection of the liquid markers in x-ray imaging for prostate motion monitoring during treatment was investigated...
May 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536129/typology-of-intravesical-prostatic-protrusions-or-so-called-median-lobes-in-middle-aged-and-older-men
#12
Marie Audouin, Alexis Girshovich, Olivier Cussenot, Raphaele Renard-Penna
PURPOSE: Changes related to prostatic ageing include an increase of prostate volume and morphologic distortions of the prostatic edges in middle-aged and older men. These changes of the prostate exhibit a certain level of heterogeneity, which is clinically obvious for surgeons, radiologists, and anatomists, and which can be explained by the complex nature of the embryologic/anatomic development of the prostate. While the etiology of the median lobe has typically been attributed to a growth and protrusion of the prostatic area at the top of the utricle, we argue that this is not necessarily the case as intravesical protrusions of the prostate have also been observed laterally and anteriorly to the bladder neck, suggesting the involvement of other prostatic zones, thereby highlighting the need to refine the concept of the median lobe...
April 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528973/investigational-procedures-in-benign-prostatic-hypertrophy
#13
Joseph Acquaye, Michael S Borofsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) becomes a more common disease, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of investigational procedures being developed to manage it. We seek to present an overview of the most recently developed treatments and present clinical data related to application wherever available. RECENT FINDINGS: As a greater number of treatments become available for BPH, improved diagnostic testing could prove beneficial in helping guide patient selection...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523924/the-central-zone-has-increased-68-ga-psma-11-uptake-mickey-mouse-ears-can-be-hot-on-68-ga-psma-11-pet
#14
Daniele A Pizzuto, Julian Müller, Urs Mühlematter, Niels J Rupp, Antonia Töpfer, Ashkan Mortezavi, Hannes Nagel, Benedikt Kranzbühler, Daniel Eberli, Irene A Burger
PURPOSE: Given the good correlation between PSMA expression and intraglandular tumour aggressiveness based on immunohistochemistry, there is increasing interest in 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI for staging prostate cancer (PCA). Therefore, accurate knowledge of prostate anatomy as well as normal distribution of PSMA within the prostate gland is becoming essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological intraprostatic distribution of 68 Ga-PSMA-11. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all patients who underwent a staging 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI scan between June 2016 and January 2018 for high-risk PCA, underwent radical prostatectomy in our institution, and gave written consent for further data analysis...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501209/optimal-image-guided-radiation-therapy-strategy-for-organs-at-risk-sparing-in-radiotherapy-of-the-prostate-including-pelvic-lymph-nodes
#15
A van Nunen, P P G van der Toorn, T C G Budiharto, D Schuring
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Purpose of this study was to quantify the OAR dose for different position correction strategies, and to determine which strategy is most optimal for treating patients on the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 30 patients, four different treatment plans were made reflecting different correction strategies: online correction on bony anatomy; offline correction on bony anatomy; online correction on the prostate fiducials; using 1 cm margins around both CTVs...
April 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460025/combined-model-based-and-patient-specific-dosimetry-for-18-f-dcfpyl-a-psma-targeted-pet-agent
#16
Donika Plyku, Esther Mena, Steven P Rowe, Martin A Lodge, Zsolt Szabo, Steve Y Cho, Martin G Pomper, George Sgouros, Robert F Hobbs
PURPOSE: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a type-II integral membrane protein highly expressed in prostate cancer, has been extensively used as a target for imaging and therapy. Among the available PET radiotracers, the low molecular weight agents that bind to PSMA are proving particularly effective. We present the dosimetry results for 18 F-DCFPyL in nine patients with metastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: Nine patients were imaged using sequential PET/CT scans at approximately 1, 12, 35 and 70 min, and a final PET/CT scan at approximately 120 min after intravenous administration of 321 ± 8 MBq (8...
June 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452979/3-piece-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-placement-following-radical-cystoprostatectomy-and-urinary-diversion-technique-and-outcomes
#17
Jeffrey Loh-Doyle, Mukul B Patil, Hari Sawkar, Kevin Wayne, Stuart D Boyd
BACKGROUND: After radical cystoprostatectomy (RC), postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common consequence with multiple contributing etiologies. The inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) offers patients a definitive treatment option when ED is refractory to medical therapies. Because of the hostile postoperative anatomy of these patients, a careful surgical approach is necessary for successful outcomes and to avoid adjacent organ injury. To date, there is no series describing the outcomes of 3-piece IPP placement in patients with urinary diversions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445846/prostatic-artery-embolization-for-benign-prostatic-obstruction-assessment-of-safety-and-efficacy
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Christidis, E Clarebrough, V Ly, M Perera, H Woo, N Lawrentschuk, D Bolton
PURPOSE: Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has seen a recent increase in interest as a treatment for men with benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). The appeal of this intervention lies in reported reduction in morbidity and its minimally invasive nature. The purpose of this review is to assess the safety and efficacy of PAE as a new treatment in BPO and explore risks surrounding its performance. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed. Medical databases searched included PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases, limited to English, peer-reviewed articles...
April 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420976/mr-imaging-of-prostate-zonal-anatomy
#19
REVIEW
Joseph H Yacoub, Aytekin Oto
McNeal first described the zonal anatomy of the prostate about 40 years ago, outlining 4 zones of the prostate and defining their relation to the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts. The zonal anatomy remains the accepted model for describing the prostate and the zones are well-depicted on MR imaging, including the central zone, which until recently was grouped with the transition zone in the radiology literature. An accurate understanding of the zonal anatomy and periprostatic anatomy is key for accurate interpretation of the prostate MR imaging...
March 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402205/prostatic-lesions-in-odontocete-cetaceans
#20
Cristian M Suárez-Santana, Eva Sierra, Josue Díaz-Delgado, Daniele Zucca, Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Raquel Puig-Lozano, Nakita Câmara, Jesús De la Fuente, Antonio Espinosa de Los Monteros, Miguel Rivero, Manuel Arbelo, Antonio Fernández
The prostate is the only accessory male genital gland described in cetaceans. Although few studies describe the gross and histologic anatomy of the prostate in cetaceans, there is no information on pathological findings involving this organ. The prostate glands of 45 cetaceans, including 8 different odontocete species ( n = 44) and 1 mysticete, were evaluated. The main pathologic diagnoses were verminous prostatitis, septic prostatitis, viral prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatitis of unknown etiology...
May 2018: Veterinary Pathology
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