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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526157/pharmacology-of-acetaminophen-nonsteroidal-antiinflammatory-drugs-and-steroid-medications-implications-for-anesthesia-or-unique-associated-risks
#1
REVIEW
Kenneth D Candido, Oscar J Perozo, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
Acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and corticosteroids, historically used in perioperative management, are potent analgesic medications. They primarily inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, decreasing the synthesis of prostaglandins, and modulating pain and temperature. Acetaminophen does not inhibit this synthesis at the inflammatory site. The primary mechanism of action of corticosteroids involves regulation of nuclear expression of genes involved in inflammatory pathways and other systemic effects...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503221/management-of-musculoskeletal-pain-in-retail-drug-outlets-within-a-nigerian-community-a-descriptive-study
#2
Samirah N Abdu-Aguye, Aishatu Shehu, Ubaidullah I Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to describe attitudes and practices of both community pharmacies and patent and proprietary medicine vendor (PPMV) outlets towards over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic use for musculoskeletal pain states within Zaria, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was carried out in 2 phases from May to August 2016. Phase one was a cross-sectional survey of 40 retail drug outlets (10 community pharmacies and 30 PPMVs). A simulated patient scenario of a young adult male complaining of acute onset back pain was used to collect data on the type and quality of analgesic recommended, duration of consultation, as well as nature of information provided during the drug dispensing process...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491861/enteric-coated-and-highly-standardized-cranberry-extract-reduces-antibiotic-and-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-use-for-urinary-tract-infections-during-radiotherapy-for-prostate-carcinoma
#3
Alberto Bonetta, Giandomenico Roviello, Daniele Generali, Laura Zanotti, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Chiara Pacifico, Francesco Di Pierro
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy is a major concern for the medical community. Antibiotic resistance mainly affects Gram-negative bacteria that are an important cause of lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs). Pelvic irradiation for prostate cancer is a risk factor for LUTIs. Cranberry extract is reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs. The prophylactic role of an enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract (VO370(®)) in reducing LUTI episodes, urinary discomfort, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and antibiotic use during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma was evaluated...
2017: Research and Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491208/joint-pain-epidemiology-and-analgesic-usage-in-madagascar
#4
Luc Hervé Samison, Fidiniaina Mamy Randriatsarafara, Stéphane Ralandison
INTRODUCTION: To describe the epidemiology of joint pains and document analgesics usage in an African context. METHODS: Patients suffering from joint pain were recruited from nine sites located in Antananarivo, Madagascar, including 6 hospital services and 3 clinics. Doctors collected information on the etiology and characteristics of the patients' pain. Analgesics prescribed by these doctors were also documented. RESULTS: In total, 400 patients were enrolled in the study (52...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487435/risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-nsaids-in-real-world-use-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#5
Michèle Bally, Nandini Dendukuri, Benjamin Rich, Lyne Nadeau, Arja Helin-Salmivaara, Edeltraut Garbe, James M Brophy
Objective To characterise the determinants, time course, and risks of acute myocardial infarction associated with use of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Design Systematic review followed by a one stage bayesian individual patient data meta-analysis.Data sources Studies from Canadian and European healthcare databases.Review methods Eligible studies were sourced from computerised drug prescription or medical databases, conducted in the general or an elderly population, documented acute myocardial infarction as specific outcome, studied selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors (including rofecoxib) and traditional NSAIDs, compared risk of acute myocardial infarction in NSAID users with non-users, allowed for time dependent analyses, and minimised effects of confounding and misclassification bias...
May 9, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480542/the-effect-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-risk-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#6
Lotta H Nygård, Kirsi Talala, Kimmo Taari, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen, Teemu J Murtola
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may play a role in pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as BPH risk factor is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine risk of BPH by NSAID use in a population-based cohort. METHODS: A total of 74 754 Finnish men without previous BPH at baseline in 1996-1999 were linked to national medication reimbursement database for information on physician-prescribed NSAID purchases during 1995-2009...
