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Motor Cortex/surgery

Izabela Aleksanderek, Stuart M K McGregor, Todd K Stevens, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha, Neil Duggal
Purpose To characterize longitudinal metabolite alterations in the motor cortex of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and to evaluate white matter integrity with diffusion-tensor imaging in patients who are recovering neurologic function after decompression surgery. Materials and Methods Informed written consent was obtained for all procedures and the study was approved by Western University's Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Twenty-eight patients with CSM and 10 healthy control subjects were prospectively recruited and underwent two separate 3-T MR imaging examinations 6 months apart...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
Laura E Ramos-Languren, Gabriela García-Díaz, Angélica González-Maciel, Laura E Rosas-López, Antonio Bueno-Nava, Alberto Avila-Luna, Hayde Ramírez-Anguiano, Rigoberto González-Piña
Nowadays, a consensus has been reached that designates the functional and structural reorganization of synapses as the primary mechanisms underlying the process of recovery from brain injury. We have reported that pontine noradrenaline (NA) is increased in animals after cortical ablation (CA). The aim of the present study was to explore the noradrenergic and morphological response after sensorimotor intervention (SMI) in rats injured in the motor cortex. We used male Wistar adult rats allocated in four conditions: sham-operated, injured by cortical ablation, sham-operated with SMI and injured by cortical ablation with SMI...
September 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Tigran R Petrosyan, Anna S Ter-Markosyan, Anna S Hovsepyan
The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3-4) (group II; n = 12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup)...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Ingo Borggraefe, Claudia B Catarino, Jan Rémi, Christian Vollmar, Aurelia Peraud, Peter A Winkler, Soheyl Noachtar
OBJECTIVE: The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. METHODS: Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Noora Tuovinen, Francesco de Pasquale, Massimo Caulo, Chiara Falletta Caravasso, Emilia Giudice, Roberto Miceli, Gianluca Ingrosso, Anne Laprie, Riccardo Santoni, Umberto Sabatini
BACKGROUND: The cognitive function of brain tumor patients is affected during the treatment. There is evidence that gliomas and surgery alter the functional brain connectivity but studies on the longitudinal effects are lacking. METHODS: We acquired longitudinal (pre- and post-radiotherapy) resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on three selected glioblastoma patients. These cases were selected to study three models: a lesion involving a functional hub within a central system, a lesion involving a peripheral node within a central system and a lesion involving a peripheral node of a non-central system...
2016: Radiation Oncology
Philipp Hendrix, Sebastian Senger, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Joachim Oertel
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a frequently used, non-invasive method to map the motor cortex. It is of great value in the preoperative workup of patients that suffer from motor eloquent brain lesions. Here, we present a single-center experience using preoperative nTMS in cortical motor eloquent lesions with emphasis on metastasis. All patients that underwent preoperative nTMS between June 2013 and January 2016 were evaluated. A total of 61 patients underwent nTMS before undergoing surgery for a motor eloquent brain lesion...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Tara L Moore, Monica A Pessina, Seth P Finklestein, Ronald J Killiany, Bethany Bowley, Larry Benowitz, Douglas L Rosene
BACKGROUND: Inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, has been shown to stimulate axonal growth in cell culture and promote corticospinal tract axons to sprout collateral branches after stroke, spinal cord injury and TBI in rodent models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of inosine on the recovery of motor function following cortical injury in the rhesus monkey. METHODS: After being trained on a test of fine motor function of the hand, monkeys received a lesion limited to the area of the hand representation in primary motor cortex...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
M Schubring-Giese, A R Luft, J A Hosp
Male Long-Evans rats are often used to investigate neural mechanisms of learning in the motor system. Successful acquisition of a skilled motor task is influenced by various variables such as animal supplier and batch membership. In this retrospective analysis of our laboratory database, we investigate how head and brain surgery as well as intracerebral injections that were performed to address particular scientific questions affect motor learning. Overall, invasive interventions (n=90) slow the acquisition of a skilled-reaching task when compared to naïve animals (n=184; P=0...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Shin Hye Chang, Yoon Ghil Park, Dae Hyun Kim, Seo Yeon Yoon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the combination of muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) measured during spinal surgery can predict immediate and permanent postoperative motor deficits. METHODS: mMEP and SEP was monitored in patients undergoing spinal surgery between November 2012 and July 2014. mMEPs were elicited by a train of transcranial electrical stimulation over the motor cortex and recorded from the upper/lower limbs...
