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poly-unsaturated fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919272/enhanced-lipid-and-biomass-production-by-a-newly-isolated-and-identified-marine-microalga
#1
Mouna Dammak, Sandra Mareike Haase, Ramzi Miladi, Faten Ben Amor, Mohamed Barkallah, David Gosset, Chantal Pichon, Bernhard Huchzermeyer, Imen Fendri, Michel Denis, Slim Abdelkafi
BACKGROUND: The increasing demand for microalgae lipids as an alternative to fish has encouraged researchers to explore oleaginous microalgae for food uses. In this context, optimization of growth and lipid production by the marine oleaginous V2-strain-microalgae is of great interest as it contains large amounts of mono-unsaturated (MUFAs) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). METHODS: In this study, the isolated V2 strain was identified based on 23S rRNA gene...
December 5, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905210/erythrocyte-fatty-acid-composition-does-not-influence-levels-of-free-bioavailable-and-total-25-hydroxy-vitamin-d
#2
Martin Carlsson, Ingela Nilsson, Lars Brudin, Siv-Ping Von, Pär Wanby
In vitro, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) may decrease the binding affinity of vitamin D metabolites for vitamin D-binding protein, which in turn may influence their bioavailability. FAs incorporated as phospholipids in erythrocyte (ery-) cell membranes reflect dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate ery-FA composition in relation to markers for vitamin D. In healthy females (age 22.6 ± 2.0 years) total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS (n = 78), free 25(OH)D with ELISA (n = 64 of 78), and bioavailable 25(OH)D was calculated...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883264/mucosa-associated-biohydrogenating-microbes-protect-the-simulated-colon-microbiome-from-stress-associated-with-high-concentrations-of-poly-unsaturated-fat
#3
Rosemarie De Weirdt, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Veerle Fievez, Eva Mees, Annelies Geirnaert, Florence Van Herreweghen, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Ruy Jauregui, Dietmar H Pieper, Bruno Vlaeminck, Tom Van de Wiele
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may affect colon microbiome homeostasis by exerting (specific) antimicrobial effects and/or interfering with mucosal biofilm formation at the gut mucosal interface. We used standardized batch incubations and the Mucosal-Simulator of the Human Microbial Intestinal Ecosystem (M-SHIME) to show the in vitro luminal and mucosal effects of the main PUFA in the Western diet, linoleic acid (LA). High concentrations of LA were found to decrease butyrate production and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii numbers dependent on LA biohydrogenation to vaccenic acid (VA) and stearic acid (SA)...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864649/cardioprotective-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-origin-of-the-variability
#4
Jérôme Roy, Jean-Yves Le Guennec
Since 40 years, it is known that omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) have cardioprotective effects. These include antiarrhythmic effects, improvements of autonomic function, endothelial function, platelet anti-aggregation and inflammatory properties, lowering blood pressure, plaque stabilization and reduced atherosclerosis. However, recently, conflicting results regarding the health benefits of ω3 PUFAs from seafood or ω3 PUFAs supplements have emerged. The aim of this review is to examine recent literature regarding health aspects of ω3 PUFAs intake from fish or supplements, and to discuss different arguments/reasons supporting these conflicting findings...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834334/comparison-of-dietary-profile-of-a-rural-south-indian-population-with-the-current-dietary-recommendations-for-prevention-of-non-communicable-diseases-cures-147
#5
Narasimhan Sowmya, Nagarajan Lakshmipriya, Kokila Arumugam, Sivasankari Venkatachalam, Parthasarathy Vijayalakshmi, Vaidya Ruchi, Gunasekaran Geetha, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan, Kamala Krishnaswamy, Vasudevan Sudha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Despite the rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in rural India, data on the dietary profile of the rural Indian population in relation to the recommendations for prevention of NCDs are scarce. This study was conducted to assess the dietary intake of a rural south Indian population in relation to the current dietary recommendations for the prevention of NCDs. METHODS: The dietary profiles of 6907 adults aged ≥ 20 yr, from a cluster of 42 villages in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu State in southern India, were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827396/fatty-acid-intake-and-its-dietary-sources-in-relation-with-markers-of-type-2-diabetes-risk-the-neo-study
#6
A J Wanders, M Alssema, E J P de Koning, S le Cessie, J H de Vries, P L Zock, F R Rosendaal, M den Heijer, R de Mutsert
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between intakes of total, saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated and trans fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TFA), and their dietary sources (dairy, meat and plant) with markers of type 2 diabetes risk. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 5675 non-diabetic, middle-aged participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Associations between habitual dietary intake and fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA of β-cell function (HOMA-B) and Disposition Index were assessed through multivariable linear regression models with adjustments for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790483/effect-of-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-administration-on-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Puneet Anand, Ankur Sachdeva
