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Motor Cortex/surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951631/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-laparoscopic-surgical-skill-acquisition
#1
P Ciechanski, A Cheng, O Damji, S Lopushinsky, K Hecker, Z Jadavji, A Kirton
Background: Changes in medical education may limit opportunities for trainees to gain proficiency in surgical skills. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) can augment motor skill learning and may enhance surgical procedural skill acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tDCS on simulation-based laparoscopic surgical skill acquisition. Methods: In this double-blind, sham-controlled randomized trial, participants were randomized to receive 20 min of anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the dominant primary motor cortex, concurrent with Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery simulation-based training...
April 2018: BJS open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913971/brain-activation-due-to-postoperative-pain-from-the-right-hand-measured-with-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-positron-emission-tomography
#2
Torsten Gordh, Bertil Vinnars, Håkan Fischer, Hans Blomberg, Jan Modig, Mats Fredrikson, Per Hartvig
Background Brain activation resulting from acute postoperative pain has to our knowledge not previously been studied using positron emission tomography, except from one case study. The aim of this study was to monitor activation in brain sensory pathways during acute pain after surgery of the hand. A secondary aim was to compare brain activation in clinical postoperative pain to that previously reported, by the same research group, for a model of experimental pain from the same body area. Increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is presumed to indicate neuronal activation and decrease in blood flow decreased neuronal firing...
July 1, 2010: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909050/beta-burst-coupling-across-the-motor-circuit-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Gerd Tinkhauser, Flavie Torrecillos, Yann Duclos, Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Petra Fischer, Romain Carron, Marie-Laure Welter, Carine Karachi, Wim Vandenberghe, Bart Nuttin, Tatiana Witjas, Jean Régis, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Alexandre Eusebio, Peter Brown
Exaggerated activity in the beta band (13-35 Hz) is a hallmark of basal ganglia signals in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Beta activity however is not constantly elevated, but comes in bursts. In previous work we showed that the longer beta bursts are maintained, the more the oscillatory synchronisation within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) increases, which is posited to limit the information coding capacity of local circuits. Accordingly, a higher incidence of longer bursts correlates positively with clinical impairment, while the opposite is true for short, more physiological bursts...
September 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882701/a-new-model-of-experimental-hemispherotomy-in-young-adult-rattus-norvegicus-a-neural-tract-tracing-and-spect-in-vivo-study
#4
Ivair Matias, Daoud Hibrahim Elias-Filho, Camila Araújo Bernardino Garcia, Guilherme Henrique Silva, Jorge Mejia, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ana Cláudia Camargo Miranda, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Luíza da Silva Lopes, Norberto Cysne Coimbra, Hélio Rubens Machado
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to describe a new experimental model of hemispherotomy performed on laboratory animals. METHODS Twenty-six male young adult Wistar rats were distributed into two groups (surgery and control). The nonfluorescent anterograde neurotracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 MW) was microinjected into the motor cortex area (M1) according to The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates atlas to identify pathways and fibers disconnected after the experimental hemispherectomy...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876283/object-action-dissociation-a-voxel-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-study-on-102-patients-after-glioma-removal
#5
Alberto Pisoni, Giulia Mattavelli, Alessandra Casarotti, Alessandro Comi, Marco Riva, Lorenzo Bello, Costanza Papagno
Data concerning the neural basis of noun and verb processing are inconsistent. Some authors assume that action-verb processing is based on frontal areas while nouns processing relies on temporal regions; others argue that the circuits processing verbs and nouns are closely interconnected in a predominantly left-lateralized fronto-temporal-parietal network; yet, other researchers consider that the primary motor cortex plays a crucial role in processing action verbs. In the present study, one hundred and two patients with a tumour either in the right or left hemisphere were submitted to picture naming of objects and actions before and after surgery...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872384/dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortices-differentially-lateralize-prediction-errors-and-outcome-valence-in-a-decision-making-task
#6
Alexander R Weiss, Martin J Gillies, Marios G Philiastides, Matthew A Apps, Miles A Whittington, James J FitzGerald, Sandra G Boccard, Tipu Z Aziz, Alexander L Green
