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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426651/-looking-after-the-survivors-the-health-of-a-cohort-of-long-term-hiv-patients-25-years-on
#1
Thomas McNeil, Emily Rowe
BACKGROUND: Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection have higher rates of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders and malignancy than their uninfected peers. AIM: To survey the health of a South Australian cohort of long term HIV patients, who had been diagnosed with HIV prior to the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Data from 88 patients was collected retrospectively across four domains: demographics, HIV history, antiretroviral medication and medical co-morbidity...
November 13, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406006/the-global-burden-of-multiple-chronic-conditions-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Cother Hajat, Emma Stein
Globally, approximately one in three of all adults suffer from multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). This review provides a comprehensive overview of the resulting epidemiological, economic and patient burden. There is no agreed taxonomy for MCCs, with several terms used interchangeably and no agreed definition, resulting in up to three-fold variation in prevalence rates: from 16% to 58% in UK studies, 26% in US studies and 9.4% in Urban South Asians. Certain conditions cluster together more frequently than expected, with associations of up to three-fold, e...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326721/perceptions-regarding-the-scope-of-practice-of-family-doctors-amongst-patients-in-primary-care-settings-in-nairobi
#3
Gulnaz Mohamoud, Bob Mash, Mohamoud Merali, James Orwa, Megan Mahoney
BACKGROUND:  Primary care (PC) is the foundation of the Kenyan health care system, providing comprehensive care, health promotion and managing all illnesses across the lifecycle. In the private sector in Nairobi, PC is principally offered by the general practitioners, also known as family doctors (FDs). The majority have no postgraduate training. Little is known about how patients perceive their capability. AIM:  To assess patients' perceptions of the scope of practice of FDs working in private sector PC clinics in Nairobi and their awareness of the new category of family physicians (FPs) and the discipline of family medicine...
October 4, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271123/patient-preferences-for-the-integration-of-mental-health-counseling-and-chronic-disease-care-in-south-africa
#4
Bronwyn Myers, John A Joska, Crick Lund, Naomi S Levitt, Christopher C Butler, Tracey Naledi, Peter Milligan, Dan J Stein, Katherine Sorsdahl
Purpose: To describe patient perceptions of the acceptability of integrating mental health counseling within primary care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa and their preferences for the way in which this care is delivered. Patients and methods: Qualitative interviews with 30 purposively selected patients receiving treatment for HIV or diabetes within primary care facilities who screened positive for depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale or hazardous alcohol use through the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184237/trends-and-patient-characteristics-associated-with-tobacco-pharmacotherapy-dispensed-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#5
Rosalinda V Ignacio, Paul G Barnett, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Mark C Geraci, Carol A Essenmacher, Stephanie V Hall, Adam Chow, Paul N Pfeiffer, Scott E Sherman, Kipling M Bohnert, Kara Zivin, Sonia A Duffy
Introduction: There is evidence suggesting that certain subgroups of people who use tobacco do not receive tobacco pharmacology as consistently as others. Methods: This retrospective, cohort study examined the trend in the use of cessation pharmacotherapy from 2004 to 2013 using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data. Among Veterans who used tobacco in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 and had not received pharmacotherapy in the prior year, multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the independent associations between patient clinical and demographic characteristics and pharmacotherapy initiation in the 6-months follow-up period...
September 4, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182898/the-unmet-needs-and-health-priorities-of-the-urban-poor-generating-the-evidence-base-for-urban-community-health-worker-programmes-in-south-africa
#6
A Van Rie, N S West, S R Schwartz, L Mutanga, C F Hanrahan, J Ncayiyana, J Bassett
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in involving community health workers (CHWs) into the formal healthcare system in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To generate evidence for defining CHW tasks in urban SA. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of residents of Diepsloot, northern Johannesburg, was performed using geographically weighted random sampling, with home-based health assessment and a questionnaire on sociodemographics, medical history, experience of violence, health-seeking behaviour and perceived health priorities...
