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obesity lateral hypothalamus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748746/regulation-of-motivation-for-food-by-neuromedin-u-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-and-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#1
D L McCue, J M Kasper, J D Hommel
BACKGROUND: Motivation for high-fat food is thought to contribute to excess caloric intake in obese individuals. A novel regulator of motivation for food may be Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly-conserved neuropeptide which influences food intake. Although these effects of NMU have primarily been attributed to signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), NMU has also been found in other brain regions involved in both feeding behavior and motivation. We investigate the effects of NMU on motivation for food and food intake, and identify the brain regions mediating these effects...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524625/a-functional-link-between-ampk-and-orexin-mediates-the-effect-of-bmp8b-on-energy-balance
#2
Luís Martins, Patricia Seoane-Collazo, Cristina Contreras, Ismael González-García, Noelia Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco González, Juan Zalvide, Rosalía Gallego, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) and orexin (OX) in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) modulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. However, whether these two molecular mechanisms act jointly or independently is unclear. Here, we show that the thermogenic effect of bone morphogenetic protein 8B (BMP8B) is mediated by the inhibition of AMPK in the VMH and the subsequent increase in OX signaling via the OX receptor 1 (OX1R). Accordingly, the thermogenic effect of BMP8B is totally absent in ox-null mice...
August 23, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518917/higher-plasma-orexin-a-levels-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome-compared-with-healthy-unrelated-sibling-controls
#3
Ann M Manzardo, Lisa Johnson, Jennifer L Miller, Daniel J Driscoll, Merlin G Butler
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496691/glp-1-and-estrogen-conjugate-acts-in-the-supramammillary-nucleus-to-reduce-food-reward-and-body-weight
#4
Heike Vogel, Stefanie Wolf, Cristina Rabasa, Francisca Rodriguez-Pacheco, Carina S Babaei, Franziska Stöber, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Richard D DiMarchi, Brian Finan, Matthias H Tschöp, Suzanne L Dickson, Annette Schürmann, Karolina P Skibicka
The obesity epidemic continues unabated and currently available pharmacological treatments are not sufficiently effective. Combining gut/brain peptide, GLP-1, with estrogen into a conjugate may represent a novel, safe and potent, strategy to treat diabesity. Here we demonstrate that the central administration of GLP-1-estrogen conjugate reduced food reward, food intake, and body weight in rats. In order to determine the brain location of the interaction of GLP-1 with estrogen, we avail of single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of regional cerebral blood flow and pinpoint a brain site unexplored for its role in feeding and reward, the supramammillary nucleus (SUM) as a potential target of the conjugated GLP-1-estrogen...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376422/effects-of-ghrelin-in-energy-balance-and-body-weight-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Laura Mihalache, Andreea Gherasim, Otilia Niță, Maria Christina Ungureanu, Sergiu Serghei Pădureanu, Radu Sebastian Gavril, Lidia Iuliana Arhire
Ghrelin is a gut peptide composed of 28 amino acids mostly secreted in the gastric fundus mucosa. It was isolated and described in 1999 by Kojima et al. and only three years later its specific receptor, GHSR1a, was also identified. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor, is the only peripheral orexigenic hormone that activates the receptors to be found especially in the appetite center (hypothalamus and pituitary gland). Ghrelin is present in human plasma in two forms: an inactive form known as deacylated ghrelin, and an active form called acylated ghrelin synthesized under the action of ghrelin O-acyltransferase enzyme (GOAT)...
February 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364160/modulating-adult-neurogenesis-through-dietary-interventions
#6
Christine Heberden
Three areas in the brain continuously generate new neurons throughout life: the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the median eminence in the hypothalamus. These areas harbour neural stem cells, which contribute to neural repair by generating daughter cells that then become functional neurons or glia. Impaired neurogenesis leads to detrimental consequences, such as depression, decline of cognitive abilities and obesity. Adult neurogenesis is a versatile process that can be modulated either positively or negatively by many effectors, external or endogenous...
July 1, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214028/higher-plasma-orexin-a-levels-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome-compared-with-healthy-unrelated-sibling-controls
#7
Ann M Manzardo, Lisa Johnson, Jennifer L Miller, Daniel J Driscoll, Merlin G Butler
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia, and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS...
