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poly-unsaturated fatty acids

Lisanne C Anders, Heegook Yeo, Brenna R Kaelin, Anna L Lang, Adrienne M Bushau, Amanda N Douglas, Matt Cave, Gavin E Arteel, Craig J McClain, Juliane I Beier
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied...
September 28, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Mieke Poland, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Zheng Wang, Raymond Pieters, Mark Boekschoten, Renger Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
Conjugates of fatty acids and amines, including endocannabinoids, are known to play important roles as endogenous signaling molecules. Among these, the ethanolamine conjugate of the n-3 poly unsaturated long chain fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) was shown to possess strong anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we identified the serotonin conjugate of DHA, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), in intestinal tissues and showed that its levels are markedly influenced by intake of n-3 PUFAs...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ole Kohler, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Michael Eriksen Benros
Accumulating evidence supports an association between depression and inflammatory processes, a connection that seems to be bidirectional. Clinical trials have indicated antidepressant treatment effects for anti-inflammatory agents, both as add-on treatment and as monotherapy. In particular, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cytokine-inhibitors have shown antidepressant treatment effects compared to placebo, but also statins, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, pioglitazone, minocycline, modafinil, and corticosteroids may yield antidepressant treatment effects...
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Michael Miller, John D Sorkin, Laura Mastella, Aimee Sutherland, Jeffrey Rhyne, Patrick Donnelly, Kathy Simpson, Andrew P Goldberg
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lifestyle recommendations to treat MetS often include the replacement of saturated fats (SFAs) and monosaccharides with unsaturated fat. However, it is unclear whether metabolic parameters will improve more when the saturated fat in American Heart Association (AHA) diets is replaced with higher concentrations of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA or PUFA)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh, Mohsen Moohebati, Mohsen Mazidi, Amir Avan, Maryam Tayefi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Habibollah Esmaily, Gordon A Ferns, Mohsen Nematy, Mohammad Safarian, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing globally. It is associated with a significant risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationship between adherence to several different dietary patterns and the presence of MetS was explored in an Iranian population sample of 5764 subjects. RESULTS: We observed that the prevalence of MetS was 13% and 18% in men and women, respectively...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Seema Gulati, Anoop Misra, Meenu Sharma
Background India is undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increase in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). From a healthy traditional home-cooked high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, there is a shift towards increasing consumption of packaged, ready-to-eat foods which are calorie-dense and contain refined carbohydrates, high fat, salt and sugar and less fiber. Although fats and oils have been an integral part of our diets, there is a change in the pattern of consumption, in terms of both quality and quantity...
August 11, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Colleen M Bianco, Jennifer J Stewart, Katherine R Miller, Catherine Fitzgerald, Kathryn J Coyne
As a potential biofuel feedstock, the marine microalga, Heterosigma akashiwo, accumulates significant lipids, is capable of long-term growth in outdoor photobioreactors, and is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of industrial emissions. Here, we evaluated resource partitioning in H. akashiwo growing on a CO2 and NO gas mixture under three light intensities: 160, 560, or 1200μmolquantam(-2)s(-1). Light levels had no effect on growth; however, cultures in high light accumulated 2.3-fold more carbohydrates and 17% fewer lipids...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jiyoung Kim, Meshail Okla, Anjeza Erickson, Timothy Carr, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Soonkyu Chung
Emerging evidence suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promote brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesize that n-3 PUFA promotes brown adipogenesis by modulating miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, murine brown preadipocytes were induced to differentiate the fatty acids of palmitic, oleate, or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The increases of brown-specific signature genes and oxygen consumption rate by EPA were concurrent with up-regulation of miR-30b and 378 but not by oleate or palmitic acid...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jahnabi Roy, Reheman Adili, Richard Kulmacz, Michael Holinstat, Aditi Das
The inhibition of platelet aggregation is key to preventing conditions such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Aspirin is the most widely used drug to inhibit platelet aggregation. Aspirin absorption can be improved further to increase its permeability across biologic membranes via esterification or converting the carboxylic acid to an anhydride. There are several reports indicating that ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) separately inhibit platelet aggregation...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Maryam Mohadjerani, Rahman Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Hosseini
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the fatty acids and essential oil from various parts of Ligularia persica Boiss (L. persica) growing wild in north of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Essential oils were extracted by using Clevenger-type apparatus. Antibacterial activity was tested on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by using micro dilution method. RESULTS: GC and GC∕MS analysis of the oils resulted in detection of 94%, 96%, 93%, 99% of the total essential oil of flowers, stems, roots and leaves, respectively...
May 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Takeshi Furuhashi, Takemichi Nakamura, Lena Fragner, Valentin Roustan, Verena Schön, Wolfram Weckwerth
Fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a widely used technique in biodiesel/bioproduct (e.g. poly-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) research but typically does not allow distinguishing between bound and free fatty acids. To understand and optimize biosynthetic pathways, however, the origin of the fatty acid is an important information. Furthermore the annotation of PUFAs is compromised in classical GC-EI-MS because the precursor molecular ion is missing...
October 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Sam-Moon Kim, Nichole Neuendorff, Robert S Chapkin, David J Earnest
Inflammatory signaling may play a role in high-fat diet (HFD)-related circadian clock disturbances that contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, palmitate, the prevalent proinflammatory saturated fatty acid (SFA) in HFD and the anti-inflammatory, poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were analyzed for effects on circadian timekeeping and inflammatory responses in peripheral clocks. Prolonged palmitate, but not DHA, exposure increased the period of fibroblast Bmal1-dLuc rhythms...