August 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157834/oral-health-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-hiv-patients
#7
Vinicius da Costa Vieira, Liliane Lins, Viviane Almeida Sarmento, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Oral health care may improve the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HIV/AIDS patients. We aimed to evaluate oral health and HRQoL of HIV/AIDS patients using antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included 120 HIV-infected patients, aged ≥18 years, from February, 2016 to September, 2017. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to evaluate the HRQoL. We assessed dental caries status using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index...
August 29, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146937/self-management-of-hiv-and-diabetes-in-african-american-women-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-literature
#8
Julie A Zuniga, Charlotte Wright, Jonathan Fordyce, Chelsi West Ohueri, Alexandra A Garciá
Purpose The purpose of this systematic review of qualitative literature was (1) to identify self-management strategies, (2) to identify women's barriers to self-management, and (3) to compare self-management strategies of diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). African American women living with HIV are at high risk for developing diabetes because of genetics, lifestyle, and HIV treatment. Self-management of each of these conditions is critical to decrease morbidity and mortality. Conclusions A literature search resulted in 15 articles: 10 on the topic of HIV and 5 on diabetes...
October 2018: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044514/bibliometric-analysis-of-global-publications-in-medication-adherence-1900-2017
#9
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Nasr Y Shraim, Fathi M A Anayah, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha
OBJECTIVES: Medication non-adherence is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the global research output, research trends and topics that shaped medication adherence research. METHODS: A bibliometric methodology was applied. Keywords related to 'medication adherence' were searched in Scopus database for all times up to 31 December 2017. Retrieved data were analyzsd, and bibliometric indicators and maps were presented. KEY FINDINGS: In total, 16 133 documents were retrieved...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029723/dehydroepiandrosterone-research-past-current-and-future
#10
Carolyn M Klinge, Barbara J Clark, Russell A Prough
The discovery of "oestrus-producing" hormones was a major research breakthrough in biochemistry and pharmacology during the early part of the 20th century. The elucidation of the molecular weight and chemical structure of major oxidative metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) led to the award of the Nobel Prize in 1939 to Adolf Frederick Johann Butenandt and Leopold Ruzicka. Considered a bulk androgen in the circulation, DHEA and its sulfated metabolite DHEA-S can be taken up by most tissues where the sterols are metabolized to active androgenic and estrogenic compounds needed for growth and development...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024802/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-as-a-gateway-to-primary-care
#11
Julia L Marcus, Kenneth Levine, Chris Grasso, Douglas S Krakower, Victoria Powell, Kyle T Bernstein, Stephen Boswell, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is associated with use of non-HIV-related health care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of potential PrEP candidates at a Boston, Massachusetts, community health clinic during 2012 to 2016, comparing the proportion of PrEP users and non-PrEP users receiving primary care. RESULTS: Of 5857 PrEP candidates, 2047 (35%) were prescribed PrEP. After adjustment for demographics and number of visits, more PrEP users received influenza vaccination (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1...
October 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960014/chronic-depression-symptoms-desensitize-renin-activity-to-protect-against-volume-loading-hypertension-in-blacks-the-sabpa-study
#12
Arnoldeen C De Vos, Leone Malan, Yackoob K Seedat, Marike Cockeran, Nicolaas T Malan
BACKGROUND: Low-renin levels in Blacks have been associated with volume-loading hypertension (HT). Depression symptoms, frequently co-occurring with vascular dysregulation, might reflect a disturbed renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS). We aimed to assess prospective changes (∆) in depression symptoms, RAAS (renin, aldosterone), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a bi-ethnic sex cohort. METHODS: We included 195 Black and White teachers (43...
October 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952792/from-hiv-prevention-to-non-communicable-disease-health-promotion-efforts-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-narrative-review
#13
Kenneth Juma, Michael Reid, Monika Roy, Susan Vorkoper, Tecla M Temu, Naomi S Levitt, Oladimeji Oladepo, David Zakus, Gerald Yonga
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize published literature on noncommunicable disease (NCD) behavior change communication (BCC) interventions in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) and in the general population to inform efforts to adopt similar HIV and NCD BCC intervention activities. METHODS: We conducted a literature review of NCD BCC interventions and included 20 SSA-based studies. Inclusion criteria entailed describing a BCC intervention targeting any four priority NCDs (cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cervical cancer, and depression) or both HIV and any of the NCDs...