August 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209204/molecular-and-behavioral-profiling-of-dbx1-derived-neurons-in-the-arcuate-lateral-and-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nuclei
#8
Katie Sokolowski, Tuyen Tran, Shigeyuki Esumi, Yasmin Kamal, Livio Oboti, Julieta Lischinsky, Meredith Goodrich, Andrew Lam, Margaret Carter, Yasushi Nakagawa, Joshua G Corbin
BACKGROUND: Neurons in the hypothalamus function to regulate the state of the animal during both learned and innate behaviors, and alterations in hypothalamic development may contribute to pathological conditions such as anxiety, depression or obesity. Despite many studies of hypothalamic development and function, the link between embryonic development and innate behaviors remains unexplored. Here, focusing on the embryonically expressed homeodomain-containing gene Developing Brain Homeobox 1 (Dbx1), we explored the relationship between embryonic lineage, post-natal neuronal identity and lineage-specific responses to innate cues...
2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183315/disrupted-leptin-signaling-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-ventral-premammillary-nucleus-alters-insulin-and-glucagon-secretion-and-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Heather C Denroche, Maria M Glavas, Eva Tudurí, Subashini Karunakaran, Whitney L Quong, Marion Philippe, Heidi M Britton, Susanne M Clee, Timothy J Kieffer
Leptin signaling in the central nervous system, and particularly the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, is important for regulating energy and glucose homeostasis. However, the roles of extra-arcuate leptin responsive neurons are less defined. In the current study, we generated mice with widespread inactivation of the long leptin receptor isoform in the central nervous system via Synapsin promoter-driven Cre (Lepr(flox/flox) Syn-cre mice). Within the hypothalamus, leptin signaling was disrupted in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) but remained intact in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the tractus solitarius...
July 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102051/sex-differences-in-serotonin-hypothalamic-connections-underpin-a-diminished-sense-of-emotional-well-being-with-increasing-body-weight
#10
J Melasch, M Rullmann, A Hilbert, J Luthardt, G A Becker, M Patt, M Stumvoll, M Blüher, A Villringer, K Arelin, P M Meyer, A Bresch, O Sabri, S Hesse, B Pleger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The neurobiological mechanisms linking obesity to emotional distress related to weight remain largely unknown. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Here we combined positron emission tomography, using the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) radiotracer [(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile, with functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire (IWQOL-Lite) to investigate the role of central serotonin in the severity of depression (BDI-II), as well as in the loss of emotional well-being with body weight (IWQOL-Lite)...
August 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072509/ghrelin-a-link-between-memory-and-ingestive-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Ted M Hsu, Andrea N Suarez, Scott E Kanoski
Feeding is a highly complex behavior that is influenced by learned associations between external and internal cues. The type of excessive feeding behavior contributing to obesity onset and metabolic deficit may be based, in part, on conditioned appetitive and ingestive behaviors that occur in response to environmental and/or interoceptive cues associated with palatable food. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the neurobiology underlying learned aspects of feeding behavior. The stomach-derived "hunger" hormone, ghrelin, stimulates appetite and food intake and may function as an important biological substrate linking mnemonic processes with feeding control...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033361/-18-f-fe-snap-a-specific-pet-tracer-for-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-1-imaging
#12
Cécile Philippe, Daniela Haeusler, Thomas Scherer, Clemens Fürnsinn, Markus Zeilinger, Wolfgang Wadsak, Karem Shanab, Helmut Spreitzer, Marcus Hacker, Markus Mitterhauser
BACKGROUND: The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), which is highly expressed in the lateral hypothalamus, plays a key role in energy homeostasis, obesity and other endocrine diseases. Hence, there is a major interest in in vivo imaging of this receptor. A PET tracer would allow non-invasive in vivo visualization and quantification of the MCHR1. The aim of the study was the ex vivo evaluation of the MCHR1 ligand [(18)F]FE@SNAP as a potential PET tracer for the MCHR1. METHODS: [(18)F]FE@SNAP was injected directly into the jugular vein of awake naïve rats for ex vivo brain autoradiography, biodistribution and additional blood metabolite analysis...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030669/glp-1-and-weight-loss-unraveling-the-diverse-neural-circuitry
#13
REVIEW
Scott E Kanoski, Matthew R Hayes, Karolina P Skibicka
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is currently one of the most promising biological systems for the development of effective obesity pharmacotherapies. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs potently reduce food intake and body weight, and recent discoveries reveal that peripheral administration of these drugs reduces food intake largely through humoral pathways involving direct action on brain GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the neural systems through which GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and body weight...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973181/-adipogenic-function-and-other-biologic-effects-of-insulin
#14
REVIEW
Y A Pankov
Studies on experimental animals with knockout of the insulin receptor gene Insr (in the whole body or in certain tissues) and/or related genes encoding proteins involved in realization of insulin signal transduction in target cells, have made an important contribution to the elucidation of insulin regulation of metabolism, particularly fat metabolism. Since the whole insulin secreted by b-cells, together with the products of gastrointestinal tract digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates reach the liver, the latter is the first organ on which this hormone acts...
