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Motor Cortex/surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805756/-an-experience-of-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-neurosurgery
#1
A G Vasyatkina, E A Levin, K Yu Orlov, V V Kobozev
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of neuromonitoring methods in prevention of postoperative neurological complications and estimation of predictive power of intraoperative changes in monitored characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study examined 240 patients, operated in the years 2014-2015 using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. One hundred and seventy-three patients suffered from hemispheric lesions and 67 had lesions located in or near the brainstem...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801826/brain-activity-changes-in-somatosensory-and-emotion-related-areas-with-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-deficiency
#2
Masaru Kadowaki, Taku Tadenuma, Nobuyuki Kumahashi, Yuji Uchio
BACKGROUND: Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? METHODS: Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783763/mapping-altered-brain-connectivity-and-its-clinical-associations-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#3
Ken Kazumata, Khin Khin Tha, Haruto Uchino, Masaki Ito, Naoki Nakayama, Takeo Abumiya
Detection of subtle ischemic injuries in moyamoya disease may enable optimization of timing of revascularization surgery, and could potentially improve functional outcomes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to study functional organization of the brain, but it remains unclear whether rs-fMRI could elucidate distinct characteristics in moyamoya disease. Here, we aimed to determine changes in a conventional rs-fMRI measure and analyze any associations with clinical symptoms and cerebral hemodynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721358/utah-optrode-array-customization-using-stereotactic-brain-atlases-and-3-d-cad-modeling-for-optogenetic-neocortical-interrogation-in-small-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#4
Ronald W Boutte, Sam Merlin, Guy Yona, Brandon Griffiths, Alessandra Angelucci, Itamar Kahn, Shy Shoham, Steve Blair
As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks(®) computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716297/on-the-relative-merits-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-pre-surgical-brain-mapping-new-tools-in-ablative-epilepsy-surgery
#5
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Asim F Choudhri, Abbas-Babajani-Feremi, Frederick A Boop, James W Wheless
Cortical Stimulation Mapping (CSM) and the Wada procedure have long been considered the gold standard for localizing motor and language-related cortical areas and for determining the language and memory-dominant hemisphere, respectively. In recent years, however, non-invasive methods such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have emerged as promising alternatives to the aforementioned procedures, particularly in cases where the invasive localization of eloquent cortex has proven to be challenging...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711737/subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-sweet-spots-and-hyperdirect-cortical-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Harith Akram, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi, Dejan Georgiev, Philipp Mahlknecht, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Marjan Jahanshahi, Marwan Hariz, John Ashburner, Tim Behrens, Ludvic Zrinzo
OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to identify subthalamic region stimulation clusters that predict maximum improvement in rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor, or emergence of side-effects; and secondly, to map-out the cortical fingerprint, mediated by the hyperdirect pathways which predict maximum efficacy. METHODS: High angular resolution diffusion imaging in twenty patients with advanced Parkinson's disease was acquired prior to bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659752/electrocorticographic-temporal-alteration-mapping-a-clinical-technique-for-mapping-the-motor-cortex-with-movement-related-cortical-potentials
#7
Zehan Wu, Tao Xie, Lin Yao, Dingguo Zhang, Xinjun Sheng, Dario Farina, Liang Chen, Ying Mao, Xiangyang Zhu
We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM) for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM), which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases) were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS) procedure for motor cortex localization...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643843/perisylvian-including-insular-childhood-epilepsy-presurgical-workup-and-surgical-outcome
#8
Elena Freri, Sara Matricardi, Francesca Gozzo, Massimo Cossu, Tiziana Granata, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: To report the presurgical workup, surgical procedures, and outcomes in a series of pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy involving the perisylvian/insular regions. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 16 pediatric patients affected by drug-resistant focal epilepsy involving perisylvian/insular regions, who consecutively underwent tailored resective surgery. All patients underwent a detailed presurgical workup, which included the analysis of the anatomoelectroclinical correlations with scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and/or with stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comprehensive cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations...
