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Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Drosomycin (DRS) is a strictly antifungal peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, which contains four disulfide bridges (DBs) with three buried in molecular interior and one exposed on molecular surface to tie the amino- and carboxyl-termini of the molecule together (called wrapper disulfide bridge, WDB). Based on computational analysis of genomes of Drosophila species belonging to the Oriental lineage, we identified a new multigene family of DRS in Drosphila takahashii that includes a total of 11 DRS-encoding genes (termed DtDRS-1 to DtDRS-11) and a pseudogene...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sveta Chakrabarti, Jan Paul Dudzic, Xiaoxue Li, Esther Jeanne Collas, Jean-Phillipe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
The JAK/STAT pathway is a key signaling pathway in the regulation of development and immunity in metazoans. In contrast to the multiple combinatorial JAK/STAT pathways in mammals, only one canonical JAK/STAT pathway exists in Drosophila. It is activated by three secreted proteins of the Unpaired family (Upd): Upd1, Upd2 and Upd3. Although many studies have established a link between JAK/STAT activation and tissue damage, the mode of activation and the precise function of this pathway in the Drosophila systemic immune response remain unclear...
May 2016: PLoS Genetics
Alexandra Sorvina, Tetyana Shandala, Douglas A Brooks
The secretion of immune-mediators is a critical step in the host innate immune response to pathogen invasion, and Rab GTPases have an important role in the regulation of this process. Rab4/Rab11 recycling endosomes are involved in the sorting of immune-mediators into specialist Rab11 vesicles that can traffic this cargo to the plasma membrane; however, how this sequential delivery process is regulated has yet to be fully defined. Here, we report that Drosophila Pkaap, an orthologue of the human dual-specific A-kinase-anchoring protein 2 or D-AKAP2 (also called AKAP10), appeared to have a nucleotide-dependent localisation to Rab4 and Rab11 endosomes...
2016: Biology Open
Ata Murat Kaynar, Veli Bakalov, Silvia Martinez Laverde, Amélie I F Cambriel, Byoung-Hoon Lee, Atif Towheed, Alyssa D Gregory, Steven A R Webb, Michael J Palladino, Fernando A Bozza, Steven D Shapiro, Derek C Angus
BACKGROUND: Multiple organ failure, wasting, increased morbidity, and mortality following acute illness complicates the health span of patients surviving sepsis. Persistent inflammation has been implicated, and it is proposed that insulin signaling contributes to persistent inflammatory signaling during the recovery phase after sepsis. However, mechanisms are unknown and suitable pre-clinical models are lacking. We therefore developed a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of sepsis to recapitulate the clinical course of sepsis, explored inflammation over time, and its relation to impaired mobility, metabolic disturbance, and changes in lifespan...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Chenxi Wu, Changyan Chen, Jianli Dai, Fan Zhang, Yujun Chen, Wenzhe Li, José Carlos Pastor-Pareja, Lei Xue
Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death...
July 2015: Open Biology
Ying Huang, Yi-Hong Chen, Yu-Zhou Zhang, Jin-Ling Feng, Ling-Ling Zhao, Huan-Xi Zhu, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
The toll-like receptor/NF-κB signaling pathways play an important role in the innate immune system. In the present study, one Pelle gene (named EsPelle) was identified for the first time from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The full-length cDNA of EsPelle is 3797 bp with a 3156 bp-long open reading frame that encodes a 1051 amino acid protein. EsPelle protein contains a death domain at the N-terminal and a serine/threonine kinase domain at the C-terminal. A neighbor joining phylogenetic tree showed that the EsPelle protein, which is closest to those of Scylla paramamosain Pelle and Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle, was clustered to a group of crustacean Pelle proteins...
August 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yan-Ru Shi, Min Jin, Fu-Tong Ma, Ying Huang, Xin Huang, Jin-Ling Feng, Ling-Ling Zhao, Yi-Hong Chen, Qian Ren
Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an IκB-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group...
October 2015: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Miki Yamamoto-Hino, Masatoshi Muraoka, Shu Kondo, Ryu Ueda, Hideyuki Okano, Satoshi Goto
The innate immune system is the first line of defense encountered by invading pathogens. Delayed and/or inadequate innate immune responses can result in failure to combat pathogens, whereas excessive and/or inappropriate responses cause runaway inflammation. Therefore, immune responses are tightly regulated from initiation to resolution and are repressed during the steady state. It is well known that glycans presented on pathogens play important roles in pathogen recognition and the interactions between host molecules and microbes; however, the function of glycans of host organisms in innate immune responses is less well known...
May 5, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zheng Wang, Yi-Hong Chen, Yun-Jia Dai, Jing-Min Tan, Ying Huang, Jiang-Feng Lan, Qian Ren
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in regulation of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) expression. A novel vertebrates TLR counterpart named PcToll, was firstly identified from the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PcToll together with Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae Toll9 were clustered with human Tolls. PcToll was mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and gills and it also could be detected in hemocytes, heart, stomach and intestine. PcToll was upregulated in hemocytes and gills post 24 h Vibrio anguillarum challenge...
March 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Dick R Nässel
Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation...
2014: PloS One
Hui-Yu Yi, Munmun Chowdhury, Ya-Dong Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Insects are one of the major sources of antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs). Since observation of antimicrobial activity in the hemolymph of pupae from the giant silk moths Samia Cynthia and Hyalophora cecropia in 1974 and purification of first insect AMP (cecropin) from H. cecropia pupae in 1980, over 150 insect AMPs have been purified or identified. Most insect AMPs are small and cationic, and they show activities against bacteria and/or fungi, as well as some parasites and viruses. Insect AMPs can be classified into four families based on their structures or unique sequences: the α-helical peptides (cecropin and moricin), cysteine-rich peptides (insect defensin and drosomycin), proline-rich peptides (apidaecin, drosocin, and lebocin), and glycine-rich peptides/proteins (attacin and gloverin)...
