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Motor Cortex/surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102925/the-effect-of-motor-cortex-stimulation-on-central-poststroke-pain-in-a-series-of-16-patients-with-a-mean-follow-up-of-28-months
#1
Xiaolei Zhang, Yongsheng Hu, Wei Tao, Hongwei Zhu, Dongsheng Xiao, Yongjie Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) on central poststroke pain (CPSP) and the outcome predictors associated with medium- to long-term results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 16 CPSP patients treated with MCS with a mean follow-up of 28.2 months. The pain intensity was assessed based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) before surgery and at various follow-up visits. An effective outcome was determined to be at least 40% pain relief...
January 19, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060708/characterization-and-decoding-the-spatial-patterns-of-hand-extension-flexion-using-high-density-ecog
#2
Tianxiao Jiang, Tao Jiang, Taylor Wang, Shanshan Mei, Qingzhu Liu, Yunlin Li, Xiaofei Wang, Sujit Prabhu, Zhiyi Sha, Nuri F Ince
During awake brain surgeries, electrocorticogram (ECoG) was recorded using a high density electrode grid from the motor cortex of two subjects while they were asked to execute spontaneous hand extension and flexion. Firstly, we characterized the spatio-spectral patterns of high-density ECoG during the hand movements. In both subjects, we observed event related desynchronization (ERD) in low frequency band (LFB:8-32Hz) and event related synchronization (ERS) in high frequency band (HFB:60-200Hz) where HFB-ERS was more spatially localized and movement specific compared to LFB-ERD...
January 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030474/therapeutic-benefits-of-the-methyl-donor-s-adenosylmethionine-sam-on-nerve-injury-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#3
Stéphanie Grégoire, Magali Millecamps, Lina Naso, Sonia Do Carmo, A Claudio Cuello, Moshe Szyf, Laura S Stone
Despite considerable advances in understanding mechanisms involved in chronic pain, effective treatment remains elusive. Co-morbid conditions including anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment further impact quality of life. Chronic pain is associated with reversible changes in brain anatomy and function and with long-term changes in gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, contribute to wide-spread and long-lasting reprogramming of gene expression. We previously reported decreases in global DNA methylation in the mouse frontal cortex six months following induction of neuropathic pain using the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) model...
December 22, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018196/changes-in-motor-related-cortical-activity-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease-detected-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-pilot-study
#4
Takashi Morishita, Masa-Aki Higuchi, Kazuya Saita, Yoshio Tsuboi, Hiroshi Abe, Tooru Inoue
It remains unclear how deep brain stimulation (DBS) modulates the global neuronal network involving cortical activity. We aimed to evaluate changes in cortical activity in six (two men; four women) patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent unilateral globus pallidus interna (GPI) DBS surgery using a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. As five of the patients were right-handed, DBS was performed on the left in these five cases. The mean age was 66.8 ± 4.0 years. The unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores were evaluated at baseline and 1- and 6-month follow-up...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017534/direct-motor-evoked-potentials-and-cortical-mapping-using-the-nim%C3%A2-nerve-monitoring-system-a-technical-note
#5
Suparna Bharadwaj, Faizal Haji, Matthew Hebb, Jason Chui
Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are commonly used to prevent neurological injury when operating in close proximity to the motor cortex or corticospinal pathway. We report a novel application of the NIM® nerve monitoring system (Medtronic@ NIM response 3.0) for intraoperative direct cortical (dc)-MEPs monitoring. A 69-year-old female patient presented with a 4month history of progressive left hemiparesis resulting from a large right sided posterior frontal meningioma that abutted and compressed the motor cortex...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999534/striatal-dopaminergic-innervation-regulates-subthalamic-beta-oscillations-and-cortical-subcortical-coupling-during-movements-preliminary-evidence-in-subjects-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Andrea Canessa, Nicolò G Pozzi, Gabriele Arnulfo, Joachim Brumberg, Martin M Reich, Gianni Pezzoli, Maria F Ghilardi, Cordula Matthies, Frank Steigerwald, Jens Volkmann, Ioannis U Isaias
Activation of the basal ganglia has been shown during the preparation and execution of movement. However, the functional interaction of cortical and subcortical brain areas during movement and the relative contribution of dopaminergic striatal innervation remains unclear. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and high-density electroencephalography (EEG) signals in four patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) off dopaminergic medication during a multi-joint motor task performed with their dominant and non-dominant hand...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932695/posture-dependent-corticomotor-excitability-differs-between-the-transferred-biceps-in-individuals-with-tetraplegia-and-the-biceps-of-nonimpaired-individuals
#7
Carrie L Peterson, Lynn M Rogers, Michael S Bednar, Anne M Bryden, Michael W Keith, Eric J Perreault, Wendy M Murray
Background Following biceps transfer to enable elbow extension in individuals with tetraplegia, motor re-education may be facilitated by greater corticomotor excitability. Arm posture modulates corticomotor excitability of the nonimpaired biceps. If arm posture also modulates excitability of the transferred biceps, posture may aid in motor re-education. Objective Our objective was to determine whether multi-joint arm posture affects corticomotor excitability of the transferred biceps similar to the nonimpaired biceps...
