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Extracellular vesicle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349926/extracellular-vesicles-from-early-stage-p-falciparum-infected-red-blood-cells-contain-pfemp1-and-induce-transcriptional-changes-in-human-monocytes
#1
Natália G Sampaio, Samantha Emery, Alexandra Garnham, Qiao Y Tan, Xavier Sisquella, Matthew A Pimentel, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Louis Schofield, Emily M Eriksson
Pathogens can release extracellular vesicles (EVs) for cell-cell communication and host modulation. EVs from Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species, can transfer drug resistance genes between parasites. EVs from late-stage parasite-infected RBC (iRBC-EVs) are immunostimulatory and affect endothelial cell permeability, but little is known about EVs from early-stage iRBC. We detected the parasite virulence factor PfEMP1, which is responsible for iRBC adherence and a major contributor to disease severity, in EVs only up to 12 hours-post RBC invasion...
January 18, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349673/pharmacological-dissection-of-the-cellular-mechanisms-associated-to-the-spontaneous-and-the-mechanically-stimulated-atp-release-by-mesentery-endothelial-cells-roles-of-thrombin-and-trpv
#2
M Verónica Donoso, Felipe Hernández, Tania Villalón, Claudio Acuña-Castillo, J Pablo Huidobro-Toro
Endothelial cells participate in extracellular ATP release elicited by mechanosensors. To characterize the dynamic interactions between mechanical and chemical factors that modulate ATP secretion by the endothelium, we assessed and compared the mechanisms participating in the spontaneous (basal) and mechanically stimulated secretion using primary cultures of rat mesentery endothelial cells. ATP/metabolites were determined in the cell media prior to (basal) and after cell media displacement or a picospritzer buffer puff used as mechanical stimuli...
January 19, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348524/linearmycins-are-lytic-membrane-targeting-antibiotics
#3
Reed M Stubbendieck, Dakota J Brock, Jean-Philippe Pellois, Jason J Gill, Paul D Straight
The linearmycin family of polyketides was originally classified as antifungal metabolites. However, in addition to antifungal activity, we previously found that linearmycins cause cellular lysis and colony degradation of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We recently showed that Streptomyces sp. strain Mg1 incorporates linearmycins into extracellular vesicles, which are capable of lysing B. subtilis. However, the mechanism of linearmycin-induced lysis was hitherto unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine how linearmycin-laden vesicles cause lysis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348245/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-extracellular-vesicles-a-potential-therapy-for-cardiac-repair
#4
EDITORIAL
Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Raj Kishore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346527/progesterone-effects-on-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-sheep-uterus
#5
Gregory W Burns, Kelsey E Brooks, Eleanore V O'Neil, Darren E Hagen, Susanta K Behura, Thomas E Spencer
Progesterone (P4) acts via the endometrium to promote conceptus growth and implantation for pregnancy establishment. Many cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are membrane-bound vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin. In sheep, endometrial-derived EVs were found to traffic to the conceptus trophectoderm. Thus, EVs are hypothesized to be an important mode of intercellular communication by transferring select RNAs, proteins, and lipids between the endometrium and conceptus. Electron microscopy analysis found that the endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia were the primary source of EVs in the uterus of cyclic sheep...
January 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344346/characterization-and-selective-incorporation-of-small-non-coding-rnas-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-extracellular-vesicles
#6
Chuang Li, Fang Qin, Fen Hu, Hui Xu, Guihong Sun, Guang Han, Tao Wang, Mingxiong Guo
Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in intercellular communication through the delivery of their cargoes, which include proteins, lipids, and RNAs. Increasingly, multiple studies have reported the association between EV small non-coding RNAs and cancer, due to their regulatory functions in gene expression. Hence, analysis of the features of small non-coding RNA expression and their incorporation into EVs is important for cancer research. Results: We performed deep sequencing to investigate the expression of small RNAs in plasma EVs from lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients, lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) patients, and healthy controls...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343745/malaria-infected-red-blood-cells-release-small-regulatory-rnas-through-extracellular-vesicles
#7
Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde, Smart Mbagwu, María Andrea Hernández-Castañeda, Swamy R Adapa, Michael Walch, Luis Filgueira, Laurent Falquet, Rays H Y Jiang, Ionita Ghiran, Pierre-Yves Mantel
The parasite Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria. Cell communication between parasites is an important mechanism to control population density and differentiation. The infected red blood cells (iRBCs) release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that transfer cargoes between cells. The EVs synchronize the differentiation of the asexual parasites into gametocytes to initiate the transmission to the mosquito. Beside their role in parasite communication, EVs regulate vascular function. So far, the exact cargoes responsible for cellular communication remain unknown...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339798/shedding-light-on-the-cell-biology-of-extracellular-vesicles
#8
REVIEW
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo, Graça Raposo
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively. They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis...
