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Motor Cortex/surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867921/neurological-change-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-involving-the-motor-cortex
#1
Chang-Yong Park, Hyun-Yong Choi, Sang-Ryul Lee, Tae Hoon Roh, Mi-Ra Seo, Se-Hyuk Kim
BACKGROUND: Although Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) can provide beneficial therapeutic effects for patients with brain metastases, lesions involving the eloquent areas carry a higher risk of neurologic deterioration after treatment, compared to those located in the non-eloquent areas. We aimed to investigate neurological change of the patients with brain metastases involving the motor cortex (MC) and the relevant factors related to neurological deterioration after GKRS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiological and dosimetry data of 51 patients who underwent GKRS for 60 brain metastases involving the MC...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867915/surgical-resection-of-non-glial-tumors-in-the-motor-cortex
#2
Seong-Jong Lee, Sun-Chul Hwang, Soo Bin Im, Bum-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: Direct surgery to resect tumors in the motor cortex could improve neurological symptoms or cause novel motor weakness. The present study describes the neurological outcomes of patients after the surgical resection of non-glial tumors in the primary motor cortex. METHODS: The present study included 25 patients who had pathologically confirmed non-glial tumors in the motor cortex for which they underwent surgery. Tumor location was verified using anatomical landmarks on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857035/recovery-of-long-term-paresis-following-resection-of-who-grade-ii-gliomas-infiltrating-the-pyramidal-pathway
#3
Juan Martino, Hugo Caballero, Enrique M DE Lucas, Rousinelle DA Silva-Freitas, Carlos Velasquez, Elsa Gomez, Javier Vazquez-Bourgon, Alfonso Vázquez-Barquero
Recent publications had reported high rates of preoperative neurological impairments in WHO grade II gliomas (GIIG) that significantly affect the quality of life. Consequently, one step further in the analysis of surgical outcome in GIIG is to evaluate if surgery is capable to improve preoperative deficits. Here are reported two cases of GIIG infiltrating the primary motor cortex and pyramidal pathway that had a long-term paresis before surgery. Both patients were operated with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, with identification and preservation of the primary motor cortex and pyramidal tract...
February 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817301/neuroplasticity-associated-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#4
Dustin R Grooms, Stephen J Page, Deborah S Nichols-Larsen, Ajit M W Chaudhari, Susan E White, James A Onate
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may result in neuroplastic changes due to lost mechanoreceptors of the ACL and compensations in neuromuscular control. These alterations are not completely understood. Assessing brain function after ACL injury and reconstruction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provides a means to address this gap in knowledge. Objective To investigate brain activation differences during knee flexion/extension in persons who have undergone ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and matched controls...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689923/cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-metabolite-changes-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-after-surgery
#5
Izabela Aleksanderek, Stuart M K McGregor, Todd K Stevens, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha, Neil Duggal
Purpose To characterize longitudinal metabolite alterations in the motor cortex of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and to evaluate white matter integrity with diffusion-tensor imaging in patients who are recovering neurologic function after decompression surgery. Materials and Methods Informed written consent was obtained for all procedures and the study was approved by Western University's Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Twenty-eight patients with CSM and 10 healthy control subjects were prospectively recruited and underwent two separate 3-T MR imaging examinations 6 months apart...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639395/sensorimotor-intervention-recovers-noradrenaline-content-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-cortical-injured-rats
#6
Laura E Ramos-Languren, Gabriela García-Díaz, Angélica González-Maciel, Laura E Rosas-López, Antonio Bueno-Nava, Alberto Avila-Luna, Hayde Ramírez-Anguiano, Rigoberto González-Piña
Nowadays, a consensus has been reached that designates the functional and structural reorganization of synapses as the primary mechanisms underlying the process of recovery from brain injury. We have reported that pontine noradrenaline (NA) is increased in animals after cortical ablation (CA). The aim of the present study was to explore the noradrenergic and morphological response after sensorimotor intervention (SMI) in rats injured in the motor cortex. We used male Wistar adult rats allocated in four conditions: sham-operated, injured by cortical ablation, sham-operated with SMI and injured by cortical ablation with SMI...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630700/detection-of-ca-2-dependent-acid-phosphatase-activity-identifies-neuronal-integrity-in-damaged-rat-central-nervous-system-after-application-of-bacterial-melanin