August 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616385/neurophysiological-evidence-of-preserved-connectivity-in-tuber-tissue
#9
H L Kaye, J M Peters, R Gersner, M Chamberland, A Sansevere, A Rotenberg
We present a case of preserved corticospinal connectivity in a cortical tuber, in a 10 year-old boy with intractable epilepsy and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The patient had multiple subcortical tubers, one of which was located in the right central sulcus. In preparation for epilepsy surgery, motor mapping, by neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) coupled with surface electromyography (EMG) was performed to locate the primary motor cortical areas. The resulting functional motor map revealed expected corticospinal connectivity in the left precentral gyrus...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602887/cross-modal-recruitment-of-auditory-and-orofacial-areas-during-sign-language-in-a-deaf-subject
#10
Juan Martino, Carlos Velasquez, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Enrique Marco de Lucas, Elsa Gomez
BACKGROUND: Modern sign languages used by deaf people are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. CASE DESCRIPTION: A deaf-mute patient underwent surgery of a left temporoinsular low-grade glioma. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing direct study of the cortical and subcortical organization of sign language...
July 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598277/surgical-strategy-to-avoid-ischemic-complications-of-the-pyramidal-tract-in-resective-epilepsy-surgery-of-the-insula-technical-case-report
#11
Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Takanobu Kaido, Yuu Kaneko, Masaki Iwasaki, Nobutaka Kawahara, Taisuke Otsuki
Surgical treatment of the insula is notorious for its high probability of motor complications, particularly when resecting the superoposterior part. Ischemic damage to the pyramidal tract in the corona radiata has been regarded as the cause of these complications, resulting from occlusion of the perforating arteries to the pyramidal tract through the insular cortex. The authors describe a strategy in which a small piece of gray matter is spared at the bottom of the periinsular sulcus, where the perforating arteries pass en route to the pyramidal tract, in order to avoid these complications...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583455/brain-arteriovenous-malformations-located-in-premotor-cortex-surgical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-neurological-deficits
#12
Yuming Jiao, Fuxin Lin, Jun Wu, Hao Li, Xin Chen, Zhicen Li, Ji Ma, Yong Cao, Shuo Wang, Jizong Zhao
OBJECT: The premotor cortex (PMC) is known to have a dual role in both movement and language processing. Nevertheless, surgical outcomes of premotor cortex BAVMs (PMC-BAVMs) have not been well-defined. The aim of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for neurological deficits (ND) after surgery in patients with PMC-BAVMs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with PMC-BAVMs who underwent surgical resection of the nidus. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MRI, 3D time-of-flight MRA (3D TOF-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
June 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533620/benefits-of-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-as-a-tool-to-facilitate-the-chronic-knee-injury-rehabilitation
#13
Jae-Moo Lee, Ji-Hang Lee
[Purpose] While primary motor cortex activation has been implicated as a key factor in the arthrogenic muscle inhibition after knee joint injury, no viable rehabilitation protocol has been developed to accommodate this factor. In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied as a means of dissipating arthrogenic muscle inhibition by introducing temporary motor cortex excitation prior to the rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects who have underwent the surgery due to knee injury were recruited, and randomly assigned to the control or the simulation groups...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523425/characterization-of-electrocorticogram-high-gamma-signal-in-response-to-varying-upper-extremity-movement-velocity
#14
Po T Wang, Colin M McCrimmon, Christine E King, Susan J Shaw, David E Millett, Hui Gong, Luis A Chui, Charles Y Liu, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do
The mechanism by which the human primary motor cortex (M1) encodes upper extremity movement kinematics is not fully understood. For example, human electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals have been shown to modulate with upper extremity movements; however, this relationship has not been explicitly characterized. To address this issue, we recorded high-density ECoG signals from patients undergoing epilepsy surgery evaluation as they performed elementary upper extremity movements while systematically varying movement speed and duration...
May 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506485/surgery-for-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumors-and-gangliogliomas-in-eloquent-areas-functional-results-and-seizure-control
#15
B Devaux, F Chassoux, E Landré, B Turak, A Laurent, M Zanello, C Mellerio, P Varlet
INTRODUCTION: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and gangliogliomas are developmental glioneuronal tumors usually revealed by partial epilepsy. High epileptogenicity, childhood epilepsy onset, drug-resistance, temporal location, and seizure freedom after complete resection are common characteristics of both tumors. We report the specificity of surgical management, functional results and seizure outcome in cases of a tumor location in eloquent areas. METHODS: Among 150 patients (88 males, 3-55 years) operated on for refractory epilepsy due to a glioneuronal tumor (1990-2015), 30 (20%, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors=21; gangliogliomas=9) had a tumor located in an eloquent cortex (sensory-motor, insular or language areas)...
