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Extracellular vesicle

Yael Mutsafi, Nihal Altan-Bonnet
Present in many cell types, non-degradative secretory autophagy is a newly discovered pathway in which autophagosomes fuse with the plasma membrane instead of lysosomes. Surprisingly, some viruses exploit secretory autophagy to exit cells non-lytically, shedding into the extracellular environment as particle populations contained within vesicles. As a result, this significantly enhances the infectivity of these viruses. In this paper, this novel cellular exit pathway is highlighted and its advantages for viral transmission discussed...
March 20, 2018: Viruses
Poorna Subramanian, Sahand Pirbadian, Mohamed Y El-Naggar, Grant J Jensen
Bacterial nanowires have garnered recent interest as a proposed extracellular electron transfer (EET) pathway that links the bacterial electron transport chain to solid-phase electron acceptors away from the cell. Recent studies showed that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produces outer membrane (OM) and periplasmic extensions that contain EET components and hinted at their possible role as bacterial nanowires. However, their fine structure and distribution of cytochrome electron carriers under native conditions remained unclear, making it difficult to evaluate the potential electron transport (ET) mechanism along OM extensions...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sophie Brameyer, Laure Plener, Axel Müller, Andreas Klingl, Gerhard Wanner, Kirsten Jung
Many bacteria use extracellular signaling molecules to coordinate group behavior, a process referred to as quorum sensing (QS). However, some QS molecules are hydrophobic in character and are probably unable to diffuse across the bacterial cell envelope. How these molecules are disseminated between bacterial cells within a population is not yet fully understood. Here we show that the marine pathogen Vibrio harveyi packages the hydrophobic QS molecule CAI-1, a long-chain amino ketone, into outer membrane vesicles...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Caroline J Reddel, Gabrielle J Pennings, Jennifer L Curnow, Vivien M Chen, Leonard Kritharides
Platelets play an important role in diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, especially through their release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and role in thrombosis. The effects of the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine on platelets are not well understood. We investigated the effect of colchicine on the release of pro-coagulant EVs from platelets under low-level activation. Citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from healthy donors was incubated with 2 mM colchicine or vehicle at 37°C for 30 minutes with gentle rotation...
March 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Phillip Munson, Ying-Wai Lam, Julie Dragon, Maximilian MacPherson, Arti Shukla
Asbestos exposure is a determinate cause of many diseases, such as mesothelioma, fibrosis, and lung cancer, and poses a major human health hazard. At this time, there are no identified biomarkers to demarcate asbestos exposure before the presentation of disease and symptoms, and there is only limited understanding of the underlying biology that governs asbestos-induced disease. In our study, we used exosomes, 30-140 nm extracellular vesicles, to gain insight into these knowledge gaps. As inhaled asbestos is first encountered by lung epithelial cells and macrophages, we hypothesize that asbestos-exposed cells secrete exosomes with signature proteomic cargo that can alter the gene expression of mesothelial cells, contributing to disease outcomes like mesothelioma...
March 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
María Andrea Hernández-Castañeda, Smart Mbagwu, Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde, Michael Walch, Luis Filgueira, Pierre-Yves Mantel
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, with P. falciparum being the most prevalent on the African continent and responsible for most malaria-related deaths globally. Several factors including parasite sequestration in tissues, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory responses influence the evolution of the disease in malaria-infected people. P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing different kinds of cargo molecules that mediate pathogenesis and cellular communication between parasites and host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hoda Fathali, Johan Dunevall, Soodabeh Majdi, Ann-Sofie Cans
Amperometry recording of cells subjected to osmotic shock show that secretory cells respond to this physical stress by reducing the exocytosis activity and the amount of neurotransmitter released from vesicles in single exocytosis events. It has been suggested that the reduction in neurotransmitters expelled is due to alterations in membrane biophysical properties when cells shrink in response to osmotic stress and with assumptions made that secretory vesicles in the cell cytoplasm are not affected by extracellular osmotic stress...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Adriely Goes, Gregor Fuhrmann
Biogenic and biomimetic therapeutics are a relatively new class of systems that are of physiological origin and/or take advantage of natural pathways, or aim at mimicking these to improve selective interaction with target tissue. The number of biogenic and bioengineered avenues for drug therapy and diagnostics has multiplied over the past years for many applications, indicating the high expectations associated with this biological route. Nevertheless, the use of "bio"-related approaches for treating or diagnosing infectious diseases is still rare...
March 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Fengyan Deng, Nancy Magee, Yuxia Zhang
Cell-to-cell communication is a fascinating process that is essential for maintaining tissue and whole-body homeostasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-bound nanoparticles that are a means of communication between cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that EVs can render either beneficial or harmful outcomes, depending on the specific cargos (e.g. proteins, lipids, RNAs) transferred between cells. EVs also have great value as diagnostic and prognostic markers of disease because they are present in a variety of biological fluids and carry bioactive molecules from their cells or tissues of origin...
September 2017: Liver Research
Pia Pužar Dominkuš, Matjaž Stenovec, Simona Sitar, Eva Lasič, Robert Zorec, Ana Plemenitaš, Ema Žagar, Marko Kreft, Metka Lenassi
PKH lipophilic dyes are highly fluorescent and stain membranes by intercalating their aliphatic portion into the exposed lipid bilayer. They have established use in labeling and tracking of cells in vivo and in vitro. Despite wide use of PKH-labeled extracellular vesicles (EVs) in cell targeting and functional studies, nonEV-associated fluorescent structures have never been examined systematically, nor was their internalization by cells. Here, we have characterized PKH26-positive particles in lymphoblastoid B exosome samples and exosome-free controls stained by ultracentrifugation, filtration, and sucrose-cushion-based and sucrose-gradient-based procedures, using confocal imaging and asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light-scattering detector analysis...
