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Motor Cortex/surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135714/ritanserin-a-serotonin-2-receptor-antagonist-inhibits-functional-recovery-after-cerebral-infarction
#1
Kenmei Mizutani, Shigeru Sonoda, Hideaki Wakita
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-HT) may be implicated in functional recovery after stroke; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the role of 5-HT was verified using ritanserin, a potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, and protein expression and modification were analyzed to further understand the association between paralysis recovery and molecular mechanisms in the brain. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were induced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery...
November 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132382/early-motor-function-after-local-treatment-of-brain-metastases-in-the-motor-cortex-region-with-stereotactic-radiotherapy-radiosurgery-or-microsurgical-resection-a-retrospective-study-of-two-consecutive-cohorts
#2
Bogdan Pintea, Brigitta Baumert, Thomas Mehari Kinfe, Konstantinos Gousias, Yaroslav Parpaley, Jan Patrick Boström
BACKGROUND: We compared the functional outcome and influential factors of two standard treatment modalities for central cerebral metastases: electrophysiological-controlled microsurgical resection (MSR) and stereotactic radiotherapy/stereotactic radiosurgery (SRT/SRS). METHODS: We performed a database search for central metastasis treatments during the period from January 2008 to September 2012 in two clinical registers: 1) register for intraoperative neuromonitoring (Department of Neurosurgery), and 2) prospective database for SRT/SRS (Department of Radiotherapy)...
November 13, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115488/repeated-inhalation-of-sevoflurane-inhibits-the-information-transmission-of-purkinje-cells-and-delays-motor-development-via-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE%C2%B5-subunit-in-neonatal-mice
#3
Hong Fang, Ze-Hua Wang, Ying-Jiang Bu, Zhi-Jun Yuan, Guo-Qiang Wang, Yan Guo, Xiao-Yun Cheng, Wen-Jie Qiu
General anesthesia is widely used in pediatric surgery, although the influence of general anesthesia on cerebellar information transmission and motor function is unclear. In the present study, neonatal mice received repeated inhalation of sevoflurane, and electrophysiological alterations in Purkinje cells (PCs) and the development of motor functions were detected. In addition, γ‑aminobutyric acidA receptor ε (GABAA‑R ε) subunit knockout mice were used to investigate the mechanism of action of sevoflurane on cerebellar function...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081155/-changes-of-brain-function-and-cognitive-function-after-carotid-artery-stenting
#4
Z X Lu, G Deng, H L Wei, G F Zhao, L Z Wen, X Chen
Objective: To investigate the effect of carotid artery stenting(CAS) on cognitive function and brain function based on changes of a battery of neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Thirty-three patients were included with 17 in the stent-placement group and 16 in the control group (receiving medical treatment), among whom, the unilateral or bilateral severe internal carotid artery stenosis was confirmed by cerebral vascular angiography in the department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery of Zhongda Hospital Southeast University from June 2015 to September 2016...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073500/precision-surgery-of-rolandic-glioma-and-insights-from-extended-functional-mapping
#5
Oliver Flouty, Chandan Reddy, Marshall Holland, Christopher Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Hiroyuki Oya, Jeremy Greenlee, Patrick Hitchon, Matthew Howard
OBJECTIVES: Electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ECSM) is the current gold standard functional mapping technique; however, it is burdened by several limitations. Our objective in this study is to show that extended functional mapping modalities can (1) allow neurosurgeons to map and preserve eloquent regions that are inaccessible by the traditional ECSM technique and (2) factor into the operative decision-making process and surgical trajectory during resection of Rolandic brain tumors...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063812/reorganized-neural-activation-in-motor-cortex-following-subdural-fluid-collection-an-fmri-and-dti-study
#6
Layla Gould, Michael E Kelly, Marla J S Mickleborough, Chelsea Ekstrand, Kyle Brymer, Tasha Ellchuk, Ron Borowsky
We report a patient with a cavernous malformation involving the right lentiform nucleus. Pre-surgical planning included fMRI localization of language, motor, and sensory processing, and DTI of white matter tracts. fMRI results revealed no activation near the planned resection zone. However, post-surgery the patient developed a subdural fluid collection, which applied pressure to the primary motor cortex (M1). Follow-up scans revealed that motor activation had shifted due to pressure, and then shifted to a new location after the fluid collection subsided...