June 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Adriana de Pesters, AmiLyn M Taplin, Matthew A Adamo, Anthony L Ritaccio, Gerwin Schalk
OBJECTIVE: Patients requiring resective brain surgery often undergo functional brain mapping during perioperative planning to localize expressive language areas. Currently, all established protocols to perform such mapping require substantial time and patient participation during verb generation or similar tasks. These issues can make language mapping impractical in certain clinical circumstances (e.g., during awake craniotomies) or with certain populations (e.g., pediatric patients)...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Thom P Santisakultarm, Calvin J Kersbergen, Daryl K Bandy, David C Ide, Sang-Ho Choi, Afonso C Silva
BACKGROUND: Marmosets are a powerful, emerging model for human behavior and neurological disorders. However, longitudinal imaging modalities that visualize both cellular structure and function within the cortex are not available in this animal model. Hence, we implemented an approach to quantify vascular topology, hemodynamics, and neural activity in awake marmosets using two-photon microscopy (2PM). NEW METHOD: Marmosets were acclimated to a custom stereotaxic system...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Mikkel V Petersen, Torben E Lund, Niels Sunde, Jesper Frandsen, Frederikke Rosendal, Niels Juul, Karen Østergaard
OBJECTIVE Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and tractography allows noninvasive mapping of the structural connections of the brain, and may provide important information for neurosurgical planning. The hyperdirect pathway, connecting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the motor cortex, is assumed to play a key role in mediating the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS), which is an effective but poorly understood treatment for Parkinson disease. This study aimed to apply recent methodological advances in DWI acquisition and analysis to the delineation of the hyperdirect pathway in patients with Parkinson disease selected for surgery...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Xinxin Zhang, Xuanji Xue, Liang Xian, Zengjun Guo, Yoichiro Ito, Wenji Sun
The aim of the current research is to investigate the cerebral-protection of protodioscin on a transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model and to explore its possible underlying mechanisms. The rats were preconditioned with protodioscin at the doses of 25 and 50mgkg(-1) prior to surgery. Then the animals were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using an intraluminal method by inserting a thread (90min surgery). After the blood flow was restored in 24h via withdrawing the thread, some representative indicators for the cerebral injury were evaluated by various methods including TTC-staining, TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting...
September 2016: Steroids
Harminder Singh, Richard W Vogel, Robert M Lober, Adam T Doan, Craig I Matsumoto, Tyler J Kenning, James J Evans
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base...
2016: Scientifica
Keigo Tamakoshi, Kentaro Kawanaka, Hideaki Onishi, Yasuyuki Takamatsu, Kazuto Ishida
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effects of motor skills training on the sensorimotor function and the expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to ICH or sham operation. ICH was caused by the injection of collagenase into the left striatum. Rats were randomly assigned to no training, acrobatic training, and sham groups. The acrobatic group performed 5 types of acrobatic tasks from 4 to 28 days after surgery...
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Sophia A Strike, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Amit Jain, Khaled M Kebaish, Dolores B Njoku, Daniel Becker, Michael C Ain, Paul D Sponseller
STUDY DESIGN: Review of techniques and description of institutional clinical experience. OBJECTIVE: To provide a historical review and description of key neuromonitoring concepts, focusing on neurogenic motor-evoked potentials and descending neurogenic evoked potentials, and to review the authors' experience with neuromonitoring techniques in children and adults undergoing spinal deformity surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The original form of neuromonitoring, the Stagnara wake-up test, remains the "gold standard" for detecting true neurological deficits...
May 27, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Sandy Goncalves, Todd K Stevens, Patricia Doyle-Pettypiece, Robert Bartha, Neil Duggal
OBJECTIVE Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of reversible spinal cord dysfunction in people over the age of 55 years. Following surgery for symptomatic CSM, patients demonstrate motor improvement early in the postoperative course, whereas sensory improvement can lag behind. The authors of the present study hypothesized that changes in the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the motor and sensory cortices in the brain would emulate the time course of neurological recovery following decompression surgery for CSM...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Germán Mendoza, Adrien Peyrache, Jorge Gámez, Luis Prado, György Buzsáki, Hugo Merchant
We describe a technique to semichronically record the cortical extracellular neural activity in the behaving monkey employing commercial high-density electrodes. After the design and construction of low cost microdrives that allow varying the depth of the recording locations after the implantation surgery, we recorded the extracellular unit activity from pools of neurons at different depths in the presupplementary motor cortex (pre-SMA) of a rhesus monkey trained in a tapping task. The collected data were processed to classify cells as putative pyramidal cells or interneurons on the basis of their waveform features...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nikolce Mackovski, Jinchi Liao, Ruihui Weng, Xiaobo Wei, Rui Wang, Zhaoyu Chen, Xu Liu, Yinghua Yu, Barbara J Meyer, Ying Xia, Chao Deng, Xu-Feng Huang, Qing Wang
AIMS: Cannabinoid 1(CB1) receptors are closely correlated to the dopaminergic system and involved in cognitive function. Since statins have been used to regulate the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) via its anti-inflammation and neuroprotective effects, we asked if statins affect the CB1 receptors in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat. METHODS: The PD rat model was established by injecting 6-OHDA into the unilateral medial forebrain bundle; while rats were orally pre-treated with simvastatin (1 or 10mg/kg/day), or saline for 5days before surgery, and the same treatments for each group were continued for 3weeks post-surgery...
June 15, 2016: Life Sciences
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