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Extracellular vesicle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231550/short-term-particulate-matter-exposure-induces-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-overweight-subjects
#1
Matteo Bonzini, Laura Pergoli, Laura Cantone, Mirjam Hoxha, Andrea Spinazzè, Luca Del Buono, Chiara Favero, Michele Carugno, Laura Angelici, Lucia Broggi, Andrea Cattaneo, Angela C Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a plausible molecular mechanism linking particulate matter (PM) inhalation to its systemic effects. Microvesicles (MVs) are released from many cell types in response to various stimuli. Increased body mass index (BMI) could modify the response to PM exposure due to enhanced PM uptake and/or an underlying pro-oxidative state. We investigated the relationship between EV release and PM10/PM2.5 exposure in a cohort of 51 volunteers. Subjects were stratified based on their BMI to evaluate whether overweight BMI is a determinant of hypersusceptibility to PM effects...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231055/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-in-cancer-biology
#2
Ryou-U Takahashi, Marta Prieto-Vila, Ai Hironaka, Takahiro Ochiya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple studies report that miRNAs are involved in homeostatic maintenance and that aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in various types of diseases, including cancer. In cancer biology, miRNAs exert functional roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis. MiRNAs are also secreted through small vesicles called exosomes, which are endosome-derived vesicles derived from various cell types including immune and tumor cells...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230494/application-of-tem-techniques-for-the-study-of-vascular-calcification-monitoring-extracellular-vesicles-and-nanogold-immunodetection-of-fetuin-a-grp-and-cd9
#3
Rute Morais, Carla S B Viegas, Dina C Simes, António P A Matos, Anjos L Macedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228350/impact-of-technical-and-assay-variation-on-reporting-of-hemolysis-in-stored-red-blood-cell-products
#4
Ruqayyah J Almizraq, Qi Long Yi, Jason P Acker
BACKGROUND: Hemolysis of RBCs is an important measure of product quality and is influenced by donor factors, blood component manufacturing and storage. Percent hemolysis is determined using hematocrit (Hct), supernatant Hb (SHb) and total Hb (THb), each of which can be measured using a variety of methods. METHODS: Sixteen members of an international collaborative were surveyed to understand equipment and procedural variation in hemolysis testing. In a laboratory-based evaluation, we examined how hemolysis was impacted by: measurement of Hct, SHb, THb and number and force of centrifugations for SHb preparation...
February 20, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225807/increased-liver-specific-proteins-in-circulating-extracellular-vesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-drug-and-alcohol-induced-liver-injury
#5
Young-Eun Cho, Eun-Ju Im, Pyong-Gon Moon, Esteban Mezey, Byoung-Joon Song, Moon-Chang Baek
Drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury are a leading cause of liver failure and transplantation. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a source of biomarkers because they contain unique proteins reflecting the identity and tissue-specific origin of the EV proteins. This study aimed to determine whether potentially hepatotoxic agents, such as acetaminophen (APAP) and binge alcohol, can increase the amounts of circulating EVs and evaluate liver-specific EV proteins as potential biomarkers for liver injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224125/how-do-mesenchymal-stem-cells-influence-or-are-influenced-by-microenvironment-through-extracellular-vesicles-communication
#6
REVIEW
Gabriel Dostert, Benjamin Mesure, Patrick Menu, Émilie Velot
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in cell therapy and tissue engineering thanks to their self-renewal, their multipotency, and their immunomodulatory properties that make them an attractive tool for regenerative medicine. A large part of MSCs positive effects is due to their secretion products which participate in creating a favorable microenvironment and closely relate these cells to other cell types. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) belong to cellular secretions. They are produced by cells continuously or after stimulation (e...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217910/extracellular-vesicles-in-joint-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Andrew D Foers, Lesley Cheng, Andrew F Hill, Ian P Wicks, Ken C Pang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216464/exosomes-as-novel-bio-carriers-for-gene-and-drug-delivery
#8
REVIEW
Xin-Chi Jiang, Jian-Qing Gao
Clinical treatments have stalled in certain diseases due to a lack of proper therapeutic delivery systems. Recent studies have identified exosomes for their potential use as cell-free therapies, which may provide a novel mechanism for solving this problem. Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that can transport rich cargos of proteins, lipids, DNA, and RNA. It is increasingly recognized that exosomes play a complex role in not only the physiological conditions but also pathological ones. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes are of paramount importance in distant cell-cell communication because they can enter the circulation when secreted and pass through additional biological barriers...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215864/regulatory-effects-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-extracellular-vesicles-on-raw264-7-macrophages