June 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475998/refractory-focal-motor-seizures-controlled-with-intramuscular-botulinum-toxin
#16
Wei-I Lee, Patrick W Carney, Andrew J Hughes, John S Archer
Patients with recurrent focal motor seizures present a management dilemma, as anti-convulsants are often ineffective, and resective surgery poses a high risk of motor deficit. We describe three patients with recurrent focal motor seizures that remained refractory despite numerous anti-convulsant trials. All patients showed either hyperperfusion on Single-Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) or hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in primary motor cortex during periods of sustained jerking, although EEG abnormalities were uncommon...
July 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458383/efficacy-of-fiber-tractography-in-the-stereotactic-surgery-of-the-thalamus-for-patients-with-essential-tremor
#17
Susumu Sasada, Takashi Agari, Tatsuya Sasaki, Akihiko Kondo, Aiko Shinko, Takaaki Wakamori, Mihoko Okazaki, Ittetsu Kin, Ken Kuwahara, Masahiro Kameda, Takao Yasuhara, Isao Date
Several targets and targeting methods are utilized in stereotactic surgery to achieve tremor suppression for patients with intractable tremor. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging, have enabled the setting of appropriate targets in stereotactic surgery. In this retrospective study, the optimal target to suppress tremors in stereotactic surgery was explored using diffusion tensor image-based fiber tractography. Four tracts were focused on in this study, namely: the cerebello-thalamo-premotor cortical fiber tract, cerebello-thalamo-primary motor cortical fiber tract, spino-thalamo-somatosensory cortical fiber tract, and pyramidal tract...
May 1, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452617/intradiploic-encephalocele-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-an-adult-patient-electrophysiological-implications-during-surgery
#18
Luca Valci, Martina Dalolio, Dominique Kuhlen, Emanuele Pravatà, Claudio Gobbi, Michael Reinert
Encephaloceles are herniations of brain parenchyma through congenital or acquired osseous-dural defects of the skull base or cranial vault. Different types of symptoms, due to CSF fistulas, meningitis, or seizures, are often associated with this condition. The authors present a rare case of spontaneous right frontal parasagittal encephalocele in a 70-year-old man who was experiencing a spastic progressive paresis of his left lower limb. Results of routine electrophysiological workup (motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and electroneuromyography), as well as those of MRI of the spinal cord, were normal...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405611/long-term-follow-up-of-a-randomized-aav2-gad-gene-therapy-trial-for-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Martin Niethammer, Chris C Tang, Peter A LeWitt, Ali R Rezai, Maureen A Leehey, Steven G Ojemann, Alice W Flaherty, Emad N Eskandar, Sandra K Kostyk, Atom Sarkar, Mustafa S Siddiqui, Stephen B Tatter, Jason M Schwalb, Kathleen L Poston, Jaimie M Henderson, Roger M Kurlan, Irene H Richard, Christine V Sapan, David Eidelberg, Matthew J During, Michael G Kaplitt, Andrew Feigin
BACKGROUND. We report the 12-month clinical and imaging data on the effects of bilateral delivery of the glutamic acid decarboxylase gene into the subthalamic nuclei (STN) of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. METHODS. 45 PD patients were enrolled in a 6-month double-blind randomized trial of bilateral AAV2-GAD delivery into the STN compared with sham surgery and were followed for 12 months in open-label fashion. Subjects were assessed with clinical outcome measures and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384595/clinical-outcomes-from-maximum-safe-resection-of-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumors-using-awake-craniotomy
#20
Anastasia Groshev, Devang Padalia, Sephalie Patel, Rosemarie Garcia-Getting, Solmaz Sahebjam, Peter A Forsyth, Frank D Vrionis, Arnold B Etame
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze outcomes in patients undergoing awake craniotomies for tumor resection at our institution in terms of extent of resection, functional preservation and length of hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All cases of adults undergoing awake-craniotomy from September 2012-February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed based on an IRB approved protocol. Information regarding patient age, sex, cancer type, procedure type, location, hospital stay, extent of resection, and postoperative complications was extracted...
June 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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