January 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951402/localizing-effects-of-leptin-on-upper-airway-and-respiratory-control-during-sleep
#15
Qiaoling Yao, Huy Pho, Jason Kirkness, Ellen E Ladenheim, Sheng Bi, Timothy H Moran, David D Fuller, Alan R Schwartz, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obesity hypoventilation and obstructive sleep apnea are common complications of obesity linked to defects in respiratory pump and upper airway neural control. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice have impaired ventilatory control and inspiratory flow limitation during sleep, which are both reversed with leptin. We aimed to localize central nervous system (CNS) site(s) of leptin action on respiratory and upper airway neuroventilatory control. METHODS: We localized the effect of leptin to medulla versus hypothalamus by administering intracerbroventricular leptin (10 μg/2 μL) versus vehicle to the lateral (n = 14) versus fourth ventricle (n = 11) of ob/ob mice followed by polysomnographic recording...
May 1, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862917/short-term-high-fat-diet-feeding-provides-hypothalamic-but-not-hippocampal-protection-against-acute-infection-in-male-mice
#16
Mariana Astiz, Olga Pernía, Vicente Barrios, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Yolanda Diz-Chaves
Obesity is associated with increased fever and sickness behavior in response to infection. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a key role in the reaction to immune stimuli. Bacterial infection, or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces the expression of peripheral cytokines that stimulate the hypothalamus and the hippocampus and activate the HPA axis. In this study, we explored whether the hypothalamic and hippocampal responses to infection is altered during the development of diet-induced obesity...
February 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819774/deep-brain-stimulation-for-obesity-from-a-theoretical-framework-to-practical-application
#17
REVIEW
Raj K Nangunoori, Nestor D Tomycz, Michael Y Oh, Donald M Whiting
Obesity remains a pervasive global health problem. While there are a number of nonsurgical and surgical options for treatment, the incidence of obesity continues to increase at an alarming rate. The inability to curtail the growing rise of the obesity epidemic may be related to a combination of increased food availability and palatability. Research into feeding behavior has yielded a number of insights into the homeostatic and reward mechanisms that govern feeding. However, there remains a gap between laboratory investigations of feeding physiology in animals and translation into meaningful treatment options for humans...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26769798/5-ht2a-and-5-ht2c-receptors-as-hypothalamic-targets-of-developmental-programming-in-male-rats
#18
Malgorzata S Martin-Gronert, Claire J Stocker, Edward T Wargent, Roselle L Cripps, Alastair S Garfield, Zorica Jovanovic, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Giles S H Yeo, Michael A Cawthorne, Jonathan R S Arch, Lora K Heisler, Susan E Ozanne
Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life...
April 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655697/hypothalamic-amylin-acts-in-concert-with-leptin-to-regulate-food-intake
#19
Zhiying Li, Leah Kelly, Myriam Heiman, Paul Greengard, Jeffrey Michael Friedman
In this report we evaluated the functions of hypothalamic amylin in vivo and in vitro. Profiling of hypothalamic neurons revealed that islet amyloid polypeptide (Iapp, precursor to amylin) is expressed in neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, medial preoptic area, and elsewhere. Hypothalamic expression of lapp is markedly decreased in ob/ob mice and normalized by exogenous leptin. In slices, amylin and leptin had similar electrophysiologic effects on lateral hypothalamic leptin receptor ObRb-expressing neurons, while the amylin antagonist AC187 inhibited their activity and blunted the effect of leptin...
December 1, 2015: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629411/leptin-potentiates-astrogenesis-in-the-developing-hypothalamus
#20
Daniele M Rottkamp, Ivan A Rudenko, Matthew T Maier, Sahar Roshanbin, Ernie Yulyaningsih, Luz Perez, Martin Valdearcos, Streamson Chua, Suneil K Koliwad, Allison W Xu
BACKGROUND: The proper establishment of hypothalamic feeding circuits during early development has a profound influence on energy homeostasis, and perturbing this process could predispose individuals to obesity and its associated consequences later in life. The maturation of hypothalamic neuronal circuitry in rodents takes place during the initial postnatal weeks, and this coincides with a dramatic surge in the circulating level of leptin, which is known to regulate the outgrowth of key neuronal projections in the maturing hypothalamus...
November 2015: Molecular Metabolism
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