July 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gang Jun Lee, Seogang Hyun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, around 22-nucleotide-long RNAs that exert significant modulatory roles in gene expression throughout the genome. As such, miRNAs take part in and modulate almost all biological processes like cell growth, development, and immunity. We previously showed that miR-8 miRNA plays a role in maintaining immune homeostasis in Drosophila. Here, we further discovered that targeting of multiple coding genes by miR-8 contributes to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Toll and Dorsal, respectively the receptor and transcription factor in the Toll immune pathway, were found to be miR-8 targets, as shown by reporter assays and miR-8 null flies...
August 2014: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qian Ren, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xue Zhong, Xiao-Jun Song, Fei Ma, Kai-Min Hui, Wen Wang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jin-Xing Wang
Animal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in innate immunity. Toll proteins are generally transmembrane proteins. In this study, an atypical Toll-like receptor (HcToll-2) was identified from the triangle-shell pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, which belongs to phylum Mollusca. Unlike the typical Toll like receptors with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), transmembrane, and intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, HcToll-2 has two homologous TIR domains located at the C-terminal (designated as HcTIR1 and HcTIR2) and lacks a transmembrane domain...
July 2014: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shunyi Zhu, Bin Gao
Drosomycin-type antifungal peptides (DTAFPs) are key innate immunity components of Drosophila and plants and confer resistance to fungal infection. Here we report the discovery of a multigene family of DTAFPs, comprising of 15 members (termed cremycin-1 to crymycin-15), in the fruit nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Cremycins share highly similar amino-acid sequences and identical precursor organization to drosomycins. Of the 15 cremycin genes, 10 are found to be transcriptionally active and 6 are upregulated after fungal challenge...
2014: Nature Communications
Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Dmitrii Latkin, Ekaterina Plyusnina, Lyubov Shilova, Anton Danilov, Sergey Popov, Alexander Zhavoronkov, Yuri Ovodov, Alexey Moskalev
The composition of diet is one of the major determining factors for lifespan. The dietary pectins are known to have anti-inflammatory properties and may influence aging and longevity. Here we demonstrate the lifespan-extending effect of the low methyl esterified (LM) commercial pectins CU701 and AU701 in wild-type strain of Drosophila melanogaster. The high methyl esterified (HM) pectin CU201 did not affect lifespan. LM pectin did not increase lifespan of males with a mutation in the Toll adaptor Myd88 gene and in both males and females with a mutation in the NF-κB ortholog Relish...
April 2014: Biogerontology
Yosuke Seto, Koichiro Tamura
The innate immune system of Drosophila is activated by ingestion of microorganisms. D. melanogaster breeds on fruits fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas D. virilis breeds on slime flux and decaying bark of tree housing a variety of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. In this study, it is shown that D. virilis has a higher resistance to oral infection of a species of filamentous fungi belonging to the genus Penicillium compared to D. melanogaster. In response to the fungal infection, a transcriptome profile of immune-related genes was considerably different between D...
2013: International Journal of Genomics
Qian Ren, Yi-Hong Chen, Zheng-Feng Ding, Ying Huang, Yan-Ru Shi
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal and essential adapter protein that participates in the activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. In this study, two MyD88 genes (HcMyD88-1 and HcMyD88-2) were identified from triangle-shell pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii). Both HcMyD88-1 and HcMyD88-2 proteins were determined to have a death domain at the N-terminal and a TIR domain at the C-terminal. Both HcMyD88-1 and HcMyD88-2 genes were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas of healthy mussels...
February 2014: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Saima G Anjum, Wenjian Xu, Niusha Nikkholgh, Sukanya Basu, Yingchao Nie, Mary Thomas, Mridula Satyamurti, Bogdan A Budnik, Y Tony Ip, Alexey Veraksa
The Toll signaling pathway has a highly conserved function in innate immunity and is regulated by multiple factors that fine tune its activity. One such factor is β-arrestin Kurtz (Krz), which we previously implicated in the inhibition of developmental Toll signaling in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Another level of controlling Toll activity and immune system homeostasis is by protein sumoylation. In this study, we have uncovered a link between these two modes of regulation and show that Krz affects sumoylation via a conserved protein interaction with a SUMO protease, Ulp1...
December 2013: Genetics
Pei-Hui Wang, Ding-Hui Wan, Zhi-Hua Gu, Wei Qiu, Yong-Gui Chen, Shao-Ping Weng, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jian-Guo He
Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) play important roles in apoptosis and NF-κB activation. In this study, we cloned and characterized three IAPs (LvIAP1-3) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei. LvIAP1-3 proteins shared signature domains and exhibited significant similarities with other IAP family proteins. The tissue distributions of LvIAP1-3 were studied. The expression of LvIAP1-3 was induced in the muscle after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. LvIAP1 expression in the gill, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and intestine was responsive to WSSV and Vibrioalginolyticus infections...
2013: PloS One
Qian Ren, Xue Zhong, Shao-Wu Yin, Fang-Yuan Hao, Kai-Min Hui, Zhao Zhang, Chi-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Wen Wang
Toll receptor was first discovered in Drosophila and has an important function in the innate immunity of invertebrates. In this study, the Toll receptor HcToll1 from Hyriopsis cumingii with a full length of 3810 bp consisting of a 3687 bp ORF that encodes a total of 1228 amino acids protein was selected for further study. The HcToll1 protein consisted of a signal peptide, 17 LRR domains, 2 LRRCT domains, 1 LRRNT domain, 1 TM domain, and 1 TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that HcToll1 was clustered in one group together with other mollusca tolls...
May 2013: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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