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obesity lateral hypothalamus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706935/neonatal-overnutrition-increases-testicular-size-and-expression-of-luteinizing-hormone-%C3%AE-subunit-in-peripubertal-male-rats
#1
Pilar Argente-Arizón, David Castro-González, Francisca Díaz, María J Fernández-Gómez, Miguel A Sánchez-Garrido, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704424/the-role-of-corticostriatal-hypothalamic-neural-circuits-in-feeding-behaviour-implications-for-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Rachel E Clarke, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane B Andrews
Emerging evidence from human imaging studies suggests that obese individuals have altered connectivity between the hypothalamus, the key brain region controlling energy homeostasis, and cortical regions involved in decision making and reward processing. Historically, animal studies have demonstrated that the lateral hypothalamus is the key hypothalamic region involved in feeding and reward. The lateral hypothalamus is a heterogeneous structure comprised of several distinct types of neurons which are scattered throughout...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615977/overview-of-the-pathophysiological-implications-of-organotins-on-the-endocrine-system
#3
REVIEW
Vinicius Bermond Marques, Rodrigo Alves Faria, Leonardo Dos Santos
Organotins (OTs) are pollutants that are used widely by industry as disinfectants, pesticides, and most frequently as biocides in antifouling paints. This mini-review presents the main evidences from the literature about morphophysiological changes induced by OTs in the mammal endocrine system, focusing on the metabolism and reproductive control. Similar to other toxic compounds, the main effects with potential health risks to humans and experimental animals are not only related to dose and time of exposure but also to age, gender, and tissue/cell exposed...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512449/sodium-oxybate-treatment-in-pediatric-type-1-narcolepsy
#4
Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Elena Antelmi, Giuseppe Plazzi
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare chronic neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hallucinations and disrupted nocturnal sleep, usually with onset during childhood/adolescence. Pediatric NT1 is associated with limitations on children's activities and achievements, especially poor performance at school, difficulty with peers due to disease symptoms and comorbidities including depression, obesity, and precocious puberty. NT1 disease is caused by the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, most probably related to an autoimmune pathophysiology...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240779/impact-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-hypothalamic-transcriptome-in-neonatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Sanna Barrand, Tamsyn M Crowley, Ryan J Wood-Bradley, Kirstie A De Jong, James A Armitage
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207107/modular-organization-of-a-hypocretin-gene-minimal-promoter
#6
Adriana Sánchez-García, Griselda A Cabral-Pacheco, Viviana C Zomosa-Signoret, Rocío Ortiz-López, Alberto Camacho, Paulo M Tabera-Tarello, José A Garnica-López, Román Vidaltamayo
Orexins or hypocretins are neurotransmitters produced by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This family of peptides modulates sleep‑wake cycle, arousal and feeding behaviors; however, the mechanisms regulating their expression remain to be fully elucidated. There is an interest in defining the key molecular elements in orexin regulation, as these may serve to identify targets for generating novel therapies for sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. Our previous studies showed that the expression of orexin was decreased in mice carrying null‑mutations of the transcription factor early B‑cell factor 2 (ebf2) and that the promoter region of the prepro‑orexin (Hcrt) gene contained two putative ebf‑binding sites, termed olf‑1 sites...
February 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196316/restoring-serotonergic-homeostasis-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-rescues-sleep-disturbances-induced-by-early-life-obesity
#7
Mary Gazea, Alexandre V Patchev, Elmira Anderzhanova, Este Leidmaa, Anna Pissioti, Cornelia Flachskamm, Osborne F X Almeida, Mayumi Kimura
Early-life obesity predisposes to obesity in adulthood, a condition with broad medical implications including sleep disorders, which can exacerbate metabolic disturbances and disrupt cognitive and affective behaviors. In this study, we examined the long-term impact of transient peripubertal diet-induced obesity (ppDIO, induced between 4 and 10 weeks of age) on sleep-wake behavior in male mice. EEG and EMG recordings revealed that ppDIO increases sleep during the active phase but reduces resting-phase sleep quality...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180723/neuromodulation-of-orexin-neurons-reduces-diet-induced-adiposity
#8
A N Zink, P E Bunney, A A Holm, C J Billington, C M Kotz
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low levels of orexin are associated with obesity and reduced physical activity in humans and animals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) selectively activated orexin neurons in mouse lateral hypothalamus (LH) to measure effects on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). DREADD targeting was achieved by stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors into caudal lateral LH of heterozygous orexin Cre or C57/B6J mice...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129795/orexin-a-hypocretin-1-immunoreactivity-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-is-reduced-in-genetically-obese-but-not-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
J Antonio González, Jochen H M Prehn
The mechanisms that link diet and body weight are not fully understood. A diet high in fat often leads to obesity, and this in part is the consequence of diet-induced injury to specific hypothalamic nuclei. It has been suggested that a diet high in fat leads to cell loss in the lateral hypothalamus, which contains specific populations of neurons that are essential for regulating energy homoeostasis; however, we do not know which cell types are affected by the diet. We studied the possibility that high-fat diet leads to a reduction in orexin-A/hypocretin-1 (Hcrt1) and/or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamus...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121414/stress-induced-suppression-of-neuropeptide-y-induced-hunger-in-anorexic-chicks-involves-corticotrophin-releasing-factor-signalling-and-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#10
J Wang, J Yi, P B Siegel, M A Cline, E R Gilbert
The Virginia lines of chickens have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight and have different severities of anorexia and obesity, respectively. The LWS that are exposed to stressors at hatch are refractory to neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced food intake and the objective of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms. Chicks were exposed to a stressor (-20°C for 6 minutes and 22°C and delayed access to food for 24 hours) after hatching and the hypothalamic nuclei, including the lateral hypothalamus (LH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), were collected 5 days later...