June 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480151/efficacy-of-topical-analgesics-in-pain-control-for-corneal-abrasions-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Bryan Thiel, Alexandra Sarau, Daniel Ng
Corneal abrasions are one of the most common ocular injuries seen in the emergency department. While most patients with corneal abrasions complain of excruciating pain, permanent sequelae may develop if not managed properly. The use of topical antibiotics and other standards of treatment have greatly reduced the incidence of complications. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the proper management of pain in corneal abrasions. Proposed analgesics for the control of corneal abrasion pain include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical anesthetics, and topical cycloplegics...
March 27, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479443/post-operative-pain-management-following-thoracic-outlet-decompression
#8
Mathew Wooster, Dana Reed, Adam Tanious, Karl Illig
BACKGROUND: Thoracic outlet decompression (TOD) is associated with significant post operative pain often leading to hospital length of stay out of proportion to the risk profile of the operation. We seek to describe the improvement in hospital length of stay and patient pain control with an improved multi-agent pain management regimen. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital length of stay, medication regimen/usage, operative details, and operative indications for all patients undergoing TOD from January 2012 through June 2015...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476535/animal-models-of-pain-and-migraine-in-drug-discovery
#9
REVIEW
Gordon Munro, Inger Jansen-Olesen, Jes Olesen
Preclinical research activities in relation to pain typically involve the 'holy trinity' of nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pain for purposes of target validation and defining target product profiles of novel analgesic compounds. For some reason it seems that headache or migraine are rarely considered as additional entities to explore. Frontline medications used in the treatment of, for example, inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain and migraine (NSAIDs versus pregabalin/duloxetine versus triptans) reveal distinct differences in pathophysiology that partially explain this approach...
May 2, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474616/ketoprofen-induced-photoallergic-dermatitis
#10
REVIEW
Tiffany Yvonne Loh, Philip R Cohen
Drug-induced photosensitivity reactions are significant adverse effects. Ketoprofen is one of the most common drugs that can cause skin rash in sun-exposed areas. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ketoprofen, are often used for a variety of symptoms, including pain and fever. An understanding of the presentation and clinical course of ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity is necessary to correctly diagnose and manage this condition. Ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity reactions usually present as photoallergic dermatitis, which is a cell-mediated immune process...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474439/estimating-medication-stopping-fraction-and-real-time-prevalence-of-drug-use-in-pharmaco-epidemiologic-databases-an-application-of-the-reverse-waiting-time-distribution
#11
Henrik Støvring, Anton Pottegård, Jesper Hallas
PURPOSE: To introduce the reverse waiting time distribution (WTD) and show how it can be used to estimate stopping fractions and real-time prevalence of treatment in pharmacoepidemiological studies. METHODS: The reverse WTD is the distribution of time from the last dispensed prescription of each patient within a time window to the end of it. It is a mirrored version of the ordinary WTD, which considers the first dispensed prescription of patients within a time window...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465764/sociodemographic-determinants-of-out-of-pocket-expenditures-for-patients-using-prescription-drugs-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Kumar Mukherjee, Khalid M Kamal
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that has a substantial economic impact on patients. Patients with RA are at an increased risk for disability and for loss of income. The inclusion of biologic drugs in RA therapy has increased the cost of treatment. Little is known about the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and the out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures for prescription drugs for patients with RA, including biologics, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and analgesics...
February 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465641/clinical-characteristics-of-peptic-ulcer-perforation-in-korea
#13
Young Joo Yang, Chang Seok Bang, Suk Pyo Shin, Tae Young Park, Ki Tae Suk, Gwang Ho Baik, Dong Joon Kim
AIM: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics and associated risk factors of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients who were diagnosed with benign PPU from 2010 through 2015 at 6 Hallym university-affiliated hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 396 patients were identified with postoperative complication rate of 9.1% and mortality rate of 0.8%. Among 174 (43.9%) patients who were examined for Helicobacter pylori (H...
April 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462884/the-impact-of-acid-suppression-medications-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-clinical-and-histologic-features-in-celiac-disease
#14
Robyn Jordan, Sarah Shannahan, Suzanne K Lewis, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Daniel A Leffler, Peter H R Green, Benjamin Lebwohl
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in the US has increased in past decades, as has use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs), aspirin (ASA) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We aimed to measure the association between medication use and distribution of villous flattening (VF) among newly diagnosed CD patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of adult patients with newly-diagnosed CD at two institutions...
