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Motor Cortex/surgery

Tianxiao Jiang, Tao Jiang, Taylor Wang, Shanshan Mei, Qingzhu Liu, Yunlin Li, Xiaofei Wang, Sujit Prabhu, Zhiyi Sha, Nuri F Ince
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has been used as a reliable modality to control a brain machine interface (BMI). Recently, promising results of high-density ECoG have shown that non redundant information can be recorded with finer spatial resolution from the cortical surface. In this study, highdensity ECoG was recorded intraoperatively from two patients during awake brain surgery while performing instructed hand flexion and extension. Event related desynchronization (ERD) were found in the low frequency band (LFB: 8-32 Hz) band while event related synchronization (ERS) were found in the high frequency band (HFB: 60-200 Hz)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sander De Groote, Mats De Jaeger, Peter Van Schuerbeek, Stefan Sunaert, Ronald Peeters, Dirk Loeckx, Lisa Goudman, Patrice Forget, Ann De Smedt, Maarten Moens
Background and purpose: Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a common and devastating chronic neuropathic pain disorder. Conventional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applies electrical suprathreshold pulses to the spinal cord at a frequency of 40-60 Hz and relieves pain in FBSS patients. During the last decade, two major changes have emerged in the techniques of stimulating the spinal cord: paresthesia-free or subthreshold stimulation and administration of higher frequency or higher amounts of energy to the spinal cord...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Hui Jae Do, Han Gil Seo, Byung-Mo Oh, Chul-Kee Park, Jin Wook Kim, Young Doo Choi, Seung Hak Lee
Transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potential (TES-MEP) is a valuable intraoperative monitoring technique during brain tumor surgery. However, TES can stimulate deep subcortical areas located far from the motor cortex. There is a concern about false-negative results from the use of TES-MEP during resection of those tumors adjacent to the primary motor cortex. Our study reports three cases of TES-MEP monitoring with false-negative results due to deep axonal stimulation during brain tumor resection...
October 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Jonathan H Chen, Andres A Gonzalez, Parastou Shilian, Justin Cheongsiatmoy
Transcranial electrical motor evoked potential (TcMEP) is a modality utilized in intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring to assess the integrity of the corticospinal tract. Traditionally, TcMEPs are obtained by anodal stimulation of the scalp over the motor cortex of the selected hemisphere and referenced to the contralateral hemisphere. Subsequent compound motor action potential responses (CMAPs) are recorded at various muscles. The muscle responses of interest are usually those recorded in the limb contralateral to the hemisphere of stimulation...
November 2, 2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Jiri Bartek, Gerald Cooray, Mominul Islam, Margret Jensdottir
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Stereotactic brain biopsy (SB) is an important part of the neurosurgical armamentarium, with the possibility of achieving histopathological diagnosis in otherwise inaccessible lesions of the brain. Nevertheless, the procedure is not without the risk of morbidity, which is especially true for lesions in eloquent parts of the brain, where even a minor adverse event can result in significant deficits. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is widely used to chart lesions in eloquent areas, successfully guiding maximal safe resection, while its potential role in aiding with the planning of a stereotactic biopsy is so far unexplored...
October 26, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Lina Bunketorp Käll, Jan Fridén, Malin Björnsdotter
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes atrophy of brain regions linked to motor function. We aimed to estimate cortical thickness in brain regions that control surgically restored limb movement in individuals with tetraplegia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sahlgrenska University hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Six individuals with tetraplegia who had undergone surgical restoration of grip function by surgical transfer of one elbow flexor (brachioradialis), to the paralyzed thumb flexor (flexor pollicis longus)...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Michel Desmurget, Nathalie Richard, Pierre-Aurélien Beuriat, Alexandru Szathmari, Carmine Mottolese, Jean-René Duhamel, Angela Sirigu
Inhibition is a central component of motor control. Although current models emphasize the involvement of frontal networks [1, 2], indirect evidence suggests a potential contribution of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). This region is active during inhibition of upper-limb movements to undesired targets [3], and its stimulation with single magnetic pulses can depress motor-evoked potentials [4, 5]. Also, it has been speculated that alien hand movements caused by focal parietal lesions reflect a release of inhibition from PPC to M1 [6]...
October 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Brett D Dufour, Jodi L McBride
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal genetic neurological disorder caused by a mutation in the human Huntingtin (HTT) gene. This mutation confers a toxic gain of function of the encoded mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein, leading to widespread neuropathology including the formation of mHTT-positive inclusion bodies, gene dysregulation, reduced levels of adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis and neuron loss throughout many regions of the brain. Additionally, because HTT is ubiquitously expressed, several peripheral tissues are also affected...
October 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Andrew K Conner, Chad A Glenn, Goksel Sali, Tressie M McCoy, James D Battiste, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Michael E Sughrue
BACKGROUND: As knowledge of the brain has increased, clinicians have learned that the cerebrum is composed of complex networks that interact to execute key functions. While neurosurgeons can typically predict and preserve primary cortical function through the primary visual and motor cortices, preservation of higher cognitive functions that are less well localized in regions previously deemed "silent" has proven more difficult. This suggests these silent cortical regions are more anatomically complex and redundant than our previous methods of inquiry can explain, and that progress in cerebral surgery will be made with an improved understanding of brain connectomics...
December 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Daniel Schneider, Jan Hermann, Kate A Gerber, Juan Ansó, Marco D Caversaccio, Stefan Weber, Lukas Anschuetz
HYPOTHESIS: Combining novel registration strategies and advanced image guidance technology enable submillimeter accurate and noninvasive navigation for middle ear and lateral skull base surgery. BACKGROUND: Surgery in the internal auditory canal and the petrous apex present a cognitive and motoric challenge for the surgeon. To date, image guidance rarely assists these procedures, mainly due to the lack of navigation solutions providing submillimeter accuracy associated with low cost in terms of invasiveness, radiation, and time...