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is proposed to facilitate learning by signaling mismatches between the expected outcome of decisions and the actual outcomes in the form of prediction errors. The dACC is also proposed to discriminate outcome valence-whether a result has positive (either expected or desirable) or negative (either unexpected or undesirable) value. However, direct electrophysiological recordings from human dACC to validate these separate, but integrated, dimensions have not been previously performed...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871537/plastic-change-of-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-anxiety-like-behaviors-associated-with-chronic-pain-in-neuropathic-rats
#7
Kangning Sang, Chaofei Bao, Yushi Xin, Shunan Hu, Xian Gao, Yongsheng Wang, Mark Bodner, Yong-Di Zhou, Xiao-Wei Dong
Clinical studies show that anxiety and chronic pain are concomitant. The neural basis for the comorbidity is unclear. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been recognized as a critical area for affective disorders and chronic pain modulation. In this study, we examined the role of the PFC in the pathogenesis of anxiety associated with chronic pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain with spare nerve injury (SNI). The SNI rats showed apparent anxiety-like behaviors in both open field (OF) test and elevated-plus maze (EPM) test eight weeks after surgery...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868451/convergence-analysis-of-micro-lesions-caml-an-approach-to-mapping-of-diffuse-lesions-from-carotid-revascularization
#8
Allyson C Rosen, Salil Soman, Jyoti Bhat, Angela R Laird, Jeffrey Stephens, Simon B Eickhoff, P Mickle Fox, Becky Long, David Dinishak, Mario Ortega, Barton Lane, Max Wintermark, Elizabeth Hitchner, Wei Zhou
Carotid revascularization (endarterectomy, stenting) prevents stroke; however, procedure-related embolization is common and results in small brain lesions easily identified by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). A crucial barrier to understanding the clinical significance of these lesions has been the lack of a statistical approach to identify vulnerable brain areas. The problem is that the lesions are small, numerous, and non-overlapping. Here we address this problem with a new method, the Convergence Analysis of Micro-Lesions (CAML) technique, an extension of the Anatomic Likelihood Analysis (ALE)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799346/predictors-of-postoperative-motor-function-in-rolandic-meningiomas
#9
Malte Ottenhausen, Kavelin Rumalla, Iyan Younus, Shlomo Minkowitz, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Theodore H Schwartz
OBJECTIVE Resection of supratentorial meningiomas is generally considered a low-risk procedure, but tumors involving the rolandic cortex present a unique challenge. The rate of motor function deterioration associated with resecting such tumors is not well described in the literature. Thus, the authors sought to report the rates and predictors of postoperative motor deficit following the resection of rolandic meningiomas to assist with patient counseling and surgical decision-making. METHODS An institution's pathology database was screened for meningiomas removed between 2000 and 2017, and patients with neuroradiological evidence of rolandic involvement were identified...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794614/chronic-neuropathic-pain-reduces-opioid-receptor-availability-with-associated-anhedonia-in-rat
#10
Scott J Thompson, Mark H Pitcher, Laura S Stone, Farid Tarum, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen, Dale O Kiesewetter, Petra Schweinhardt, M Catherine Bushnell
The opioid system plays a critical role in both the experience and management of pain. While acute activation of the opioid system can lead to pain relief, the effects of chronic pain on the opioid system remain opaque. Cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) studies show reduced availability of brain opioid receptors in chronic pain patients, but are unable to (i) determine if these changes are due to the chronic pain itself or to pre-existing or medication-induced differences in the endogenous opioid system, and (ii) identify the neurobiological substrate of reduced opioid receptor availability...
May 22, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787868/individualized-tractography-based-parcellation-of-the-globus-pallidus-pars-interna-using-7t-mri-in-movement-disorder-patients-prior-to-dbs-surgery
#11
Rémi Patriat, Scott E Cooper, Yuval Duchin, Jacob Niederer, Christophe Lenglet, Joshua Aman, Michael C Park, Jerrold L Vitek, Noam Harel
The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries for the treatment of movement disorders relies on the accurate placement of an electrode within the motor portion of subcortical brain targets. However, the high number of electrodes requiring relocation indicates that today's methods do not ensure sufficient accuracy for all patients. Here, with the goal of aiding DBS targeting, we use 7 Tesla (T) MRI data to identify the functional territories and parcellate the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) into motor, associative and limbic regions in individual subjects...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#12
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
August 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777890/cortical-activation-changes-in-hirayama-disease-after-anterior-cervical-decompression-and-fusion
#13
Hong-Li Wang, Yi-Wei Wu, Jian Song, Jian-Yuan Jiang, Fei-Zhou Lu, Xiao-Sheng Ma, Xin-Lei Xia
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury may cause cortical reconstruction. We, therefore explored the changes in cortical activation before and after anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery in patients with Hirayama disease (HD). METHODS: In total, 17 cases with HD underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery. Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed preoperatively, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery...