December 8, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925475/reorganization-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-following-lower-limb-amputation-for-vascular-disease-a-pre-post-amputation-comparison
#8
Brenton Hordacre, Lynley V Bradnam, Maria Crotty
PURPOSE: This study compared bilateral corticomotor and intracortical excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1), pre- and post-unilateral transtibial amputation. METHOD: Three males aged 45, 55, and 48 years respectively who were scheduled for elective amputation and thirteen (10 male, 3 female) healthy control participants aged 58.9 (SD 9.8) were recruited. Transcranial magnetic stimulation assessed corticomotor and intracortical excitability of M1 bilaterally...
December 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867921/neurological-change-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-involving-the-motor-cortex
#9
Chang-Yong Park, Hyun-Yong Choi, Sang-Ryul Lee, Tae Hoon Roh, Mi-Ra Seo, Se-Hyuk Kim
BACKGROUND: Although Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) can provide beneficial therapeutic effects for patients with brain metastases, lesions involving the eloquent areas carry a higher risk of neurologic deterioration after treatment, compared to those located in the non-eloquent areas. We aimed to investigate neurological change of the patients with brain metastases involving the motor cortex (MC) and the relevant factors related to neurological deterioration after GKRS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiological and dosimetry data of 51 patients who underwent GKRS for 60 brain metastases involving the MC...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867915/surgical-resection-of-non-glial-tumors-in-the-motor-cortex
#10
Seong-Jong Lee, Sun-Chul Hwang, Soo Bin Im, Bum-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: Direct surgery to resect tumors in the motor cortex could improve neurological symptoms or cause novel motor weakness. The present study describes the neurological outcomes of patients after the surgical resection of non-glial tumors in the primary motor cortex. METHODS: The present study included 25 patients who had pathologically confirmed non-glial tumors in the motor cortex for which they underwent surgery. Tumor location was verified using anatomical landmarks on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857035/recovery-of-long-term-paresis-following-resection-of-who-grade-ii-gliomas-infiltrating-the-pyramidal-pathway
#11
Juan Martino, Hugo Caballero, Enrique M DE Lucas, Rousinelle DA Silva-Freitas, Carlos Velasquez, Elsa Gomez, Javier Vazquez-Bourgon, Alfonso Vázquez-Barquero
Recent publications had reported high rates of preoperative neurological impairments in WHO grade II gliomas (GIIG) that significantly affect the quality of life. Consequently, one step further in the analysis of surgical outcome in GIIG is to evaluate if surgery is capable to improve preoperative deficits. Here are reported two cases of GIIG infiltrating the primary motor cortex and pyramidal pathway that had a long-term paresis before surgery. Both patients were operated with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, with identification and preservation of the primary motor cortex and pyramidal tract...
