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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736966/molecular-characterization-of-nasal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-workers-of-an-automaker-company-in-southeast-iran
#1
Mohammad Hossein Sobhanipoor, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Fereshteh Saffari
Colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococccus aureus (MRSA) can occur more commonly in healthy people who live in close together or are in close physical contact with each other. Having knowledge about the molecular characteristics of these strains provides considerable discernment into the epidemiology of this important microorganism. A total of 806 nasal swabs were collected from healthy workers of an automaker company in the southeast of Iran and were analyzed to detect MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) were performed...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733674/role-of-sccmec-type-in-resistance-to-the-synergistic-activity-of-oxacillin-and-cefoxitin-in-mrsa
#2
Nathalie T Reichmann, Mariana G Pinho
β-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) preventing peptidoglycan synthesis and this inhibition is circumvented in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains through the expression of an additional PBP, named PBP2A. This enzyme is encoded by the mecA gene located within the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec) mobile genetic element, of which there are 12 types described to date. Previous investigations aimed at analysing the synergistic activity of two β-lactams, oxacillin and cefoxitin, found that SCCmec type IV community-acquired MRSA strains exhibited increased susceptibility to oxacillin in the presence of cefoxitin, while hospital-acquired MRSA strains were unaffected...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732789/effect-of-ceftiofur-and-enrofloxacin-on-e-coli-sub-population-in-pig-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
Dachuan Lin, Kaichao Chen, Miaomiao Xie, Lianwei Ye, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant sub-population of the gut microbiome in both human and animals may be enriched during antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: This study investigated how the size and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of antibiotic resistant sub-population organisms in the animal gastrointestinal tract changed upon exposure to different levels of ceftiofur and enrofloxacin by plating fecal samples collected from piglets before and after antibiotic treatment onto MacConkey agar containing 0...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731472/high-abundance-and-expression-of-transposases-in-bacteria-from-the-baltic-sea
#4
Theoden Vigil-Stenman, Karolina Ininbergs, Birgitta Bergman, Martin Ekman
Transposases are mobile genetic elements suggested to have an important role in bacterial genome plasticity and host adaptation but their transcriptional activity in natural bacterial communities is largely unexplored. Here we analyzed metagenomes and -transcriptomes of size fractionated (0.1-0.8, 0.8-3.0 and 3.0-200 μm) bacterial communities from the brackish Baltic Sea, and adjacent marine waters. The Baltic Sea transposase levels, up to 1.7% of bacterial genes and 2% of bacterial transcripts, were considerably higher than in marine waters and similar to levels reported for extreme environments...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729899/evolutionary-loss-of-melanogenesis-in-the-tunicate-molgula-occulta
#5
Claudia Racioppi, Maria Carmen Valoroso, Ugo Coppola, Elijah K Lowe, C Titus Brown, Billie J Swalla, Lionel Christiaen, Alberto Stolfi, Filomena Ristoratore
BACKGROUND: Analyzing close species with diverse developmental modes is instrumental for investigating the evolutionary significance of physiological, anatomical and behavioral features at a molecular level. Many examples of trait loss are known in metazoan populations living in dark environments. Tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and typically present a lifecycle with distinct motile larval and sessile adult stages. The nervous system of the motile larva contains melanized cells associated with geotactic and light-sensing organs...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725045/genomic-epidemiology-of-global-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-escherichia-coli
#6
N Stoesser, A E Sheppard, G Peirano, L W Anson, L Pankhurst, R Sebra, H T T Phan, A Kasarskis, A J Mathers, T E A Peto, P Bradford, M R Motyl, A S Walker, D W Crook, J D Pitout
The dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli has major implications for the management of common infections. bla KPC, encoding a transmissible carbapenemase (KPC), has historically largely been associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant plasmid (pKpQIL), and a specific transposable element (Tn4401, ~10 kb). Here we characterize the genetic features of bla KPC emergence in global E. coli, 2008-2013, using both long- and short-read whole-genome sequencing. Amongst 43/45 successfully sequenced bla KPC-E...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713341/prevalence-host-range-and-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-temperate-ochrobactrum-phages
#7
Claudia Jäckel, Stefan Hertwig, Holger C Scholz, Karsten Nöckler, Jochen Reetz, Jens A Hammerl
Ochrobactrum and Brucella are closely related bacteria that populate different habitats and differ in their pathogenic properties. Only little is known about mobile genetic elements in these genera which might be important for survival and virulence. Previous studies on Brucella lysogeny indicated that active phages are rare in this genus. To gain insight into the presence and nature of prophages in Ochrobactrum, temperate phages were isolated from various species and characterized in detail. In silico analyses disclosed numerous prophages in published Ochrobactrum genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711315/characterization-of-mobile-genetic-elements-carrying-vim-1-and-kpc-2-carbapenemases-in-citrobacter-freundii-isolates-in-madrid