December 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102876/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-sex-specific-endocannabinoid-system-changes-in-newborn-rats-and-programs-adiposity-energy-expenditure-and-food-preference-in-adulthood
#11
Camilla P Dias-Rocha, Mariana M Almeida, Erika M Santana, Julia C B Costa, Juliana G Franco, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Isis H Trevenzoli
Early life inadequate nutrition triggers developmental adaptations and adult chronic disease. Maternal high-fat (HF) diet promotes visceral obesity and hypothalamic leptin resistance in male rat offspring at weaning and adulthood. Obesity is related to over active endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists mainly of endogenous ligands, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes fatty acid anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We hypothesized that perinatal maternal HF diet would regulate offspring ECS in hypothalamus and brown adipose tissue (BAT) at birth, prior to visceral obesity development, and program food preference and energy expenditure of adult offspring...
January 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089444/presynaptic-regulation-of-leptin-in-a-defined-lateral-hypothalamus-ventral-tegmental-area-neurocircuitry-depends-on-energy-state
#12
Jing-Jing Liu, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang
Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#13
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900415/perinatal-western-diet-consumption-leads-to-profound-plasticity-and-gabaergic-phenotype-changes-within-hypothalamus-and-reward-pathway-from-birth-to-sexual-maturity-in-rat
#14
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894301/lateral-hypothalamic-glp-1-receptors-are-critical-for-the-control-of-food-reinforcement-ingestive-behavior-and-body-weight
#15
L López-Ferreras, J E Richard, E E Noble, K Eerola, R H Anderberg, K Olandersson, L Taing, S E Kanoski, M R Hayes, K P Skibicka
Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878020/lipid-stress-inhibits-endocytosis-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-from-modified-clathrin-enriched-sites-and-impairs-receptor-desensitization
#16
Kimberly A Cooney, Brent M Molden, Nicholas S Kowalczyk, Susan Russell, Giulia Baldini
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in the brain's hypothalamus where it regulates energy homeostasis. MC4R agonists function to lower food intake and weight. In this respect, although obesity promotes hyperlipidemia and hypothalamic injury, MC4R agonists are nevertheless more effective to reduce food intake within hours of administration in overweight, rather than lean, mice. MC4R undergoes constitutive internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane with agonist binding inducing receptor retention along the intracellular route and, under prolonged exposure, desensitization...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859567/the-hypothalamus-at-the-crossroads-of-psychopathology-and-neurosurgery
#17
Daniel A N Barbosa, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Felipe Monte Santo, Ana Carolina de Oliveira Faria, Alessandra A Gorgulho, Antonio A F De Salles
The neurosurgical endeavor to treat psychiatric patients may have been part of human history since its beginning. The modern era of psychosurgery can be traced to the heroic attempts of Gottlieb Burckhardt and Egas Moniz to alleviate mental symptoms through the ablation of restricted areas of the frontal lobes in patients with disabling psychiatric illnesses. Thanks to the adaptation of the stereotactic frame to human patients, the ablation of large volumes of brain tissue has been practically abandoned in favor of controlled interventions with discrete targets...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855582/altered-cross-talk-between-the-hypothalamus-and-non-homeostatic-regions-linked-to-obesity-and-difficulty-to-lose-weight
#18
Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Raquel Vilar-López, Zane B Andrews, Juan F Navas, Carles Soriano-Mas, Antonio Verdejo-García
Interactions between the hypothalamus and non-homeostatic regions may contribute to explain the difficulty to lose weight in obesity, an assumption never tested in human longitudinal studies. We investigated whether the functional connectivity between the medial and lateral hypothalamus (MH and LH) and corticostriatal regions differs between individuals with excess weight (n = 42) and normal weight (n = 39) using a seed-based resting-state approach. In addition, we examined the longitudinal association between functional connectivity and weight loss in a 3-month follow-up diet...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760600/hypothalamic-mitochondrial-abnormalities-occur-downstream-of-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#19
Rodrigo S Carraro, Gabriela F Souza, Carina Solon, Daniela S Razolli, Bruno Chausse, Roberta Barbizan, Sheila C Victorio, Licio A Velloso
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a common feature of experimental obesity. Studies have identified at least three mechanisms involved in the development of hypothalamic neuronal defects in diet-induced obesity: i, inflammation; ii, endoplasmic reticulum stress; and iii, mitochondrial abnormalities. However, which of these mechanisms is activated earliest in response to the consumption of large portions of dietary fats is currently unknown. Here, we used immunoblot, real-time PCR, mitochondrial respiration assays and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate markers of inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial abnormalities in the hypothalamus of Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet for up to seven days...
January 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#20
J Yi, J Yuan, E R Gilbert, P B Siegel, M A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model by which to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia, whereas all HWS become obese. In the present study, we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided with continuous access to food...
August 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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