#7
Tigran R Petrosyan, Anna S Ter-Markosyan, Anna S Hovsepyan
The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3-4) (group II; n = 12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup)...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622292/hypothermia-and-rewarming-activate-a-macroglial-unfolded-protein-response-independent-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-piglets
#8
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589066/lateralization-of-cortical-negative-motor-areas
#9
Ingo Borggraefe, Claudia B Catarino, Jan Rémi, Christian Vollmar, Aurelia Peraud, Peter A Winkler, Soheyl Noachtar
OBJECTIVE: The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. METHODS: Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535235/transient-effects-of-tumor-location-on-the-functional-architecture-at-rest-in-glioblastoma-patients-three-longitudinal-case-studies
#10
Noora Tuovinen, Francesco de Pasquale, Massimo Caulo, Chiara Falletta Caravasso, Emilia Giudice, Roberto Miceli, Gianluca Ingrosso, Anne Laprie, Riccardo Santoni, Umberto Sabatini
BACKGROUND: The cognitive function of brain tumor patients is affected during the treatment. There is evidence that gliomas and surgery alter the functional brain connectivity but studies on the longitudinal effects are lacking. METHODS: We acquired longitudinal (pre- and post-radiotherapy) resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on three selected glioblastoma patients. These cases were selected to study three models: a lesion involving a functional hub within a central system, a lesion involving a peripheral node within a central system and a lesion involving a peripheral node of a non-central system...
2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501333/preoperative-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-patients-with-motor-eloquent-lesions-with-emphasis-on-metastasis
#11
Philipp Hendrix, Sebastian Senger, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Joachim Oertel
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a frequently used, non-invasive method to map the motor cortex. It is of great value in the preoperative workup of patients that suffer from motor eloquent brain lesions. Here, we present a single-center experience using preoperative nTMS in cortical motor eloquent lesions with emphasis on metastasis. All patients that underwent preoperative nTMS between June 2013 and January 2016 were evaluated. A total of 61 patients underwent nTMS before undergoing surgery for a motor eloquent brain lesion...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497459/inosine-enhances-recovery-of-grasp-following-cortical-injury-to-the-primary-motor-cortex-of-the-rhesus-monkey
#12
Tara L Moore, Monica A Pessina, Seth P Finklestein, Ronald J Killiany, Bethany Bowley, Larry Benowitz, Douglas L Rosene
BACKGROUND: Inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, has been shown to stimulate axonal growth in cell culture and promote corticospinal tract axons to sprout collateral branches after stroke, spinal cord injury and TBI in rodent models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of inosine on the recovery of motor function following cortical injury in the rhesus monkey. METHODS: After being trained on a test of fine motor function of the hand, monkeys received a lesion limited to the area of the hand representation in primary motor cortex...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457136/the-effect-of-surgery-and-intracerebral-injections-on-motor-skill-learning-in-rats-results-from-a-database-analysis
#13
M Schubring-Giese, A R Luft, J A Hosp
Male Long-Evans rats are often used to investigate neural mechanisms of learning in the motor system. Successful acquisition of a skilled motor task is influenced by various variables such as animal supplier and batch membership. In this retrospective analysis of our laboratory database, we investigate how head and brain surgery as well as intracerebral injections that were performed to address particular scientific questions affect motor learning. Overall, invasive interventions (n=90) slow the acquisition of a skilled-reaching task when compared to naïve animals (n=184; P=0...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446784/monitoring-of-motor-and-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-during-spine-surgery-intraoperative-changes-and-postoperative-outcomes
#14
Shin Hye Chang, Yoon Ghil Park, Dae Hyun Kim, Seo Yeon Yoon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the combination of muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) measured during spinal surgery can predict immediate and permanent postoperative motor deficits. METHODS: mMEP and SEP was monitored in patients undergoing spinal surgery between November 2012 and July 2014. mMEPs were elicited by a train of transcranial electrical stimulation over the motor cortex and recorded from the upper/lower limbs...