July 1, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952786/noncommunicable-diseases-among-hiv-infected-persons-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Pragna Patel, Charles E Rose, Pamela Y Collins, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Emmanuel Peprah, Susan Vorkoper, Sonak D Pastakia, Dianne Rausch, Naomi S Levitt
OBJECTIVE: To appropriately identify and treat noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), it is imperative to understand the burden of NCDs among PLHIV in LMICs and the current management of the diseases. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We examined peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016 to assess currently available evidence regarding HIV and four selected NCDs (cardiovascular disease, cervical cancer, depression, and diabetes) in LMICs with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa...
July 1, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939214/depressive-symptoms-and-their-relation-to-age-and-chronic-diseases-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-in-rural-south-africa
#15
Pascal Geldsetzer, Maria Vaikath, Ryan Wagner, Julia K Rohr, Livia Montana, Francesc X Gómez-Olivé, Molly S Rosenberg, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Farrah J Mateen, Collin F Payne, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen M Tollman, Joshua A Salomon, Thomas A Gaziano, Till Bärnighausen, Lisa F Berkman
Background: Understanding how depression is associated with chronic conditions and socio-demographic characteristics can inform the design and effective targeting of depression screening and care interventions. In this study, we present some of the first evidence from sub-Saharan Africa on the association between depressive symptoms and a range of chronic conditions (diabetes, HIV, hypertension, and obesity) as well as socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a population-based simple random sample of 5,059 adults aged 40 years in Agincourt, South Africa...
June 22, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927346/the-effect-of-medical-technology-innovations-on-patient-outcomes-1990-2015-results-of-a-physician-survey
#16
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851265/real-world-effectiveness-of-elbasvir-grazoprevir-in-hcv-infected-patients-in-the-us-veterans-affairs-healthcare-system
#17
J R Kramer, A Puenpatom, K F Erickson, Y Cao, D Smith, H B El-Serag, F Kanwal
Elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) is an all-oral direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) with high sustained virologic response (SVR) in clinical trials. This study's primary objective was to evaluate effectiveness of EBR/GZR among HCV-infected patients in a real-world clinical setting. We conducted a nationwide retrospective observational cohort study of HCV-infected patients in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) using the VA Corporate Data Warehouse. The study population included patients with positive HCV RNA who initiated EBR/GZR from February 1 to August 1, 2016...
November 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807146/stroke-cerebrovascular-diseases-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-in-africa
#18
REVIEW
Rufus O Akinyemi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Masafumi Ihara, Albertino Damasceno, Adesola Ogunniyi, Catherine Dotchin, Stella-Maria Paddick, Julius Ogeng'o, Richard Walker, Raj N Kalaria
With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa...
May 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771779/cost-of-integrating-noncommunicable-disease-screening-into-home-based-hiv-testing-and-counseling-in-south-africa
#19
Ilya Golovaty, Monisha Sharma, Alastair Van Heerden, Heidi van Rooyen, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Integrated HIV-noncommunicable disease (NCD) services have the potential to avert death and disability but require data on program costs to assess the impact of integrated services on affordability. METHODS: We estimated the incremental costs of NCD screening as part of home-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and referral to care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. All adults in the households were offered integrated HIV-NCD screening (for HIV, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, depression, tobacco, and alcohol use), counseling, and linkage to care...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733939/ethnic-differences-and-comorbidities-of-909-prurigo-nodularis-patients
#20
Emily Boozalis, Olive Tang, Shivani Patel, Yevgeniy R Semenov, Manuel P Pereira, Sonja Stander, Sewon Kang, Shawn G Kwatra
BACKGROUND: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a poorly understood, understudied pruritic dermatosis that reduces quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics and comorbidities associated with PN. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients 18 years and older who were seen at the Johns Hopkins Health System between December 6, 2012, and December 6, 2017. RESULTS: Over the past 5 years, 909 patients with PN were seen at Johns Hopkins Health System...
May 4, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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