October 24, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060069/subdural-recordings-from-an-awake-human-brain-for-measuring-current-intensity-during-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#7
Yousef Salimpour, Chang-Chia Liu, William R Webber, Kelly A Mills, William S Anderson
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging method, used for non-invasively stimulating the brain in normal healthy subjects and in patients with neurological disorders. However, the pattern of the spatial distribution of the current intensity induced by tDCS is poorly understood. In this study, we directly measured the spatial characteristics of the current intensity induced by tDCS using an intracranial strip electrode array implanted over the motor cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing deep brain stimulation lead placement surgery...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055867/pre-surgical-mapping-of-eloquent-cortex-for-paediatric-epilepsy-surgery-candidates-evidence-from-a-review-of-advanced-functional-neuroimaging
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Collinge, Garreth Prendergast, Steven T Mayers, David Marshall, Poppy Siddell, Elizabeth Neilly, Colin D Ferrie, Gayatri Vadlamani, Jeremy Macmullen-Price, Daniel J Warren, Arshad Zaman, Paul Chumas, John Goodden, Matthew C H J Morrall
PURPOSE: A review of all published evidence for mapping eloquent (motor, language and memory) cortex using advanced functional neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and magnetoencephalography [MEG]) for paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates has not been conducted previously. Research in this area has predominantly been in adult populations and applicability of these techniques to paediatric populations is less established. METHODS: A review was performed using an advanced systematic search and retrieval of all published papers examining the use of functional neuroimaging for paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates...
November 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045564/critical-language-areas-show-increased-functional-connectivity-in-human-cortex
#9
John D Rolston, Edward F Chang
Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) mapping is routinely used to identify critical language sites before resective neurosurgery. The precise locations of these sites are highly variable across patients, occurring in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes-it is this variability that necessitates individual patient mapping. But why these particular anatomical sites are so privileged in each patient is unknown. We hypothesized that critical language sites have greater functional connectivity with nearby cortex than sites without critical functions, since they serve as central nodes within the language network...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029335/cortical-reorganization-in-dual-innervation-by-single-peripheral-nerve
#10
Mou-Xiong Zheng, Yun-Dong Shen, Xu-Yun Hua, Ao-Lin Hou, Yi Zhu, Wen-Dong Xu
BACKGROUND: Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and repair is related with cortical reorganization. However, the mechanism of innervating dual targets by 1 donor nerve is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cortical reorganization when the phrenic nerve simultaneously innervates the diaphragm and biceps. METHODS: Total brachial plexus (C5-T1) injury rats were repaired by phrenic nerve-musculocutaneous nerve transfer with end-to-side (n = 15) or end-to-end (n = 15) neurorrhaphy...
September 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023287/effects-of-illusory-kinesthesia-by-tendon-vibratory-stimulation-on-the-postoperative-neural-activities-of-distal-radius-fracture-patients
#11
Ryota Imai, Michihiro Osumi, Tomoya Ishigaki, Takayuki Kodama, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka
Activation of motor-related regions with illusory kinesthesia had been suspected to contribute toward pain alleviation. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the sensorimotor cortex activation during illusory kinesthesia by vibratory tendon stimulation in patients who were in pain. We investigated the relationship between the sensorimotor cortex and postoperative pain to clarify the analgesia mechanism. Patients who had undergone distal radius fracture surgery were studied. A hand massager provided the vibration stimulus for the illusory kinesthesia on the extensor digitorum muscle at the nonaffected hand's wrist joint on 7 consecutive days starting 1 day after surgery...
December 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944096/sensory-motor-and-intrinsic-mechanisms-of-thalamic-activity-related-to-organic-and-psychogenic-dystonia
#12
K Kobayashi, J H Chien, J H Kim, F A Lenz
The thalamus is a critical module in the circuit which has been associated with movement disorders including dystonia. This circuit extends from cortex to striatum to pallidum to the thalamic nucleus Ventral Lateral anterior (VLa) to cortex and can be studied by activity recorded during thalamic stereotactic surgery for the treatment of dystonia. Neuronal recordings in the VLa nucleus show low frequency modulation of firing that is correlated with and leads the low frequency modulation of EMG activity; this EMG activity is characteristic of dystonia...