#9
Yadong Zheng, Xiaola Guo, Meng Su, Aijiang Guo, Juntao Ding, Jing Yang, Haitao Xiang, Xiaoan Cao, Shaohua Zhang, Mazhar Ayaz, Xuenong Luo
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role in intercellular communications via exchanging biological molecules, being involved in host-parasite interplay. Little is to date known about E. multilocularis EVs and their biological activities. Here spherical EVs secreted by E. multilocularis metacestodes were shown to range predominately from 34nm to 95nm in diameter. A total of 433 proteins were identified in the EVs, and the proteins involved in binding (42%) and catalytic activity (41%) were most frequently represented...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215159/the-potential-roles-of-radionanomedicine-and-radioexosomic-in-prostate-cancer-research-and-treatment
#10
Martin K Bakht, So Won Oh, Do Won Hwang, Yun-Sang Lee, Hyewon Youn, Lisa A Porter, Gi Jeong Cheon, Cheol Kwak, Dong Soo Lee, Keon Wook Kang
The artificial nanostructures such as nanoparticles and natural nanostructures such as secreted nano-sized extracellular vesicles known as exosomes are promising tools for the realization of personalized medicine. Radionanomedicine is a recently coined term for the simultaneous application of either radiation technology or nuclear medicine with nanomedicine. In addition, radioexosomics is our suggested term for the study of exosomes functions, cytotoxicity, cancerogenicity, and biodistribution using radiation technology and nuclear medicine tracing technology...
February 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213967/extracellular-vesicles-from-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improve-survival-from-lethal-hepatic-failure-in-mice
#11
Hiroaki Haga, Irene K Yan, Kenji Takahashi, Akiko Matsuda, Tushar Patel
Stem cell-based therapies have potential for treatment of liver injury by contributing to regenerative responses, through functional tissue replacement or paracrine effects. The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) from cells has been implicated in intercellular communication, and may contribute to beneficial paracrine effects of stem cell-based therapies. Therapeutic effects of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and vesicles released by these cells were examined in a lethal murine model of hepatic failure induced by d-galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213406/mitochondria-regulated-formation-of-endothelial-extracellular-vesicles-shifts-the-mediator-of-flow-induced-vasodilation
#12
Julie K Freed, Matthew J Durand, Brian Robert Hoffmann, John C Densmore, Andrew S Greene, David D Gutterman
In order to examine the effect of endothelial-derived extracellular vesicles (eEVs) on the mechanism of flow-induced dilation (FID) composition, formation, and functional effects on the mechanism of FID were examined from two different eEV subtypes, one produced from ceramide, the other from plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Using videomicroscopy, internal diameter changes in response to increases in flow were measured in human adipose resistance arteries acutely exposed (30min) to eEVs derived from cultured endothelial cells exposed to ceramide or PAI-1...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212713/rationally-designed-peptide-probes-for-extracellular-vesicles
#13
R Tamura, H Yin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicroscopic lipid vesicles secreted from cells and play significant roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting varieties of cell signaling molecules like proteins, DNA, mRNA, and microRNA. Recent studies showed that EVs are highly correlated with cancer progression and metastasis. However, there are some difficulties in probing each vesicle using popular analytical methods because of their small sizes and heterogeneous origins. These obstacles may be overcome by using a novel approach that senses highly curved membrane and negatively charged membrane lipids...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211531/proteomic-analysis-of-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-from-high-gleason-score-prostate-cancer
#14
Kazutoshi Fujita, Hideaki Kume, Kyosuke Matsuzaki, Atsunari Kawashima, Takeshi Ujike, Akira Nagahara, Motohide Uemura, Yasushi Miyagawa, Takeshi Tomonaga, Norio Nonomura
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are microvesicles secreted from various cell types. We aimed to discover a new biomarker for high Gleason score (GS) prostate cancer (PCa) in urinary EVs via quantitative proteomics. EVs were isolated from urine after massage from 18 men (negative biopsy [n = 6], GS 6 PCa [n = 6], or GS 8-9 PCa [n = 6]). EV proteins were labeled with iTRAQ and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. We identified 4710 proteins and quantified 3528 proteins in the urinary EVs. Eleven proteins increased in patients with PCa compared to those with negative biopsy (ratio >1...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211494/hepatocyte-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-modify-blood-metabolome-and-endothelial-function-by-an-arginase-dependent-mechanism
#15
Felix Royo, Laura Moreno, Justyna Mleczko, Laura Palomo, Esperanza Gonzalez, Diana Cabrera, Angel Cogolludo, Francisco Perez Vizcaino, Sebastiaan van-Liempd, Juan M Falcon-Perez
Hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with signaling molecules and enzymes into the bloodstream. Although the importance of EVs in the intercellular communication is already recognized, the metabolic impact of the enzymes carried by these vesicles is still unclear. We evaluated the global effect of the enzymatic activities of EVs by performing untargeted metabolomic profiling of serum samples after their exposure to EVs. This approach revealed a significant change in the abundance of 94 serum metabolic signals...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210633/potential-usefulness-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-extracellular-membrane-vesicles-as-antibacterial-vaccines
#16
Chi-Won Choi, Edmond Changkyun Park, Sung Ho Yun, Sang-Yeop Lee, Seung Il Kim, Gun-Hwa Kim
The secretion of extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) is a common phenomenon that occurs in archaea, bacteria, and mammalian cells. The EMVs of bacteria play important roles in their virulence, biogenesis mechanisms, and host cell interactions. Bacterial EMVs have recently become the focus of attention because of their potential as highly effective vaccines that cause few side effects. Here, we isolated the EMVs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and examined their potential as new vaccine candidates. Although the S...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209995/rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveal-stress-responses-and-programmed-cell-death-induced-by-acetic-acid-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Yachen Dong, Jingjin Hu, Linlin Fan, Qihe Chen
As a typical harmful inhibitor in cellulosic hydrolyzates, acetic acid not only hinders bioethanol production, but also induces cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Herein, we conducted both transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to investigate the global responses under acetic acid stress at different stages. There were 295 up-regulated and 427 down-regulated genes identified at more than two time points during acetic acid treatment (150 mM, pH 3.0). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly involved in intracellular homeostasis, central metabolic pathway, transcription regulation, protein folding and stabilization, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, vesicle-mediated transport, protein synthesis, MAPK signaling pathways, cell cycle, programmed cell death, etc...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205552/a-class-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-breast-cancer-cells-activates-vegf-receptors-and-tumour-angiogenesis
#18
Qiyu Feng, Chengliang Zhang, David Lum, Joseph E Druso, Bryant Blank, Kristin F Wilson, Alana Welm, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione
Non-classical secretory vesicles, collectively referred to as extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been implicated in different aspects of cancer cell survival and metastasis. Here, we describe how a specific class of EVs, called microvesicles (MVs), activates VEGF receptors and tumour angiogenesis through a unique 90 kDa form of VEGF (VEGF90K). We show that VEGF90K is generated by the crosslinking of VEGF165, catalysed by the enzyme tissue transglutaminase, and associates with MVs through its interaction with the chaperone Hsp90...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203202/plasma-exosomes-spread-and-cluster-around-%C3%AE-amyloid-plaques-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Tingting Zheng, Jiali Pu, Yanxing Chen, Yanfang Mao, Zhangyu Guo, Hongyu Pan, Ling Zhang, Heng Zhang, Binggui Sun, Baorong Zhang
Exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle, have been shown to be involved in many disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exosomes may contribute to the spread of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein. However, the specific diffusion process of exosomes and their final destination in brain are still unclear. In the present study, we isolated exosomes from peripheral plasma and injected them into the hippocampus of an AD mouse model, and investigated exosome diffusion. We found that injected exosomes can spread from the dentate gyrus (DG) to other regions of hippocampus and to the cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202510/myc-mediates-large-oncosome-induced-fibroblast-reprogramming-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Valentina R Minciacchi, Cristiana Spinelli, Mariana Reis-Sobreiro, Lorenzo Cavallini, Sungyong You, Mandana Zandian, Xiaohong Li, Paola Chiarugi, Rosalyn M Adam, Edwin M Posadas, Giuseppe Viglietto, Michael R Freeman, Emanuele Cocucci, Neil A Bhowmick, Dolores Di Vizio
Communication between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment results in the modulation of complex signaling networks that facilitate tumor progression. Here we describe a new mechanism of intercellular communication originating from large oncosomes (LO), which are cancer cell-derived, atypically large (1-10 μm) extracellular vesicles (EV). We demonstrate that, in the context of prostate cancer, LO harbor sustained AKT1 kinase activity, nominating them as active signaling platforms. Active AKT1 was detected in circulating EV from the plasma of metastatic prostate cancer patients and was LO specific...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
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