June 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408803/electrocorticographic-mapping-of-expressive-language-function-without-requiring-the-patient-to-speak-a-report-of-three-cases
#15
Adriana de Pesters, AmiLyn M Taplin, Matthew A Adamo, Anthony L Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk
OBJECTIVE: Patients requiring resective brain surgery often undergo functional brain mapping during perioperative planning to localize expressive language areas. Currently, all established protocols to perform such mapping require substantial time and patient participation during verb generation or similar tasks. These issues can make language mapping impractical in certain clinical circumstances (e.g., during awake craniotomies) or with certain populations (e.g., pediatric patients)...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393311/two-photon-imaging-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-neural-activity-in-awake-and-anesthetized-marmosets
#16
Thom P Santisakultarm, Calvin J Kersbergen, Daryl K Bandy, David C Ide, Sang-Ho Choi, Afonso C Silva
BACKGROUND: Marmosets are a powerful, emerging model for human behavior and neurological disorders. However, longitudinal imaging modalities that visualize both cellular structure and function within the cortex are not available in this animal model. Hence, we implemented an approach to quantify vascular topology, hemodynamics, and neural activity in awake marmosets using two-photon microscopy (2PM). NEW METHOD: Marmosets were acclimated to a custom stereotaxic system...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392264/probabilistic-versus-deterministic-tractography-for-delineation-of-the-cortico-subthalamic-hyperdirect-pathway-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease-selected-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#17
Mikkel V Petersen, Torben E Lund, Niels Sunde, Jesper Frandsen, Frederikke Rosendal, Niels Juul, Karen Østergaard
OBJECTIVE Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and tractography allows noninvasive mapping of the structural connections of the brain, and may provide important information for neurosurgical planning. The hyperdirect pathway, connecting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the motor cortex, is assumed to play a key role in mediating the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS), which is an effective but poorly understood treatment for Parkinson disease. This study aimed to apply recent methodological advances in DWI acquisition and analysis to the delineation of the hyperdirect pathway in patients with Parkinson disease selected for surgery...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343977/potential-neuroprotection-of-protodioscin-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-through-intervening-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#18
Xinxin Zhang, Xuanji Xue, Liang Xian, Zengjun Guo, Yoichiro Ito, Wenji Sun
The aim of the current research is to investigate the cerebral-protection of protodioscin on a transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model and to explore its possible underlying mechanisms. The rats were preconditioned with protodioscin at the doses of 25 and 50mgkg(-1) prior to surgery. Then the animals were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using an intraluminal method by inserting a thread (90min surgery). After the blood flow was restored in 24h via withdrawing the thread, some representative indicators for the cerebral injury were evaluated by various methods including TTC-staining, TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting...
September 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293965/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-for-endoscopic-endonasal-approaches-to-the-skull-base-a-technical-guide
#19
REVIEW
Harminder Singh, Richard W Vogel, Robert M Lober, Adam T Doan, Craig I Matsumoto, Tyler J Kenning, James J Evans
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265094/motor-skills-training-improves-sensorimotor-dysfunction-and-increases-microtubule-associated-protein-2-mrna-expression-in-rats-with-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#20
Keigo Tamakoshi, Kentaro Kawanaka, Hideaki Onishi, Yasuyuki Takamatsu, Kazuto Ishida
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effects of motor skills training on the sensorimotor function and the expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to ICH or sham operation. ICH was caused by the injection of collagenase into the left striatum. Rats were randomly assigned to no training, acrobatic training, and sham groups. The acrobatic group performed 5 types of acrobatic tasks from 4 to 28 days after surgery...
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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