May 2016: EBioMedicine
Meng Yang, Howard D Sesso, Graham A Colditz, Jing Ma, Meir J Stampfer, Jorge E Chavarro
A recent meta-analysis suggested that circulating fatty acids do not play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that the relation between circulating fatty acids and prostate cancer (PCa) risk is modified by time between blood draw and diagnosis. We tested this hypothesis in a prospective case-control study of 476 PCa cases and matched control subjects nested in the Physicians' Health Study. The previously reported associations between fatty acids and PCa in this cohort were dramatically stronger among men diagnosed 10 or more years after blood collection...
November 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Min Zeng, Wenlong Hao, Yongdong Zou, Mengliang Shi, Yongguang Jiang, Peng Xiao, Anping Lei, Zhangli Hu, Weiwen Zhang, Liqing Zhao, Jiangxin Wang
BACKGROUND: Microalgae have been recognized as a good food source of natural biologically active ingredients. Among them, the green microalga Euglena is a very promising food and nutritional supplements, providing high value-added poly-unsaturated fatty acids, paramylon and proteins. Different culture conditions could affect the chemical composition and food quality of microalgal cells. However, little information is available for distinguishing the different cellular changes especially the active ingredients including poly-saturated fatty acids and other metabolites under different culture conditions, such as light and dark...
2016: BMC Biotechnology
Jong-Yun Choi, Seong-Ki Kim, Geung-Hwan La, Kwang-Hyeon Chang, Dong-Kyun Kim, Keon-Young Jeong, Min S Park, Gea-Jae Joo, Hyun-Woo Kim, Kwang-Seuk Jeong
The objective of our study was to investigate sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna associated with mating behaviors and hatching rates, according to different algal food sources. Since a diatom is known to contain more abundant long-chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), we hypothesized that the diatom-consuming D. magna would exhibit more successful reproduction rates. Upon the hypothesis, we designed three experiments using two algal species, a green alga (Chlorella vulgaris) and a diatom (Stephanodiscus hantzschii)...
May 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Rob N M Weijers
Free fatty acids released from human adipose tissue contain a limited amount of non-esterified poly-cis-unsaturated fatty acids. In cases of elevated plasma free fatty acids, this condition ultimately leads to a shift from unsaturated to saturated fatty-acyl chains in membrane phospholipids. Because this shift promotes the physical attractive van der Waals interactions between phospholipid acyl chains, it increases stiffness of both erythrocyte and endothelial membranes, which causes a reduction in both insulin-independent and insulin-dependent Class 1 glucose transporters, a reduction in cell membrane functionality, and a decreased microcirculatory blood flow which results in tissue hypoxia...
2015: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Barrie Peck, Zachary T Schug, Qifeng Zhang, Beatrice Dankworth, Dylan T Jones, Elizabeth Smethurst, Rachana Patel, Susan Mason, Ming Jiang, Rebecca Saunders, Michael Howell, Richard Mitter, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Gordon Stamp, Lynn McGarry, Daniel James, Emma Shanks, Eric O Aboagye, Susan E Critchlow, Hing Y Leung, Adrian L Harris, Michael J O Wakelam, Eyal Gottlieb, Almut Schulze
BACKGROUND: Enhanced macromolecule biosynthesis is integral to growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Lipid biosynthesis has been predicted to be an essential process in cancer cells. However, it is unclear which enzymes within this pathway offer the best selectivity for cancer cells and could be suitable therapeutic targets. RESULTS: Using functional genomics, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), an enzyme that controls synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, as essential in breast and prostate cancer cells...
2016: Cancer & Metabolism
Muhlisin, Chang Soo Song, Yong Joon Rhee, Young Han Song, Sung Ki Lee
The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade...
May 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
M H J Knapen, L A J L M Braam, K J Teunissen, C M Van't Hoofd, R M L Zwijsen, E G H M van den Heuvel, C Vermeer
BACKGROUND: In a previous human intervention study, we observed an improved vitamin K status after 8 weeks of intake of a yogurt that was fortified with vitamin K2 (as menaquinone-7, MK-7) and enriched with vitamins C and D3, magnesium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It was hypothesized that the added nutrients contributed to this improvement. Here we report on a study in which we compared the fasting plasma concentrations of MK-7 from (a) yogurt enriched with MK-7, vitamins D3 and C, magnesium, n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and fish oil (yogurt Kplus), (b) yogurt fortified with MK-7 only (yogurt K) and (c) soft gel capsules containing only MK-7...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jae Hyang Lee, So Ra Yoon, Ga Yoon Na, Mira Jun, Mok-Ryeon Ahn, Jae-Kwan Cha, Oh Yoen Kim
Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with incidence of cerebro-/cardio-vascular diseases. This study hypothesized that fasting glycemic status may reflect cerebrovascular risk in non-diabetic Koreans. Fasting glycemic status, lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers were measured in non-diabetic subjects (healthy controls, n = 112 and stroke n = 41). Systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), triglycerides, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CPR), interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were higher, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterols were lower in patients with stroke than healthy controls...
January 2016: Clinical Nutrition Research
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