June 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917592/prefrontal-versus-motor-cortex-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-effects-on-post-surgical-opioid-use
#13
Jeffrey J Borckardt, Scott T Reeves, Cole Milliken, Brittan Carter, Thomas I Epperson, Ryan J Gunselman, Alok Madan, H Del Schutte, Harry A Demos, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Pain is often a complaint that precedes total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the procedure itself is associated with considerable post-operative pain lasting days to weeks which can predict longer-term surgical outcomes. Previously, we reported significant opioid-sparing effects of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation from a single-blind trial. In the present study, we used double-blind methodology to compare motor cortex tDCS and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS...
November 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890033/the-wada-test-might-predict-postoperative-fine-finger-motor-deficit-after-hemispherotomy
#14
Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Keishiro Sato, Hideo Enoki
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral hemispherotomy is a surgical method with a high rate of seizure reduction in patients with intractable epilepsy. However, there is a probability of postoperative motor deficits. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the Wada test can help predict motor function outcomes after hemispherotomy and, therefore, may be useful in decision-making and patient selection. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A total of 13 patients with hemispherical intractable epilepsy underwent hemispherical disconnection surgeries...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840099/specific-dti-seeding-and-diffusivity-analysis-improve-the-quality-and-prognostic-value-of-tms-based-deterministic-dti-of-the-pyramidal-tract
#15
Tizian Rosenstock, Davide Giampiccolo, Heike Schneider, Sophia Jutta Runge, Ina Bährend, Peter Vajkoczy, Thomas Picht
OBJECT: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used preoperatively in patients with eloquent-located brain lesions and allows analyzing non-invasively the spatial relationship between the tumor and functional areas (e.g. the motor cortex and the corticospinal tract [CST]). In this study, we examined the diffusion parameters FA (fractional anisotropy) and ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) within the CST in different locations and analyzed their interrater reliability and usefulness for predicting the patients' motor outcome with a precise approach of specific region of interest (ROI) seeding based on the color-coded FA-map...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805756/-an-experience-of-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-neurosurgery
#16
A G Vasyatkina, E A Levin, K Yu Orlov, V V Kobozev
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of neuromonitoring methods in prevention of postoperative neurological complications and estimation of predictive power of intraoperative changes in monitored characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study examined 240 patients, operated in the years 2014-2015 using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. One hundred and seventy-three patients suffered from hemispheric lesions and 67 had lesions located in or near the brainstem...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801826/brain-activity-changes-in-somatosensory-and-emotion-related-areas-with-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-deficiency
#17
Masaru Kadowaki, Taku Tadenuma, Nobuyuki Kumahashi, Yuji Uchio
BACKGROUND: Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? METHODS: Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014...
November 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783763/mapping-altered-brain-connectivity-and-its-clinical-associations-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#18
Ken Kazumata, Khin Khin Tha, Haruto Uchino, Masaki Ito, Naoki Nakayama, Takeo Abumiya
Detection of subtle ischemic injuries in moyamoya disease may enable optimization of timing of revascularization surgery, and could potentially improve functional outcomes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to study functional organization of the brain, but it remains unclear whether rs-fMRI could elucidate distinct characteristics in moyamoya disease. Here, we aimed to determine changes in a conventional rs-fMRI measure and analyze any associations with clinical symptoms and cerebral hemodynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721358/utah-optrode-array-customization-using-stereotactic-brain-atlases-and-3-d-cad-modeling-for-optogenetic-neocortical-interrogation-in-small-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#19
Ronald W Boutte, Sam Merlin, Guy Yona, Brandon Griffiths, Alessandra Angelucci, Itamar Kahn, Shy Shoham, Steve Blair
As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks(®) computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716297/on-the-relative-merits-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-pre-surgical-brain-mapping-new-tools-in-ablative-epilepsy-surgery
#20
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Asim F Choudhri, Abbas-Babajani-Feremi, Frederick A Boop, James W Wheless
Cortical Stimulation Mapping (CSM) and the Wada procedure have long been considered the gold standard for localizing motor and language-related cortical areas and for determining the language and memory-dominant hemisphere, respectively. In recent years, however, non-invasive methods such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have emerged as promising alternatives to the aforementioned procedures, particularly in cases where the invasive localization of eloquent cortex has proven to be challenging...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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