March 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Miyuki Kuno
A proton is a ubiquitous signaling ion. Many transmembrane H+ transport pathways either maintain pH homeostasis or generate acidic compartments. The osteoclast is a bone-resorbing cell, which degrades bone tissues by secreting protons and lysosomal enzymes into the resorption pit. The plasma membrane facing bone tissue (ruffled border), generated partly by fusion of lysosomes, may mimic H+ flux mechanisms regulating acidic vesicles. We identified three electrogenic H+ -fluxes in osteoclast plasma membranes-a vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase), a voltage-gated proton channel (Hv channel) and an acid-inducible H+ -leak-whose electrophysiological profiles and regulation mechanisms differed...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Xabier Osteikoetxea, Márton Benke, Marta Rodriguez, Krisztina Pálóczi, Barbara W Sódar, Zsuzsanna Szvicsek, Katalin Szabó-Taylor, Krisztina V Vukman, Ágnes Kittel, Zoltán Wiener, Károly Vékey, László Harsányi, Ákos Szűcs, Lilla Turiák, Edit I Buzás
AIMS: The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer has remained virtually unchanged with a high mortality rate compared to other types of cancers. An earlier detection would provide a time window of opportunity for treatment and prevention of deaths. In the present study we investigated extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by directly assessing EV size-based subpopulations in pancreatic juice samples of patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eva Pallinger, Zoltan Bognar, Agnes Bogdan, Timea Csabai, Hajnalka Abraham, Julia Szekeres-Bartho
Earlier evidence suggests, that the embryo signals to the maternal immune system. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by all types of cells, and because they transport different kinds of molecules from one cell to the other, they can be considered as means of intercellular communication. The aim of this work was to test, whether the embryo is able to produce sufficient amounts of EVs to alter the function of peripheral lymphocytes. Embryo-derived EVs were identified by their Annexin V biding capacity, and sensitivity to Triton X dependent lysis, using flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
James A Tsatsaronis, Sandra Franch-Arroyo, Ulrike Resch, Emmanuelle Charpentier
Both extracellular RNAs and extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently garnered attention as novel mediators of intercellular communication in eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike. EVs not only permit export of RNA, but also facilitate delivery and trans-kingdom exchange of these and other biomolecules, for instance between microbes and their hosts. In this Opinion article, we propose that EV-mediated export of RNA represents a universal mechanism for interkingdom and intrakingdom communication that is conserved among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbes...
March 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Masataka Nishiga, Hongchao Guo, Joseph C Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: European Heart Journal
Kyle I Mentkowski, Jonathan D Snitzer, Sarah Rusnak, Jennifer K Lang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous group of small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, which play a critical role in intracellular communication and regulation of numerous physiological processes in health and disease. Naturally released from virtually all cells, these vesicles contain an array of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins which they transfer to target cells within their local milieu and systemically. They have been proposed as a means of "cell-free, cell therapy" for cancer, immune disorders, and more recently cardiovascular disease...
March 15, 2018: AAPS Journal
Lisa K Gouwens, Mudar S Ismail, Victoria A Rogers, Nathan T Zeller, Evan C Garrad, Fatima S Amtashar, Nyasha J Makoni, David C Osborn, Michael R Nichols
Microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes comprise a class of cell-secreted particles termed extracellular vesicles (EVs). These cargo-holding vesicles mediate cell-to-cell communication and have recently been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two types of EVs are distinguished by the mechanism of cell release and their size, with the smaller exosomes and the larger MVs ranging from 30 to 100 nm and 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, respectively. MV numbers are increased in AD and appear to interact with amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the primary protein component of the neuritic plaques in the AD brain...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Evan Tan, Harry H Asada, Ruowen Ge
NOTCH signalling is an evolutionarily conserved juxtacrine signalling pathway that is essential in development. Jagged1 (JAG1) and Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) are transmembrane NOTCH ligands that regulate angiogenesis by controlling endothelial cell (EC) differentiation, vascular development and maturation. In addition, DLL4 could bypass its canonical cell-cell contact-dependent signalling to influence NOTCH signalling and angiogenesis at a distance when it is packaged into extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, it is not clear whether JAG1 could also be packaged into EVs to influence NOTCH signalling and angiogenesis...
March 14, 2018: Angiogenesis
Prakash Gangadaran, Chae Moon Hong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are currently being considered as promising drug delivery vehicles. EVs are naturally occurring vesicles that exhibit many characteristics favorable to serve as drug delivery vehicles. In addition, EVs have inherent properties for treatment of cancers and other diseases. For research and clinical translation of use of EVs as drug delivery vehicles, in vivo tracking of EVs is essential. The latest molecular imaging techniques enable the tracking of EVs in living animals. However, each molecular imaging technique has its certain advantages and limitations for the in vivo imaging of EVs; therefore, understanding the molecular imaging techniques is essential to select the most appropriate imaging technology to achieve the desired imaging goal...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Santiago Roura, Ana Gámez-Valero, Josep Lupón, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Francesc E Borràs, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remains a major cause of heart failure and carries a poor prognosis despite important advances in recent years. Better disease characterization using novel molecular techniques is needed to refine its progression. This study explored the proteomic signature of plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from DCM patients and healthy controls using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). EV-enriched fractions were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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