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Body composition preterm infants

Geneviève Tremblay, Christine Boudreau, Sylvie Bélanger, Odette St-Onge, Etienne Pronovost, David Simonyan, Isabelle Marc
BACKGROUND: The identification of factors involved in the postnatal growth of preterm infants will help achieve growth similar to that of term infants. OBJECTIVES: As per protocol: to compare body composition in very preterm infants at term-corrected age (TCA) with that in term infants, and to explore relationships between neonatal characteristics and body composition in preterm infants. METHODS: Anthropometry, nutritional characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were prospectively collected in 26 preterm (<29 weeks) and 33 term (37-40 weeks) infants...
November 19, 2016: Neonatology
Ellen W Demerath, William Johnson, Bridget A Davern, Christina G Anderson, Jeffrey S Shenberger, Sonya Misra, Sara E Ramel
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that nutritional management of the preterm infant should aim to achieve body composition that replicates the in utero fetus, but intrauterine body composition reference charts for preterm infants are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to create body composition reference curves for preterm infants that approximate the body composition of the in utero fetus from 30 to 36 wk of gestation. DESIGN: A total of 223 ethnically diverse infants born at 30 + 0 to 36 + 6 wk of gestation were enrolled...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maria Lorella Giannì, Dario Consonni, Nadia Liotto, Paola Roggero, Laura Morlacchi, Pasqua Piemontese, Camilla Menis, Fabio Mosca
(1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography...
October 23, 2016: Nutrients
S E Ramel, L Zhang, S Misra, C G Anderson, E W Demerath
BACKGROUND: Recent literature suggests that neonatal adiposity is predictive of later metabolic health, while neonatal lean mass is predictive of later cognitive function amongst preterm infants. Anthropometric indices that accurately reflect neonatal body composition could improve clinical care and aid future research, but their validity has not been systematically tested in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine the weight/length indices that best reflect neonatal body composition in preterm infants...
September 16, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Julie Brown, Tineke J Crawford, Jane Alsweiler, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance that first presents and is recognised during pregnancy and usually resolves after the birth of the baby. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity for the mother and her baby. Treatment usually includes lifestyle modification and/or pharmacological therapy (oral antidiabetic agents or insulin) with the aim to maintain treatment targets for blood glucose concentrations. Finding novel treatment agents which are effective, acceptable and safe for the mother and her baby are important...
September 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
J R Kiger, S N Taylor, C L Wagner, C Finch, L Katikaneni
BACKGROUND: Body composition is a key metric for assessing nutrition in preterm infants. In many neonatal intensive care units body composition is estimated using anthropometric indices which mathematically combine body weight and length. However, the accuracy of these indices is unknown in preterm infants. In contrast, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) has been shown to accurately measure neonatal fat mass, but it is not widely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine which anthropometric index is most correlated to infant fat mass, as determined by ADP...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Ipsita Goswami, Niels Rochow, Gerhard Fusch, Kai Liu, Michael L Marrin, Matthias Heckmann, Mathias Nelle, Christoph Fusch
OBJECTIVE: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC) and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. METHODS: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined...
2016: Nutrients
Ekhard E Ziegler
Because of their exceedingly high rate of growth, premature infants have very high needs for all nutrients. Requirements have been estimated by the factorial method based on the body composition of the fetus. Failure to meet the high requirements for protein impairs growth and places the infant at risk of neurodevelopmental impairments. Human milk, the preferred feeding for premature infants because of its protective effects, does not provide adequate amounts of nutrients and must be fortified. On the basis of studies performed several decades ago using very high protein intakes, in the past it has been believed that protein intakes that met the high needs of premature babies are dangerous for premature babies...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Nicholas D Embleton, Murthy Korada, Claire L Wood, Mark S Pearce, Ravi Swamy, Timothy D Cheetham
BACKGROUND: Accelerated infant weight gain in individuals born full term is linked to cardiovascular risk in adulthood, but data in those born preterm are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight gain in infancy and childhood with later markers of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents who were born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Children born preterm with regular assessments of infant growth had auxology, body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile determined in adolescence...