September 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Tao Wen, Xiufeng Zhang, Shengxiang Liang, Zuanfang Li, Xuemei Xing, Weilin Liu, Jing Tao
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at Baihui (DU20) and Shenting (DU24) acupoints could improve cognitive function and enhance spontaneous low-frequency brain activity in rats with ischemic stroke. METHODS: Total 36 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups-the sham surgery (Sham) group, the middle cerebral artery occlusion induced cognitive deficit (MICD) group, and the MICD with EA (MICD + EA) treatment group. The rats in MICD + EA group received EA treatment at DU20 and DU24 acupoints for 14 consecutive days after the surgery...
October 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Tammam Abboud, Cindy Schwarz, Manfred Westphal, Tobias Martens
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity and specificity between the novel threshold and amplitude criteria for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring after transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) during surgery for supratentorial lesions in the same patient cohort. METHODS One hundred twenty-six patients were included. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Craniotomies did not expose motor cortex, so that direct mapping was less suitable. After TES, MEPs were recorded bilaterally from abductor pollicis brevis (APB), from orbicularis oris (OO), and/or from tibialis anterior (TA)...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Takafumi Tanei, Yasukazu Kajita, Satoshi Maesawa, Daisuke Nakatsubo, Kosuke Aoki, Hiroshi Noda, Shigenori Takebayashi, Norimoto Nakahara, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
The long-term effects of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) remain unknown. To identify the long-term effects after MCS or SCS and determine any associated predictive factors for the outcomes. Fifty patients underwent MCS (n = 15) or SCS (n = 35) for chronic neuropathic pain. The degree of pain was assessed preoperatively, at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery, and during the time of the last follow-up using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Percentage of pain relief (PPR) was calculated, with "long-term effect" defined as PPR ≥ 30% and the presence of continued pain relief over 12 months...
October 15, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Didier Scavarda, Tiago Cavalcante, Agnès Trébuchon, Anne Lépine, Nathalie Villeneuve, Nadine Girard, Aileen McGonigal, Mathieu Milh, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVE Hemispherotomy is currently the most frequently performed surgical option for refractory epilepsy associated with large perinatal or childhood ischemic events. Such an approach may lead to good seizure control, but it has inherent functional consequences linked to the disconnection of functional cortices. The authors report on 6 consecutive patients who presented with severe epilepsy associated with hemiplegia due to stroke and who benefitted from a new, stereoelectroencephalography-guided partial disconnection technique...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
G I Moysak, D A Rzaev, V M Dzhafarov, K V Slavin
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the results of treatment of poorly controlled deafferentation facial pain using motor cortex stimulation and to review the relevant literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 8 patients (3 males and 5 females) with deafferentation facial pain who were implanted with a system of constant motor cortex stimulation at the Illinois University in Chicago in 2004-2016 and Novosibirsk Federal Center of Neurosurgery in 2017. The patients' age ranged from 37 to 81 years (mean age, 57...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Xiaolei Zhang, Hongwei Zhu, Wei Tao, Yongjie Li, Yongsheng Hu
BACKGROUND: Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has been used in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain for more than 25 years. However, the mechanisms and outcome predictors still represent major challenges. OBJECTIVES: To investigate outcome predictors and potential mechanisms of MCS on central post-stroke pain (CPSP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 16 CPSP patients were analyzed at our center. The pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) before surgery and at the last follow-up...
2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Seunggu J Han, Ramin A Morshed, Irene Troncon, Kesshi M Jordan, Roland G Henry, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE Herein, the authors report their experience with intraoperative stimulation mapping to locate the descending subcortical motor pathways in patients undergoing surgery for hemispheric gliomas within or adjacent to the rolandic cortex, with particular description of the morbidity and functional outcomes associated with this technique. METHODS This is a retrospective analysis of patients who, in the period between 1997 and 2016, had undergone resection of hemispheric perirolandic gliomas within or adjacent to descending motor pathways...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Zhenhong Wang, Wei Zhou, Haiping Dong, Xiaoxiao Ma, Zhenzhou He
Focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced cerebral inflammation, aggravates brain damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on I/R brain injury in rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided to seven experimental groups (18 rats/group): Sham surgery; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery (90 min); DEX10 [10 µg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 30 min prior to MCAO]; DEX50 (50 µg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to MCAO); DEX100 (100 µg/kg i...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nobuo Yanagisawa
Involuntary movements and parkinsonism have been interesting and important topics in neurology since the last century. The development of anatomical and physiological studies of the neural circuitry of motor systems has encouraged the study of movement disorders by means of pathophysiology and brain imaging.Multichannel electromyography from affected muscles has generated objective and analytical data on chorea, ballism, athetosis, and dystonia. Studies using floor reaction forces revealed the pathophysiology of freezing of gait in parkinsonism...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Efi Kazum, Oleg Dolkart, Yoav Rosenthal, Haggai Sherman, Eyal Amar, Moshe Salai, Eran Maman, Ofir Chechik
OBJECTIVE: Drilling through bone is a complex action that requires precise motor skills of an orthopedic surgeon. In order to minimize plunging and soft tissue damage, the surgeon must halt drill progression precisely following penetration of the far cortex. The purpose of this study was to create a low-cost and easy-to-use drilling simulator to train orthopedic residents in reducing the drill plunging depth. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This prospective observational study was performed in the division of orthopedic surgery of a single tertiary medical center...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
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