#8
Jennifer Villa, David M Arana, Esther Viedma, Dafne Perez-Montarelo, Fernando Chaves
Carbapenemase producing Citrobacter freundii (CPCF) infections are still uncommon in European countries. Here we report a molecular study conducted in a tertiary care facility in southern Madrid, Spain, from 2009 to 2014 to investigate the epidemiology of CPCF. The blaIMP-1,blaIMP-2,blaKPC,blaNDM,blaOXA-48,blaVIM-1 and blaVIM-2 genes were screened by PCR. Molecular typing was carried out by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to characterize the resistome and the mobile genetic elements associated with the carbapenems resistance of CPCF...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710456/genomic-insights-into-the-virulence-and-salt-tolerance-of-staphylococcus-equorum
#9
Do-Won Jeong, Sojeong Heo, Sangryeol Ryu, Jochen Blom, Jong-Hoon Lee
To shed light on the genetic background behind the virulence and salt tolerance of Staphylococcus equorum, we performed comparative genome analysis of six S. equorum strains. Data on four previously published genome sequences were obtained from the NCBI database, while those on strain KM1031 displaying resistance to multiple antibiotics and strain C2014 causing haemolysis were determined in this study. Examination of the pan-genome of five of the six S. equorum strains showed that the conserved core genome retained the genes for general physiological processes and survival of the species...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708455/functionality-of-trnas-encoded-in-a-mobile-genetic-element-from-an-acidophilic-bacterium
#10
Pamela Alamos, Mario Tello, Paula Bustamante, Fernanda Gutiérrez, Amir Shmaryahu, Juan Maldonado, Gloria Levicán, Omar Orellana
The genome of the acidophilic, bioleaching bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, strain ATCC 23270, contains 95 predicted tRNA genes. Thirty-six of these genes (all 20 species) are clustered within an actively excising integrative-conjugative element (ICEAfe1). We speculated that these tRNA genes might have a role in adapting the bacterial tRNA pool to the codon usage of ICEAfe1 genes. To answer this question, we carried out theoretical calculations of the global tRNA adaptation index to the entire A. ferrooxidans genome with and without the ICEAfe1 encoded tRNA genes...
July 14, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702780/the-purine-rich-element-binding-protein-chpur-%C3%AE-negatively-regulates-hsc70-transcription-in-crassostrea-hongkongensis
#11
Delin Xu, Di Wang, Miao Cui, Qizhong Zhang
ChPur-α, a purine-rich element-binding protein, was discovered showing affinity to the ChHsc70 promoter in Crassostrea hongkongensis by DNA affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis. Direct interaction between purified ChPur-α and the ChHsc70 promoter region was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in vitro. ChPur-α reduction led to clear enhancements of ChHsc70 transcription in the hemocytes of C. hongkongensis. Consistently, ChPur-α overexpression in heterologous HEK293T cells correlated with repressive phenotype in ChHsc70 promoter expression...
July 13, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702037/transcriptomic-response-of-purple-willow-salix-purpurea-to-arsenic-stress
#12
Aymeric Yanitch, Nicholas J B Brereton, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Michel Labrecque, Simon Joly, Frederic E Pitre
Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. 'Fish Creek' for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701230/plasmid-composition-in-aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida-01-b526-unravels-unsuspected-type-three-secretion-system-loss-patterns
#13
Katherine H Tanaka, Antony T Vincent, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Marcin Adamczuk, Michel Frenette, Steve J Charette
BACKGROUND: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a ubiquitous psychrophilic waterborne bacterium and a fish pathogen. The numerous mobile elements, especially insertion sequences (IS), in its genome promote rearrangements that impact its phenotype. One of the main virulence factors of this bacterium, its type three secretion system (TTSS), is affected by these rearrangements. In Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida most of the TTSS genes are encoded in a single locus on a large plasmid called pAsa5, and may be lost when the bacterium is cultivated at a higher temperature (25 °C), producing non-virulent mutants...
July 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697875/molecular-characteristics-of-clinical-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-harboring-arginine-catabolic-mobile-element-acme-from-dogs-and-cats
#14
Ching Yang, Min-Tao Wan, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale, Kuang-Sheng Yeh, Charles Chen, Yun-Hsia Hsiao, Chin-Cheng Chou
This study aimed to investigate the presence of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and its associated molecular characteristics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Among the 72 S. pseudintermedius recovered from various infection sites of dogs and cats, 52 (72.2%) were MRSP. ACME-arcA was detected commonly (69.2%) in these MRSP isolates, and was more frequently detected in those from the skin than from other body sites (P=0.047). There was a wide genetic diversity among the ACME-arcA-positive MRSP isolates, which comprised three SCCmec types (II-III, III and V) and 15 dru types with two predominant clusters (9a and 11a)...