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339438/quantifying-exosome-secretion-from-single-cells-reveals-a-modulatory-role-for-gpcr-signaling
#9
Frederik Johannes Verweij, Maarten P Bebelman, Connie R Jimenez, Juan J Garcia-Vallejo, Hans Janssen, Jacques Neefjes, Jaco C Knol, Richard de Goeij-de Haas, Sander R Piersma, S Rubina Baglio, Matthijs Verhage, Jaap M Middeldorp, Anoek Zomer, Jacco van Rheenen, Marc G Coppolino, Ilse Hurbain, Graça Raposo, Martine J Smit, Ruud F G Toonen, Guillaume van Niel, D Michiel Pegtel
Exosomes are small endosome-derived extracellular vesicles implicated in cell-cell communication and are secreted by living cells when multivesicular bodies (MVBs) fuse with the plasma membrane (PM). Current techniques to study exosome physiology are based on isolation procedures after secretion, precluding direct and dynamic insight into the mechanics of exosome biogenesis and the regulation of their release. In this study, we propose real-time visualization of MVB-PM fusion to overcome these limitations. We designed tetraspanin-based pH-sensitive optical reporters that detect MVB-PM fusion using live total internal reflection fluorescence and dynamic correlative light-electron microscopy...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337363/inhibition-of-apoptosis-using-exosomes-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cell-culture
#10
Seora Han, Won Jong Rhee
Animal cell culture technology for therapeutic protein production has shown significant improvement over the last few decades. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely adapted for the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. In the biopharmaceutical industry, it is crucial to develop cell culture media and culturing conditions to achieve the highest productivity and quality. However, CHO cells are significantly affected by apoptosis in the bioreactors, resulting in a substantial decrease in product quantity and quality...
January 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334397/recombinant-phosphatidylserine-binding-nanobodies-for-targeting-of-extracellular-vesicles-to-tumor-cells-a-plug-and-play-approach
#11
Sander A A Kooijmans, Jerney J J M Gitz-Francois, Raymond M Schiffelers, Pieter Vader
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly being recognized as candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transfer biological cargo between cells. However, manipulation of targeting properties of EVs through engineering of the producer cells can be challenging and time-consuming. As a novel approach to confer tumor targeting properties to isolated EVs, we generated recombinant fusion proteins of nanobodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) fused to phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding domains of lactadherin (C1C2)...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334272/extracellular-vesicle-mimetic-nanovesicles-transport-lncrna-h19-as-competing-endogenous-rna-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-wounds
#12
Shi-Cong Tao, Bi-Yu Rui, Qi-Yang Wang, Ding Zhou, Yang Zhang, Shang-Chun Guo
Diabetic wounds, one of the most enervating complications of diabetes mellitus, affect millions of people worldwide annually. Vascular insufficiency, caused by hyperglycemia, is one of the primary causes and categories of diabetic impaired wound healing. Recently, long noncoding RNA (LncRNA)-H19, which is significantly decreased in diabetes and may be crucial in triggering angiogenesis, has attracted increasing interest. The possible relationship between the decrease of LncRNA-H19 and the impairment of angiogenesis in diabetes could involve impairment of the insulin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway via the interdiction of LncRNA-H19...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334253/circular-rna-expression-in-extracellular-vesicles-isolated-from-serum-of-patients-with-endometrial-cancer
#13
Hanzi Xu, Zhen Gong, Yang Shen, Yichen Fang, Shanliang Zhong
AIM: We aimed to explore the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from serum of patients with endometrial cancer. MATERIALS & METHODS: EVs were isolated from serum samples of three patients with stage III adenocarcinoma aged 50-60 years and three matched healthy controls. RNA was extracted from the EVs and analyzed using RNA-seq technique. RESULTS: We got 209 upregulated circRNAs and 66 downregulated circRNAs...
