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poly-unsaturated fatty acids

Thomas Roach, Wolfgang Stöggl, Theresa Baur, Ilse Kranner
Photosynthetic organisms suffering from light stress have to cope with an increased formation of reactive short-chain aldehydes. Singlet oxygen generated from highly-charged reaction centres can peroxidise the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich thylakoid membranes they are embedded in. Lipid peroxides decay to release α,β-unsaturated aldehydes that are reactive electrophile species (RES). Acrolein is one of the most abundant and reactive RES produced in chloroplasts. Here, in the model chlorophyte alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a clear concentration-dependent "distress" induced by acrolein intoxication was observed in conjunction with depletion of the glutathione pool...
March 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hafeez Ur Rehman, Hesham F Alharby, Yahya Alzahrani, Mostafa M Rady
Magnesium (Mg) often leaches down in sandy soils due to high mobility and its foliar application proves to be beneficial. Organic biostimulants also prove to be helpful to affect plant physio-biochemistry and antioxidative defense system. The present study evaluated the beneficial effects of seed soaking in maize grain extract (MGE; 3%) in integration with or without foliar Mg (1 mM) in comparison to control (no treatment) on growth, yield performance, seed oil and fatty acid profile including physiological and biochemical basis of Hysun-336 sunflower hybrid grown on a sandy soil under greenhouse conditions...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Katarzyna Turek, Jacek Domagała, Monika Wszołek
BACKGROUND: Yogurt is a dairy product with a high nutritional value. However, like all milk products, it contains milk fat and is rich in saturated fatty acids. It would be desirable to enrich dairy products in poly- unsaturated fatty acids to increase dietary intake amongst consumers and improve their health. Also, some LAB bacteria are able to produce CLA and CLnA isomers from linoleic and linolenic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical properties and fatty acid profile of yogurt with the addition of 3...
January 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Qiuju Wang, Xugan Wu, Xiaowen Long, Wangling Zhu, Tianli Ma, Yongxu Cheng
This study mainly investigated the composition of adult male Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis ) from four grades/sizes (Grade I: 200-249 g; Grade II: 175-199 g; Grade III: 150-174 g; Grade IV: ≤ 150 g). The results showed that the grade III crabs had the largest gonadsomatic index (GSI), which was significantly higher than the grade I and grade II crabs, no significant difference was found with the grade IV crab. Significant differences in moisture and total lipid contents were observed among various edible parts from different grades of male Eriocheir sinensis ...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Meng Wang, Mojin Chen, Yunming Fang, Tianwei Tan
Background: The production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources is increasingly important due to the environmental concern and depletion of fossil fuel. Despite the fast technical development in the production of aviation fuels, there are still several shortcomings such as a high cost of raw materials, a low yield of aviation fuels, and poor process techno-economic consideration. In recent years, olefin metathesis has become a powerful and versatile tool for generating new carbon-carbon bonds...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fatemeh Rahrovani, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Ehsan Ghaedi, Hamed Mohammadi, Amir-Hooshang Ehsani, Ali Esrafili, Mahmoud Djalali
Studies have reported different changes in the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) total lipids in patients with various types of cancer. It has been indicated that n-3/n-6 ratio plays a key role in the general consequence of skin photocarcinogenesis. However, to our knowledge there was no study examining the unsaturated fatty acid profile in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients. So, we explore the fatty acid composition of RBCs in newly diagnosed BCC patients in a hospital-based case-control study...
January 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Lan-Yu Zhang, Ming-Rui Jia, Tao Sun
The resolution of acute inflammation, once thought to be a passive process, is now recognized as an active one. The productions of endogenous special proresolving mediators (SPMs) are involved in this process. SPMs, including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are endogenous lipid mediators generated from ω-6 arachidonic acid or ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. They have potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions in various inflammatory disorders...
February 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Daniel Calle, Paloma Ballesteros, Sebastián Cerdán
Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dianning He, Devkumar Mustafi, Xiaobing Fan, Sully Fernandez, Erica Markiewicz, Marta Zamora, Jeffrey Mueller, Joseph R Sachleben, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Gregory S Karczmar
The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9...