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood. Studies have indicated nutritional deficiencies, particularly Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) deficiency in these children and have suggested supplementation with PUFA for clinical improvement. AIM: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of PUFA administration in Indian children with ADHD. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted in the paediatrics and psychiatry departments of a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787742/-18-f-fluorocholine-pet-ct-imaging-of-liver-cancer-radiopathologic-correlation-with-tissue-phospholipid-profiling
#8
Sandi A Kwee, Miles M Sato, Yu Kuang, Adrian Franke, Laurie Custer, Kyle Miyazaki, Linda L Wong
PURPOSE: [(18)F]fluorocholine PET/CT can detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on imaging the initial steps of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. To relate the diagnostic performance of [(18)F]fluorocholine positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomography (CT) to the phospholipid composition of liver tumors, radiopathologic correspondence was performed in patients with early-stage liver cancer who had undergone [(18)F]fluorocholine PET/CT before tumor resection. PROCEDURES: Tumor and adjacent liver were profiled by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, quantifying phosphatidylcholine species by mass-to-charge ratio...
October 27, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693805/role-of-dietary-fatty-acids-in-liver-injury-caused-by-vinyl-chloride-metabolites-in-mice
#9
Lisanne C Anders, Heegook Yeo, Brenna R Kaelin, Anna L Lang, Adrienne M Bushau, Amanda N Douglas, Matt Cave, Gavin E Arteel, Craig J McClain, Juliane I Beier
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied...
November 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663185/docosahexaenoyl-serotonin-an-endogenously-formed-n-3-fatty-acid-serotonin-conjugate-has-anti-inflammatory-properties-by-attenuating-il-23-il-17-signaling-in-macrophages
#10
Mieke Poland, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Zheng Wang, Raymond Pieters, Mark Boekschoten, Renger Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
Conjugates of fatty acids and amines, including endocannabinoids, are known to play important roles as endogenous signaling molecules. Among these, the ethanolamine conjugate of the n-3 poly unsaturated long chain fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) was shown to possess strong anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we identified the serotonin conjugate of DHA, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), in intestinal tissues and showed that its levels are markedly influenced by intake of n-3 PUFAs...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640518/inflammation-in-depression-and-the-potential-for-anti-inflammatory-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Ole Kohler, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Michael Eriksen Benros
Accumulating evidence supports an association between depression and inflammatory processes, a connection that seems to be bidirectional. Clinical trials have indicated antidepressant treatment effects for anti-inflammatory agents, both as add-on treatment and as monotherapy. In particular, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cytokine-inhibitors have shown antidepressant treatment effects compared to placebo, but also statins, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, pioglitazone, minocycline, modafinil, and corticosteroids may yield antidepressant treatment effects...
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578132/poly-is-more-effective-than-monounsaturated-fat-for-dietary-management-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-muffin-study
#12
Michael Miller, John D Sorkin, Laura Mastella, Aimee Sutherland, Jeffrey Rhyne, Patrick Donnelly, Kathy Simpson, Andrew P Goldberg
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lifestyle recommendations to treat MetS often include the replacement of saturated fats (SFAs) and monosaccharides with unsaturated fat. However, it is unclear whether metabolic parameters will improve more when the saturated fat in American Heart Association (AHA) diets is replaced with higher concentrations of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA or PUFA)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529331/nutrient-patterns-and-their-relationship-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-iranian-adults
#13
Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh, Mohsen Moohebati, Mohsen Mazidi, Amir Avan, Maryam Tayefi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Habibollah Esmaily, Gordon A Ferns, Mohsen Nematy, Mohammad Safarian, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing globally. It is associated with a significant risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationship between adherence to several different dietary patterns and the presence of MetS was explored in an Iranian population sample of 5764 subjects. RESULTS: We observed that the prevalence of MetS was 13% and 18% in men and women, respectively...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501784/dietary-fats-and-oils-in-india
#14
Seema Gulati, Anoop Misra, Meenu Sharma
Background India is undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increase in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). From a healthy traditional home-cooked high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, there is a shift towards increasing consumption of packaged, ready-to-eat foods which are calorie-dense and contain refined carbohydrates, high fat, salt and sugar and less fiber. Although fats and oils have been an integral part of our diets, there is a change in the pattern of consumption, in terms of both quality and quantity...
