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Hiroyuki Kenmoku, Aki Hori, Takayuki Kuraishi, Shoichiro Kurata
Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants...
March 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Ying Huang, Tingting Li, Min Jin, Shaowu Yin, Kai-Min Hui, Qian Ren
Tolls or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an essential role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. In this study, a novel Toll gene, PcToll4, was first identified from the intestinal transcriptome of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The PcToll4 cDNA is 4849bp long with a 3036bp open reading frame that encodes a 1011-amino acid protein. PcToll4 contains a signal peptide, 13 LRR domains, 3 LRR TYP domains, 2 LRR CT domains, an LRR NT domain, a transmembrane region, and a TIR domain...
April 30, 2017: Gene
Bing Li, Hai-Zhong Yu, Chong-Jun Ye, Yan Ma, Xing Li, Tao Fan, Fu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ping Xu
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly...
April 30, 2017: Gene
Shengjie Li, Yao Li, Li Shen, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well studied, the precise mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study, we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80(ts)-Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila We report that overexpression of miR-958 significantly reduces the expression of Drosomycin, a key antimicrobial peptide involved in Toll signaling and the innate immune response...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sandeep Kumar, In-Hwan Jang, Chan Woo Kim, Dong-Won Kang, Won Jae Lee, Hanjoong Jo
Disturbed blood flow (d-flow) induces atherosclerosis by altering the expression of mechanosensitive genes in the arterial endothelium. Previously, we identified >580 mechanosensitive genes in the mouse arterial endothelium, but their role in endothelial inflammation is incompletely understood. From this set, we obtained 84 Drosophila RNAi lines that silences the target gene under the control of upstream activation sequence (UAS) promoter. These lines were crossed with C564-GAL4 flies expressing GFP under the control of drosomycin promoter, an NF-κB target gene and a marker of pathogen-induced inflammation...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Drosomycin (DRS) is a strictly antifungal peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, which contains four disulfide bridges (DBs) with three buried in molecular interior and one exposed on molecular surface to tie the amino- and carboxyl-termini of the molecule together (called wrapper disulfide bridge, WDB). Based on computational analysis of genomes of Drosophila species belonging to the Oriental lineage, we identified a new multigene family of DRS in Drosphila takahashii that includes a total of 11 DRS-encoding genes (termed DtDRS-1 to DtDRS-11) and a pseudogene...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sveta Chakrabarti, Jan Paul Dudzic, Xiaoxue Li, Esther Jeanne Collas, Jean-Phillipe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
The JAK/STAT pathway is a key signaling pathway in the regulation of development and immunity in metazoans. In contrast to the multiple combinatorial JAK/STAT pathways in mammals, only one canonical JAK/STAT pathway exists in Drosophila. It is activated by three secreted proteins of the Unpaired family (Upd): Upd1, Upd2 and Upd3. Although many studies have established a link between JAK/STAT activation and tissue damage, the mode of activation and the precise function of this pathway in the Drosophila systemic immune response remain unclear...
May 2016: PLoS Genetics
Alexandra Sorvina, Tetyana Shandala, Douglas A Brooks
The secretion of immune-mediators is a critical step in the host innate immune response to pathogen invasion, and Rab GTPases have an important role in the regulation of this process. Rab4/Rab11 recycling endosomes are involved in the sorting of immune-mediators into specialist Rab11 vesicles that can traffic this cargo to the plasma membrane; however, how this sequential delivery process is regulated has yet to be fully defined. Here, we report that Drosophila Pkaap, an orthologue of the human dual-specific A-kinase-anchoring protein 2 or D-AKAP2 (also called AKAP10), appeared to have a nucleotide-dependent localisation to Rab4 and Rab11 endosomes...
2016: Biology Open
Ata Murat Kaynar, Veli Bakalov, Silvia Martinez Laverde, Amélie I F Cambriel, Byoung-Hoon Lee, Atif Towheed, Alyssa D Gregory, Steven A R Webb, Michael J Palladino, Fernando A Bozza, Steven D Shapiro, Derek C Angus
BACKGROUND: Multiple organ failure, wasting, increased morbidity, and mortality following acute illness complicates the health span of patients surviving sepsis. Persistent inflammation has been implicated, and it is proposed that insulin signaling contributes to persistent inflammatory signaling during the recovery phase after sepsis. However, mechanisms are unknown and suitable pre-clinical models are lacking. We therefore developed a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of sepsis to recapitulate the clinical course of sepsis, explored inflammation over time, and its relation to impaired mobility, metabolic disturbance, and changes in lifespan...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Chenxi Wu, Changyan Chen, Jianli Dai, Fan Zhang, Yujun Chen, Wenzhe Li, José Carlos Pastor-Pareja, Lei Xue
Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death...