February 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817301/neuroplasticity-associated-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#12
Dustin R Grooms, Stephen J Page, Deborah S Nichols-Larsen, Ajit M W Chaudhari, Susan E White, James A Onate
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may result in neuroplastic changes due to lost mechanoreceptors of the ACL and compensations in neuromuscular control. These alterations are not completely understood. Assessing brain function after ACL injury and reconstruction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provides a means to address this gap in knowledge. Objective To investigate brain activation differences during knee flexion/extension in persons who have undergone ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and matched controls...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689923/cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-metabolite-changes-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-after-surgery
#13
Izabela Aleksanderek, Stuart M K McGregor, Todd K Stevens, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha, Neil Duggal
Purpose To characterize longitudinal metabolite alterations in the motor cortex of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and to evaluate white matter integrity with diffusion-tensor imaging in patients who are recovering neurologic function after decompression surgery. Materials and Methods Informed written consent was obtained for all procedures and the study was approved by Western University's Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Twenty-eight patients with CSM and 10 healthy control subjects were prospectively recruited and underwent two separate 3-T MR imaging examinations 6 months apart...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639395/sensorimotor-intervention-recovers-noradrenaline-content-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-cortical-injured-rats
#14
Laura E Ramos-Languren, Gabriela García-Díaz, Angélica González-Maciel, Laura E Rosas-López, Antonio Bueno-Nava, Alberto Avila-Luna, Hayde Ramírez-Anguiano, Rigoberto González-Piña
Nowadays, a consensus has been reached that designates the functional and structural reorganization of synapses as the primary mechanisms underlying the process of recovery from brain injury. We have reported that pontine noradrenaline (NA) is increased in animals after cortical ablation (CA). The aim of the present study was to explore the noradrenergic and morphological response after sensorimotor intervention (SMI) in rats injured in the motor cortex. We used male Wistar adult rats allocated in four conditions: sham-operated, injured by cortical ablation, sham-operated with SMI and injured by cortical ablation with SMI...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630700/detection-of-ca-2-dependent-acid-phosphatase-activity-identifies-neuronal-integrity-in-damaged-rat-central-nervous-system-after-application-of-bacterial-melanin
#15
Tigran R Petrosyan, Anna S Ter-Markosyan, Anna S Hovsepyan
The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3-4) (group II; n = 12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup)...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622292/hypothermia-and-rewarming-activate-a-macroglial-unfolded-protein-response-independent-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-piglets
#16
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589066/lateralization-of-cortical-negative-motor-areas
#17
Ingo Borggraefe, Claudia B Catarino, Jan Rémi, Christian Vollmar, Aurelia Peraud, Peter A Winkler, Soheyl Noachtar
OBJECTIVE: The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. METHODS: Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535235/transient-effects-of-tumor-location-on-the-functional-architecture-at-rest-in-glioblastoma-patients-three-longitudinal-case-studies
#18
Noora Tuovinen, Francesco de Pasquale, Massimo Caulo, Chiara Falletta Caravasso, Emilia Giudice, Roberto Miceli, Gianluca Ingrosso, Anne Laprie, Riccardo Santoni, Umberto Sabatini
BACKGROUND: The cognitive function of brain tumor patients is affected during the treatment. There is evidence that gliomas and surgery alter the functional brain connectivity but studies on the longitudinal effects are lacking. METHODS: We acquired longitudinal (pre- and post-radiotherapy) resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on three selected glioblastoma patients. These cases were selected to study three models: a lesion involving a functional hub within a central system, a lesion involving a peripheral node within a central system and a lesion involving a peripheral node of a non-central system...
August 17, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501333/preoperative-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-patients-with-motor-eloquent-lesions-with-emphasis-on-metastasis
#19
Philipp Hendrix, Sebastian Senger, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Joachim Oertel
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a frequently used, non-invasive method to map the motor cortex. It is of great value in the preoperative workup of patients that suffer from motor eloquent brain lesions. Here, we present a single-center experience using preoperative nTMS in cortical motor eloquent lesions with emphasis on metastasis. All patients that underwent preoperative nTMS between June 2013 and January 2016 were evaluated. A total of 61 patients underwent nTMS before undergoing surgery for a motor eloquent brain lesion...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497459/inosine-enhances-recovery-of-grasp-following-cortical-injury-to-the-primary-motor-cortex-of-the-rhesus-monkey
#20
Tara L Moore, Monica A Pessina, Seth P Finklestein, Ronald J Killiany, Bethany Bowley, Larry Benowitz, Douglas L Rosene
BACKGROUND: Inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, has been shown to stimulate axonal growth in cell culture and promote corticospinal tract axons to sprout collateral branches after stroke, spinal cord injury and TBI in rodent models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of inosine on the recovery of motor function following cortical injury in the rhesus monkey. METHODS: After being trained on a test of fine motor function of the hand, monkeys received a lesion limited to the area of the hand representation in primary motor cortex...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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