June 10, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Pan Huang, Jianghua Zhou, Yanan Yin, Wenjuan Jing, Biru Luo, Jiang Wang
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test)...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Sabita Uthaya, Xinxue Liu, Daphne Babalis, Caroline J Doré, Jane Warwick, Jimmy Bell, Louise Thomas, Deborah Ashby, Giuliana Durighel, Ash Ederies, Monica Yanez-Lopez, Neena Modi
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition is central to the care of very immature infants. Current international recommendations favor higher amino acid intakes and fish oil-containing lipid emulsions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to compare 1) the effects of high [immediate recommended daily intake (Imm-RDI)] and low [incremental introduction of amino acids (Inc-AAs)] parenteral amino acid delivery within 24 h of birth on body composition and 2) the effect of a multicomponent lipid emulsion containing 30% soybean oil, 30% medium-chain triglycerides, 25% olive oil, and 15% fish oil (SMOF) with that of soybean oil (SO)-based lipid emulsion on intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) content...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sara E Ramel, Heather L Gray, Ellen Christiansen, Christopher Boys, Michael K Georgieff, Ellen W Demerath
OBJECTIVE: This work investigates the relationship between early body composition changes and neurodevelopment at 1 year age corrected for prematurity (CA). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal study to measure body composition weekly in 34 very low birth weight preterm infants using air displacement plethysmography, beginning when infants stabilized after birth until discharge. Neurodevelopmental testing (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III) was performed at 12 months CA...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Ann-Marie Brennan, Brendan P Murphy, Mairead E Kiely
The goal of preterm nutrition in achieving growth and body composition approximating that of the fetus of the same postmenstrual age is difficult to achieve. Current nutrition recommendations depend largely on expert opinion, due to lack of evidence, and are primarily birth weight based, with no consideration given to gestational age and/or need for catch-up growth. Assessment of growth is based predominately on anthropometry, which gives insufficient attention to the quality of growth. The present paper provides a review of the current literature on the nutritional management and assessment of growth in preterm infants...
May 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Frances M Cronin, Ricardo Segurado, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Cecily C Kelleher, Richard E Tremblay
Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems...
2016: PloS One
Nina Mól, Przemko Kwinta
Prematurity is a high risk factor threatening the well-being of newborns and their somatic and psychological development in the future. Preterm babies need special medical care in which proper nutrition and metabolic control play an evident role. Our review presents the current knowledge concerning the clinical value of different methods investigated in the neonatal unit setting, including: protein markers of nutritional status (albumin,prealbumin, transferrin, and Retinol Binding Protein (RBP) and hormonal markers of nutritional status (somatomedin C, visfatin and ghrelin)...
July 2015: Developmental Period Medicine
Nina Mól, Przemko Kwinta
AIM: Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance values and body composition during early infancy in groups of preterm newborns and full-term newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 newborns was enrolled in the study: 26 very low birth weight preterm newborns with the mean birth weight of 1236 g (SD: 161) as the study group and 12 term newborns with birth weight of 2500-4000 g as the control group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition using bioimpedance analysis at the age of 1 week and at the age of 3 months were assessed...
July 2015: Developmental Period Medicine
Martijn J J Finken, Bibian van der Voorn, Annemieke C Heijboer, Marita de Waard, Johannes B van Goudoever, Joost Rotteveel
Very preterm (i.e., <32 weeks of gestation) infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit are compromised in their abilities to respond adequately to common threats like hemodynamic changes and reduced energy supplies, which is partly attributable to adrenocortical insufficiency. Conversely, later in life, these infants show features of increased glucocorticoid bioactivity, such as abdominal fat distribution, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2. It has been suggested that the very preterm newborn responds to the adverse postnatal environment with a sustained elevation in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity that persists beyond infancy...
2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Mateo G Leon, Hind N Moussa, Monica Longo, Claudia Pedroza, Ziad A Haidar, Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Sean C Blackwell, Baha M Sibai
Objective This study aims to determine the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension and to compare the adverse outcomes in chronic hypertensive pregnancies with and without GDM. Study Design A secondary analysis from a multicenter trial of low-dose aspirin for preeclampsia prevention in women with chronic hypertension. The rate of GDM was evaluated among singleton pregnancies complicated with chronic hypertension and grouped according to their GDM status...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Michael J McGeachie, Joanne E Sordillo, Travis Gibson, George M Weinstock, Yang-Yu Liu, Diane R Gold, Scott T Weiss, Augusto Litonjua
Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allows comprehensive assessment of bacterial community composition from human body sites. Previously published and publicly accessible data on 58 preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit who underwent frequent stool collection was used. We constructed Dynamic Bayesian Networks from the data and analyzed predictive performance and network characteristics. We constructed a DBN model of the infant gut microbial ecosystem, which explicitly captured specific relationships and general trends in the data: increasing amounts of Clostridia, residual amounts of Bacilli, and increasing amounts of Gammaproteobacteria that then give way to Clostridia...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Angélica González Stäger, Alejandra Rodríguez Fernández, Carolina Muñoz Valenzuela, Alejandra Ojeda Sáez, Ana San Martín Navarrete
INTRODUCTION: Catch-up growth in preterm-born children occurs in the first months of life, but in some cases, growth recovery takes place in adolescence. The objective of this study was to study the growth and development of preterm-born adolescents from a cohort of preterm infants born between 1995 and 1996, who resided in the cities of Chillán and San Carlos in the Biobío Region, Chile. The results were then compared with term-born adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A sample of 91 children from the cohort was studied and compared with 91 term-born adolescents matched for gender, age, and attendance at the same educational institution...
July 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
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