April 2, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460643/regular-and-low-dose-aspirin-other-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-medications-and-prospective-risk-of-her2-defined-breast-cancer-the-california-teachers-study
#15
Christina A Clarke, Alison J Canchola, Lisa M Moy, Susan L Neuhausen, Nadia T Chung, James V Lacey, Leslie Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Regular users of aspirin may have reduced risk of breast cancer. Few studies have addressed whether risk reduction pertains to specific breast cancer subtypes defined jointly by hormone receptor (estrogen and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression. This study assessed the prospective risk of breast cancer (overall and by subtype) according to use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) in a cohort of female public school professionals in California...
May 1, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456771/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-simvastatin-in-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-induced-small-bowel-injury
#16
E K Kim, J H Cho, A R Jeong, E J Kim, D K Park, K A Kwon, J W Chung, K O Kim, J H Kim, J H Kim, Y J Kim
Small bowel injury can occur as the result of a multifaceted process that includes increased acid secretion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and cyclooxygenase inhibition. However, no effective medication for small bowel ulceration is available. Simvastatin is an important lipid-lowering agent with anti-inflammatory activity. We aimed to validate the effects of simvastatin in vitro and in vivo. In presence or absence of simvastatin, IEC-6 small bowel cell line with 50 ng/ml of tumor nectosis factor α (TNF-α) was investigated by western blotting, qRT-PCR, and DCF-DA assay...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445709/gait-analysis-and-weight-bearing-in-pre-clinical-joint-pain-research
#17
Kristina Ängeby Möller, Heta Svärd, Anni Suominen, Jarmo Immonen, Johanna Holappa, Carina Stenfors
BACKGROUND: There is a need for better joint pain treatment, but development of new medication has not been successful. Pre-clinical models with readouts that better reflect the clinical situation are needed. In patients with joint pain, pain at rest and pain at walking are two major complaints. NEW METHOD: We describe a new way of calculating results from gait analysis using the CatWalk™ setup. Rats with monoarthritis induced by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) intra-articularly into the ankle joint of one hind limb were used to assess gait and dynamic weight bearing...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444299/environmental-factors-associated-with-disease-flare-in-juvenile-and-adult-dermatomyositis
#18
Gulnara Mamyrova, Lisa G Rider, Alison Ehrlich, Olcay Jones, Lauren M Pachman, Robert Nickeson, Lisa G Criscone-Schreiber, Lawrence K Jung, Frederick W Miller, James D Katz
Objective.: The aim was to assess environmental factors associated with disease flare in juvenile and adult dermatomyositis (DM). Methods.: An online survey of DM patients from the USA and Canada examined smoking, sun exposure, infections, medications, vaccines, stressful life events and physical activity during the 6 months before flares, or in the past 6 months in patients without flares. Differences were evaluated by χ 2 and Fisher's exact tests, and significant univariable results were examined in multivariable logistic regression...
April 21, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436710/ischemic-ulcer-pain-is-both-nociceptive-and-neuropathic-pain-based-on-a-discriminant-function-analysis-using-the-mcgill-pain-questionnaire
#19
Takamichi Kogure, Masahiko Sumitani, Hiroaki Abe, Jun Hozumi, Reo Inoue, Kazuhito Mietani, Kazuo Kawahara, Yoshitsugu Yamada
The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) is composed of 78 words reflecting the mechanisms underlying chronic pain conditions. Ischemic ulcer pain is generally regarded as a nociceptive and inflammatory pain condition. However, it is sometimes refractory to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and opioid treatment. We categorized ischemic pain into nociceptive/inflammatory pain (NocP) or neuropathic pain (NeP), on the basis of patients' descriptions of their pain using the MPQ. We investigated pain characteristics of 365 patients with NeP and 124 with NocP using the 78 words of the MPQ...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431202/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-pancreatitis
#20
REVIEW
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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