July 2015: Open Biology
Ying Huang, Yi-Hong Chen, Yu-Zhou Zhang, Jin-Ling Feng, Ling-Ling Zhao, Huan-Xi Zhu, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
The toll-like receptor/NF-κB signaling pathways play an important role in the innate immune system. In the present study, one Pelle gene (named EsPelle) was identified for the first time from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The full-length cDNA of EsPelle is 3797 bp with a 3156 bp-long open reading frame that encodes a 1051 amino acid protein. EsPelle protein contains a death domain at the N-terminal and a serine/threonine kinase domain at the C-terminal. A neighbor joining phylogenetic tree showed that the EsPelle protein, which is closest to those of Scylla paramamosain Pelle and Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle, was clustered to a group of crustacean Pelle proteins...
August 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yan-Ru Shi, Min Jin, Fu-Tong Ma, Ying Huang, Xin Huang, Jin-Ling Feng, Ling-Ling Zhao, Yi-Hong Chen, Qian Ren
Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an IκB-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group...
October 2015: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Miki Yamamoto-Hino, Masatoshi Muraoka, Shu Kondo, Ryu Ueda, Hideyuki Okano, Satoshi Goto
The innate immune system is the first line of defense encountered by invading pathogens. Delayed and/or inadequate innate immune responses can result in failure to combat pathogens, whereas excessive and/or inappropriate responses cause runaway inflammation. Therefore, immune responses are tightly regulated from initiation to resolution and are repressed during the steady state. It is well known that glycans presented on pathogens play important roles in pathogen recognition and the interactions between host molecules and microbes; however, the function of glycans of host organisms in innate immune responses is less well known...
May 5, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zheng Wang, Yi-Hong Chen, Yun-Jia Dai, Jing-Min Tan, Ying Huang, Jiang-Feng Lan, Qian Ren
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in regulation of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) expression. A novel vertebrates TLR counterpart named PcToll, was firstly identified from the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PcToll together with Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae Toll9 were clustered with human Tolls. PcToll was mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and gills and it also could be detected in hemocytes, heart, stomach and intestine. PcToll was upregulated in hemocytes and gills post 24 h Vibrio anguillarum challenge...
March 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Dick R Nässel
Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation...
2014: PloS One
Hui-Yu Yi, Munmun Chowdhury, Ya-Dong Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Insects are one of the major sources of antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs). Since observation of antimicrobial activity in the hemolymph of pupae from the giant silk moths Samia Cynthia and Hyalophora cecropia in 1974 and purification of first insect AMP (cecropin) from H. cecropia pupae in 1980, over 150 insect AMPs have been purified or identified. Most insect AMPs are small and cationic, and they show activities against bacteria and/or fungi, as well as some parasites and viruses. Insect AMPs can be classified into four families based on their structures or unique sequences: the α-helical peptides (cecropin and moricin), cysteine-rich peptides (insect defensin and drosomycin), proline-rich peptides (apidaecin, drosocin, and lebocin), and glycine-rich peptides/proteins (attacin and gloverin)...
July 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gang Jun Lee, Seogang Hyun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, around 22-nucleotide-long RNAs that exert significant modulatory roles in gene expression throughout the genome. As such, miRNAs take part in and modulate almost all biological processes like cell growth, development, and immunity. We previously showed that miR-8 miRNA plays a role in maintaining immune homeostasis in Drosophila. Here, we further discovered that targeting of multiple coding genes by miR-8 contributes to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Toll and Dorsal, respectively the receptor and transcription factor in the Toll immune pathway, were found to be miR-8 targets, as shown by reporter assays and miR-8 null flies...
August 2014: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qian Ren, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xue Zhong, Xiao-Jun Song, Fei Ma, Kai-Min Hui, Wen Wang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jin-Xing Wang
Animal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in innate immunity. Toll proteins are generally transmembrane proteins. In this study, an atypical Toll-like receptor (HcToll-2) was identified from the triangle-shell pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, which belongs to phylum Mollusca. Unlike the typical Toll like receptors with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), transmembrane, and intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, HcToll-2 has two homologous TIR domains located at the C-terminal (designated as HcTIR1 and HcTIR2) and lacks a transmembrane domain...
July 2014: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shunyi Zhu, Bin Gao
Drosomycin-type antifungal peptides (DTAFPs) are key innate immunity components of Drosophila and plants and confer resistance to fungal infection. Here we report the discovery of a multigene family of DTAFPs, comprising of 15 members (termed cremycin-1 to crymycin-15), in the fruit nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Cremycins share highly similar amino-acid sequences and identical precursor organization to drosomycins. Of the 15 cremycin genes, 10 are found to be transcriptionally active and 6 are upregulated after fungal challenge...
2014: Nature Communications
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