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775149/added-value-of-multiple-versus-single-sessions-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-predicting-motor-cortex-stimulation-efficacy-for-refractory-neuropathic-pain
#14
Benjamin Pommier, Charles Quesada, Camille Fauchon, Christophe Nuti, François Vassal, Roland Peyron
OBJECTIVE Selection criteria for offering patients motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for refractory neuropathic pain are a critical topic of research. A single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been advocated for selecting MCS candidates, but it has a low negative predictive value. Here the authors investigated whether multiple rTMS sessions would more accurately predict MCS efficacy. METHODS Patients included in this longitudinal study could access MCS after at least four rTMS sessions performed 3-4 weeks apart...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733410/perioperative-multimodal-evaluation-and-surgical-tactics-of-tumor-related-epilepsy-2-dimensional-operative-video
#15
Chengxin Ma, Rui Feng, N U Farrukh Hameed, Jie Zhang, Dongxiao Zhuang, Jinsong Wu
Treatment of tumor-related epilepsy (TRE), especially for tumors near critical areas, requires surgeons to strike a balance between the epileptic benefit and functional outcome after surgery. Here, we present a case in which multimodal evaluation facilitated the achievement of such surgical balance. Informed patient consent was obtained. A 17-yr-old female presented with seizure attacks for 2 yr. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right parietal mass lesion with hypointense signal on T1W imaging, hyperintense signal on T2W imaging, and homogeneous enhancement...
May 4, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725362/resveratrol-attenuates-neurological-deficit-and-neuroinflammation-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#16
Jia-Chen Cai, Wei Liu, Fei Lu, Wen-Bing Kong, Xin-Xuan Zhou, Peng Miao, Cheng-Xiang Lei, Yan Wang
Resveratrol (RESV) improves histopathological and behavioral outcomes in diseases of the central nervous system. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating its neuroprotective effects on secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective function of resveratrol following ICH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham, ICH and ICH+RESV groups. Rats underwent ICH and received an intraperitoneal injection of RESV daily...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689406/hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-trapping-with-high-flow-bypass-for-a-giant-paraclinoid-internal-carotid-artery-aneurysm
#17
Masanao Mohri, Toshiya Ichinose, Naoyuki Uchiyama, Kouichi Misaki, Iku Nambu, Yasushi Takabatake, Mitsutoshi Nakada
BACKGROUND: Hyperperfusion syndrome associated with aneurysm surgery is rare. The occurrence of the syndrome after trapping with high-flow bypass has not been described previously. Herein, we present a case of the syndrome occurring after trapping with high-flow bypass of an unruptured giant paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 68-year-old woman with progressive loss of vision in her left eye. After a diagnosis of a left giant ICA aneurysm, she underwent successful trapping with high-flow bypass...
April 21, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683871/sensorimotor-cortex-atrophy-in-patients-with-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#18
Lanbo Wang, Bing Yu, Qun Li, Fei Qi, Qiyong Guo
Previous studies have shown compensatory adaptive changes in cerebral functions before surgery in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), especially in the sensorimotor cortices. However, the structural changes in the sensorimotor cortices in patients with CSM remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the volumetric changes in the sensorimotor cortices using morphological MRI and to correlate these changes with clinical scales. We hypothesize that CSM causes atrophy in the sensorimotor cortices, which results in functional changes during CSM progression...
July 4, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653127/evaluation-of-early-chronic-functional-outcomes-and-their-relationship-to-pre-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-pathology-following-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Alina Arulsamy, Jason Teng, Holly Colton, Frances Corrigan, Lyndsey Collins-Praino
TBI is a significant risk factor for the development of dementia, with the interaction between structural damage from TBI and neuroinflammation potentially driving this relationship. This study investigated the early chronic post-TBI neuroinflammatory response and its relationship to both neurodegenerative pathology and functional impairment up to 3 months post-injury. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or the Marmarou model of diffuse moderate-severe TBI. At 1-month and 3-months post-injury, a functional battery encompassing motor function, depressive-like behaviour, anxiety and cognition was performed...
August 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574593/longitudinal-brain-activation-changes-related-to-electrophysiological-findings-in-patients-with-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-before-and-after-spinal-cord-decompression-an-fmri-study
#20
Lumír Hrabálek, Pavel Hok, Petr Hluštík, Eva Čecháková, Tomáš Wanek, Pavel Otruba, Miroslav Vaverka, Petr Kaňovský
BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction, potentially leading to severe disability. Abnormal cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are independent predictors of disease progression. Abnormal MRI is accompanied by various activation changes in functional brain MRI (fMRI), whereas preoperative and postoperative fMRI adaptations associated with abnormal preoperative MEP remain unknown...
May 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
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