January 15, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331845/effect-of-levetiracetam-on-extracellular-amino-acid-levels-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-of-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Pichardo Macías Luz Adriana, Ramírez Mendiola Blanca Alcira, Contreras García Itzel Jatziri, Zamudio Hernández Sergio Roberto, Chávez Pacheco Juan Luis, Sánchez Huerta Karla Berenice, Mendoza Torreblanca Julieta Griselda
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331674/hiv-activates-the-tyrosine-kinase-hck-to-secrete-adam-protease-containing-extracellular-vesicles
#15
J-H Lee, C Ostalecki, Z Zhao, T Kesti, H Bruns, B Simon, T Harrer, K Saksela, A S Baur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331148/isolation-of-anti-extra-cellular-vesicle-single-domain-antibodies-by-direct-panning-on-vesicle-enriched-fractions
#16
Milica Popovic, Elisa Mazzega, Barbara Toffoletto, Ario de Marco
BACKGROUND: The thorough understanding of the physiological and pathological processes mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenged by purification methods which are cumbersome, not reproducible, or insufficient to yield homogeneous material. Chromatography based on both ion-exchange and immune-capture can represent an effective method to improve EV purification and successive analysis. METHODS: Cell culture supernatant was used as a model sample for assessing the capacity of anion-exchange chromatography to separate distinct EV fractions and to isolate nanobodies by direct panning on whole EVs to recover binders specific for the native conformation of EV-surface epitopes and suitable to develop EV immune-capture reagents...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330365/engineered-nanointerfaces-for-microfluidic-isolation-and-molecular-profiling-of-tumor-specific-extracellular-vesicles
#17
Eduardo Reátegui, Kristan E van der Vos, Charles P Lai, Mahnaz Zeinali, Nadia A Atai, Berent Aldikacti, Frederick P Floyd, Aimal H Khankhel, Vishal Thapar, Fred H Hochberg, Lecia V Sequist, Brian V Nahed, Bob S Carter, Mehmet Toner, Leonora Balaj, David T Ting, Xandra O Breakefield, Shannon L Stott
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry RNA, DNA, proteins, and lipids. Specifically, tumor-derived EVs have the potential to be utilized as disease-specific biomarkers. However, a lack of methods to isolate tumor-specific EVs has limited their use in clinical settings. Here we report a sensitive analytical microfluidic platform (EVHB-Chip) that enables tumor-specific EV-RNA isolation within 3 h. Using the EVHB-Chip, we achieve 94% tumor-EV specificity, a limit of detection of 100 EVs per μL, and a 10-fold increase in tumor RNA enrichment in comparison to other methods...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328916/the-neuronal-gene-arc-encodes-a-repurposed-retrotransposon-gag-protein-that-mediates-intercellular-rna-transfer
#18
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Cameron E Day, Rachel B Kearns, Madeleine Kyrke-Smith, Andrew V Taibi, John McCormick, Nathan Yoder, David M Belnap, Simon Erlendsson, Dustin R Morado, John A G Briggs, Cédric Feschotte, Jason D Shepherd
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the mammalian brain, mediates various forms of synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about Arc's molecular function and evolutionary origins. Here, we show that Arc self-assembles into virus-like capsids that encapsulate RNA. Endogenous Arc protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of Arc mRNA into new target cells, where it can undergo activity-dependent translation...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328915/retrovirus-like-gag-protein-arc1-binds-rna-and-traffics-across-synaptic-boutons
#19
James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson
Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons and is loaded into extracellular vesicles that are transferred from motorneurons to muscles...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328396/placenta%C3%A2-associated-serum-exosomal-mir%C3%A2-155-derived-from-patients-with-preeclampsia-inhibits-enos-expression-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#20
Li Shen, Yujing Li, Ruotian Li, Zhenyu Diao, Muyi Yany, Mengfei Wu, Haixiang Sun, Guijun Yan, Yali Hu
Preeclampsia (PE) is considered to be initiated by abnormal placentation in early pregnancy and results in systemic endothelial cell dysfunction in the second or third trimester. MicroRNAs (miRs) expressed in the human placenta can be secreted into maternal circulation via exosomes, which are secreted extracellular vesicles that serve important roles in intercellular communication. The present study hypothesized that upregulation of placenta‑associated serum exosomal miR‑155 from patients with PE may suppress endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in endothelial cells...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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