2018: PloS One
Pietro Ridone, Stephan L Grage, Amrutha Patkunarajah, Andrew R Battle, Anne S Ulrich, Boris Martinac
The level of fatty acid saturation in phospholipids is a crucial determinant of the biophysical properties of the lipid bilayer. Integral membrane proteins are sensitive to changes of their bilayer environment such that their activities and localization can be profoundly affected. When incorporated into phospholipids of mammalian cells, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) determine the mechanical properties of the bilayer thereby affecting several membrane-associated functions such as endo- and exo-cytosis and ion channel/membrane receptor signalling cascades...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Yian Gu, Jennifer J Manly, Richard P Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, and brain and cognitive health. It is unclear whether inflammation explains this association. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an inflammation-related nutrient pattern (INP) was associated with neuroimaging and cognitive measures of brain health. METHOD: The current cross-sectional study included 330 non-demented elderly (mean age 79 years at MRI scan) participants in a multi-ethnic, community-based cohort study who had information on nutritional intakes (estimated from food frequency questionnaire), circulating C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (measured by ELISA), MRI scans, and cognition...
January 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Simone Colombo, Giulia Coliva, Agnieszka Kraj, Jean-Pierre Chervet, Maria Fedorova, Pedro Domingues, M Rosário Domingues
Phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) are widely present in cellular membranes and lipoproteins. Oxidation of PEs fatty acyl chains generates several oxidized products, exerting a vast number of biological functions, not totally unveiled yet. In vitro biomimetic models have been used to identify oxidized PEs and to develop analytical strategies for their targeted detection in vivo. Most of the models are based on oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the oxidative metabolism of PE also relies on controlled reactions catalyzed by enzymes as lipoxygenase (LOX), which can be mimicked by electrochemical (EC) oxidation...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Tian Shen, Guoqiang Xing, Jingfen Zhu, Shuxian Zhang, Yong Cai, Donghua Li, Gang Xu, Evan Xing, Jianyu Rao, Rong Shi
BACKGROUNDS: To study the effects of supplementation of a marine omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) formulation (Omega3Q10) in older adults with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: A total of 97 people were enrolled to receive 12-week supplementation of either Omega3Q10 (n = 48) or soybean oil (n = 49). Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension-related symptoms were determined before and after the supplementation...
December 27, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad, Maryam Ghavipisheh, Armin Attar, Amir Aslani
BACKGROUND: Dietary fish is a rich source of Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These compounds may have protective effect against cardiovascular events possibly by modifying lipid profiles. Consequently, fish oil supplements are produced commercially to complement low fish intake. It is not clear if both interventions have similar effects. The aim of this trial was to compare the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of omega3 fatty acid supplements with fresh fish. METHOD: A total of 106 patients with hyperlipidemia were randomized...
December 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
Ana María Pino, J Pablo Rodríguez
The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations...
December 16, 2017: Bone
Stephanie L Smith, Christopher A Rouse
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) that has a role in the cognitive and visual development, as well as in the immune function of newborns. Premature infants are typically deficient in DHA for several reasons, to include fetal accretion of DHA that typically occurs during the third trimester. These premature infants are reliant on enteral sources of DHA, most commonly through breast milk. The DHA content in breast milk varies in direct correlation with maternal DHA intake and mothers consuming a Western diet typically have lower levels of DHA in their breast milk...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Amir Fattahi, Masoud Darabi, Laya Farzadi, Ali Salmassi, Zeinab Latifi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Maghsood Shaaker, Tohid Ghasemnejad, Leila Roshangar, Mohammad Nouri
Since fatty acid composition of uterus phospholipids is likely to influence embryo implantation, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on implantation rate as well as uterine phospholipid fatty acids composition during mice pre-implantation period. Sixty female mice were randomly distributed into:1) control (standard pellet), 2) omega-3 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-3 fatty acids) and 3) omega-6 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-6 fatty acids)...
March 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Satoru Shimada, Marika Oosaki, Ryoko Takahashi, Shigefumi Uene, Sachiko Yanagisawa, Tomitake Tsukihara, Kyoko Shinzawa-Itoh
Large assemblies of respiratory chain complexes, known as supercomplexes, are present in the mitochondrial membrane in mammals and yeast, as well as in some bacterial membranes. The formation of supercomplexes is thought to contribute to efficient electron transfer, stabilization of each enzyme complex, and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In this study, mitochondria from various organisms were solubilized with digitonin, and then the solubilized complexes were separated by blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE)...
February 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Athanasia O Matemu, Durotoye Adeyemi, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Ladislaus Mdee, Papiso Tshabalala, Bhekie Mamba, Titus A M Msagati
Wild fruits are commonly consumed in the rural communities of South Africa. The information on their nutritionally important fatty acids is, however, limited. Three wild fruit species, Diospyros blancoi , Landolphia kirkii and Sclerocarya birrea from Limpopo Province were selected for evaluation of fatty acid content. Fatty acids composition of dried fruits of Diospyros blancoi (Db), Landolphia kirkii (Lk) and ripe and/or overripe Sclerocarya birrea (Sb) were evaluated by a gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometer (GC-TOF-MS)...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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