June 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689921/the-novel-mef-c-mph-g-macrolide-resistance-genes-are-conveyed-in-the-environment-on-various-vectors
#15
Yuta Sugimoto, Satoru Suzuki, Lisa Nonaka, Chanchai Boonla, Nop Sukpanyatham, Hsin-Yiu Chou, Jer-Horng Wu
BACKGROUND: The novel tandem genes mef(C) and mph(G) have been reported in marine bacteria in Japan. This paper aimed to characterise the extent of environmental distribution of mef(C) and mph(G) as well as their dissemination and persistence in aquatic bacterial communities. METHODS: Erythromycin-resistant bacteria were isolated from Japan, Taiwan and Thailand aquaculture sites. The mef(C)-mph(G) genes were detected by PCR. The size of mobile genetic elements conveying mef(C) and mph(G) was examined by Southern blotting...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689130/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-wastewater-treatment-plants-as-hotspots-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-mobile-genetic-elements
#16
Jianhua Guo, Jie Li, Hui Chen, Philip L Bond, Zhiguo Yuan
The intensive use of antibiotics results in their continuous release into the environment and the subsequent widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). This study used Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the broad-spectrum profiles of both ARGs and MGEs in activated sludge and anaerobically digested sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. A pipeline for identifying antibiotic resistance determinants was developed that consisted of four categories: gene transfer potential, ARG potential, ARGs pathway and ARGs phylogenetic origin...
July 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683827/expanding-landscapes-of-the-diversified-mcr-1-bearing-plasmid-reservoirs
#17
Qingjing Wang, Jian Sun, Jun Li, Youfa Ding, Xing-Ping Li, Jingxia Lin, Bachar Hassan, Youjun Feng
BACKGROUND: Polymyxin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic that can disrupt bacterial cell membrane by interacting with its lipopolysaccharide molecules and is used as a last resort drug against lethal infections by the carbapenem-resistant superbugs (like NDM-1). However, global discovery of the MCR-1 colistin resistance dramatically challenges the newly renewed interest in colistin for clinical use. METHODS: The mcr-1-harboring plasmids were acquired from swine and human Escherichia coli isolated in China, from 2015 to 2016, and subjected to Illumina PacBio RSII and Hi-Seq2000 for full genome sequencing...
July 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680421/an-emm5-group-a-streptococcal-outbreak-among-workers-in-a-factory-manufacturing-telephone-accessories
#18
Mingliang Chen, Wenqing Wang, Lihong Tu, Yaxu Zheng, Hao Pan, Gangyi Wang, Yanxin Chen, Xi Zhang, Linying Zhu, Jian Chen, Min Chen
Ranked among the top10 infectious causes of death worldwide, group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes small- and large-scale outbreaks, depending on the trigger as transmission of a GAS strain or expansion of predominant clones. In China, GAS infections other than scarlet fever are not notifiable. In Shanghai, an epidemiological investigation was initiated after two successive severe pneumonia cases with one death in a digital factory, from where outbreaks are less widely reported. The investigation was performed using emm typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, superantigen profiling, and genome analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679748/evolution-of-the-staphylococcus-argenteus-st2250-clone-in-northeastern-thailand-is-linked-with-the-acquisition-of-livestock-associated-staphylococcal-genes
#19
Danesh Moradigaravand, Dorota Jamrozy, Rafal Mostowy, Annaliesa Anderson, Emma K Nickerson, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sarunporn Tandhavanant, Chanthiwa Wikraiphat, Gumphol Wongsuvan, Nittaya Teerawattanasook, Yaowaruk Jutrakul, Nuttiya Srisurat, Prajuab Chaimanee, T Eoin West, Beth Blane, Julian Parkhill, Narisara Chantratita, Sharon J Peacock
Staphylococcus argenteus is a newly named species previously described as a divergent lineage of Staphylococcus aureus that has recently been shown to have a global distribution. Despite growing evidence of the clinical importance of this species, knowledge about its population epidemiology and genomic architecture is limited. We used whole-genome sequencing to evaluate and compare S. aureus (n = 251) and S. argenteus (n = 68) isolates from adults with staphylococcal sepsis at several hospitals in northeastern Thailand between 2006 and 2013...
July 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679522/next-generation-sequence-analysis-reveals-methicillin-resistance-transfer-to-a-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-mssa-strain-that-subsequently-caused-a-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-outbreak-a-descriptive-study
#20
Veronica Weterings, Thijs Bosch, Sandra Witteveen, Fabian Landman, Leo Schouls, Jan Kluytmans
Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is primarily caused by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element: the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to play an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but has been rarely observed in real-time.In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a healthcare worker (HCW) and three patients all carrying a fusidic-acid resistant MRSA strain...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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