August 11, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494106/light-intensity-impacts-the-production-of-biofuel-intermediates-in-heterosigma-akashiwo-growing-on-simulated-flue-gas-containing-carbon-dioxide-and-nitric-oxide
#15
Colleen M Bianco, Jennifer J Stewart, Katherine R Miller, Catherine Fitzgerald, Kathryn J Coyne
As a potential biofuel feedstock, the marine microalga, Heterosigma akashiwo, accumulates significant lipids, is capable of long-term growth in outdoor photobioreactors, and is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of industrial emissions. Here, we evaluated resource partitioning in H. akashiwo growing on a CO2 and NO gas mixture under three light intensities: 160, 560, or 1200μmolquantam(-2)s(-1). Light levels had no effect on growth; however, cultures in high light accumulated 2.3-fold more carbohydrates and 17% fewer lipids...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489163/eicosapentaenoic-acid-potentiates-brown-thermogenesis-through-ffar4-dependent-up-regulation-of-mir-30b-and-mir-378
#16
Jiyoung Kim, Meshail Okla, Anjeza Erickson, Timothy Carr, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Soonkyu Chung
Emerging evidence suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promote brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesize that n-3 PUFA promotes brown adipogenesis by modulating miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, murine brown preadipocytes were induced to differentiate the fatty acids of palmitic, oleate, or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The increases of brown-specific signature genes and oxygen consumption rate by EPA were concurrent with up-regulation of miR-30b and 378 but not by oleate or palmitic acid...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488919/development-of-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acid-derivatives-of-aspirin-for-inhibition-of-platelet-function
#17
Jahnabi Roy, Reheman Adili, Richard Kulmacz, Michael Holinstat, Aditi Das
The inhibition of platelet aggregation is key to preventing conditions such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Aspirin is the most widely used drug to inhibit platelet aggregation. Aspirin absorption can be improved further to increase its permeability across biologic membranes via esterification or converting the carboxylic acid to an anhydride. There are several reports indicating that ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) separately inhibit platelet aggregation...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462560/chemical-composition-and-antibacterial-properties-of-essential-oil-and-fatty-acids-of-different-parts-of-ligularia-persica-boiss
#18
Maryam Mohadjerani, Rahman Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Hosseini
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the fatty acids and essential oil from various parts of Ligularia persica Boiss (L. persica) growing wild in north of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Essential oils were extracted by using Clevenger-type apparatus. Antibacterial activity was tested on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by using micro dilution method. RESULTS: GC and GC∕MS analysis of the oils resulted in detection of 94%, 96%, 93%, 99% of the total essential oil of flowers, stems, roots and leaves, respectively...
May 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440175/biodiesel-and-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-production-from-algae-and-crop-plants-a-rapid-and-comprehensive-workflow-for-lipid-analysis
#19
Takeshi Furuhashi, Takemichi Nakamura, Lena Fragner, Valentin Roustan, Verena Schön, Wolfram Weckwerth
Fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a widely used technique in biodiesel/bioproduct (e.g. poly-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) research but typically does not allow distinguishing between bound and free fatty acids. To understand and optimize biosynthetic pathways, however, the origin of the fatty acid is an important information. Furthermore the annotation of PUFAs is compromised in classical GC-EI-MS because the precursor molecular ion is missing...
October 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322464/role-of-inflammatory-signaling-in-the-differential-effects-of-saturated-and-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-on-peripheral-circadian-clocks
#20
Sam-Moon Kim, Nichole Neuendorff, Robert S Chapkin, David J Earnest
Inflammatory signaling may play a role in high-fat diet (HFD)-related circadian clock disturbances that contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, palmitate, the prevalent proinflammatory saturated fatty acid (SFA) in HFD and the anti-inflammatory, poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were analyzed for effects on circadian timekeeping and inflammatory responses in peripheral clocks. Prolonged palmitate, but not DHA, exposure increased the period of fibroblast Bmal1-dLuc rhythms...
May 2016: EBioMedicine
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