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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934152/antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-allergic-activities-of-the-sweet-tasting-protein-brazzein
#1
Ju-Hee Chung, Ji-Na Kong, Hyo-Eun Choi, Kwang-Hoon Kong
Sweet-tasting proteins may be useful as low-calorie sugar substitutes in foods, beverages, and medicines. Brazzein is an attractive sweetener because of its high sweetness, sugar-like taste, and good stability at high temperature and wide pH ranges. To investigate the bioactivities of brazzein, the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities were determined in vitro. Brazzein showed no antibacterial and antifungal activities, although it showed approximately 45% or greater similarity to defensin, which has antimicrobial effects, and drosomycin, which is used as an antifungal agent...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920489/short-form-bomanins-mediate-humoral-immunity-in-drosophila
#2
Scott A Lindsay, Samuel J H Lin, Steven A Wasserman
The Bomanins (Boms) are a family of a dozen secreted peptides that mediate the innate immune response governed by the Drosophila Toll receptor. We recently showed that deleting a cluster of 10 Bom genes blocks Toll-mediated defenses against a range of fungi and gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the activity of individual Bom family members. We provide evidence that the Boms overlap in function and that a single Bom gene encoding a mature peptide of just 16 amino acids can act largely or entirely independent of other family members to provide phenotypic rescue in vivo...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894713/characterization-of-bi-domain-drosomycin-type-antifungal-peptides-in-nematodes-an-example-of-convergent-evolution
#3
Jing Gu, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Drosomycin-type antifungal peptides (DTAFPs) are natural effectors of the innate immune system, which are restrictedly distributed in plants and ecdysozoans. Mehamycin is a bi-domain DTAFP (abbreviated as bDTAFP) firstly found in the Northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. Here, we report its structural and functional features and the evolution of bDTAFPs in nematodes. Different from classical DTAFPs, mehamycin contains an insertion, called single Disulfide Bridge-linked Domain (abbreviated as sDBD), located in a loop region of the drosomycin scaffold...
June 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321302/rapid-seasonal-evolution-in-innate-immunity-of-wild-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Emily L Behrman, Virginia M Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O Bergland, Dmitri A Petrov, Brian P Lazzaro, Paul S Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Providencia rettgeri to measure post-infection survival and bacterial load of wild D...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939483/mkk4-from-litopenaeus-vannamei-is-a-regulator-of-p38-mapk-kinase-and-involved-in-anti-bacterial-response
#5
Sheng Wang, Bin Yin, Haoyang Li, Bang Xiao, Kai Lǚ, Chiguang Feng, Jianguo He, Chaozheng Li
LvMKK4, a homologue of the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4), was isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei in the present study. The full-length cDNA of LvMKK4 is 1947 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1185 bp encoding a putative protein of 388 amino acids. LvMKK4 contains several characteristic domains such as D domain, SIAKT motif and kinase domain, all of which are conserved in MAP kinase kinase family. Like mammalian MKK4 but not Drosophila MKK4, LvMKK4 could bind to, phosphorylate and activate p38 MAPK, which provided some insights into the signal transduction mechanism of MKK4-p38 cascade in invertebrates...
September 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706002/micrornas-that-contribute-to-coordinating-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Magda L Atilano, Marcus Glittenberg, Annabel Monteiro, Richard R Copley, Petros Ligoxygakis
Small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression related to host defenses. Here, we have used Drosophila melanogaster to explore the contribution of individual or clusters of miRNAs in countering systemic Candida albicans infection. From a total of 72 tested, we identify 6 miRNA allelic mutant backgrounds that modulate the survival response to infection and the ability to control pathogen number. These mutants also exhibit dysregulation of the Toll pathway target transcripts Drosomycin ( Drs ) and Immune-Induced Molecule 1 ( IM1 )...
September 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649857/effect-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-sipunculus-nudus-snp-on-the-lifespan-and-immune-damage-repair-of-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-cd-vi
#7
Jie Su, Linlin Jiang, Jingna Wu, Zhiyu Liu, Yuping Wu
The water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus (SNP) was investigated on the lifespan and immune damage repair of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to Cd (VI). SNP increased superoxyde dismutase (SOD), nitrogen monoxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC), with decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) on D. melanogaster demonstrated that SNP could attenuate oxidative damage of D. melanogaster Exposed to Cd (VI). Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that SNP enhanced the gene expression of Diptericin, Drosomycin, Defensin, PGRP-LC and the protein level of Toll, p-JNK and Relish, that suggested the promoting effect of SNP on the immune damage repair of D...
June 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634472/antifungal-activity-against-filamentous-fungi-of-ts1-a-multifunctional-toxin-from-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom
#8
Welligton M Santussi, Karla C F Bordon, Ana P N Rodrigues Alves, Camila T Cologna, Suraia Said, Eliane C Arantes
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The search for new AMPs has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv), its fractions and its major toxin Ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. The fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography of Tsv. The growth inhibition of 11 pathogenic and non-pathogenic filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250052/a-novel-mode-of-induction-of-the-humoral-innate-immune-response-in-drosophila-larvae
#9
Hiroyuki Kenmoku, Aki Hori, Takayuki Kuraishi, Shoichiro Kurata
Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants...
March 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213041/newly-identified-pctoll4-regulates-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-intestine-of-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#10
Ying Huang, Tingting Li, Min Jin, Shaowu Yin, Kai-Min Hui, Qian Ren
Tolls or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an essential role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. In this study, a novel Toll gene, PcToll4, was first identified from the intestinal transcriptome of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The PcToll4 cDNA is 4849bp long with a 3036bp open reading frame that encodes a 1011-amino acid protein. PcToll4 contains a signal peptide, 13 LRR domains, 3 LRR TYP domains, 2 LRR CT domains, an LRR NT domain, a transmembrane region, and a TIR domain...
April 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188867/bombyx-mori-serpin6-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activity-and-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-proteins
#11
Bing Li, Hai-Zhong Yu, Chong-Jun Ye, Yan Ma, Xing Li, Tao Fan, Fu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ping Xu
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly...
April 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974298/mir-958-inhibits-toll-signaling-and-drosomycin-expression-via-direct-targeting-of-toll-and-dif-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Shengjie Li, Yao Li, Li Shen, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well studied, the precise mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study, we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80ts -Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila We report that overexpression of miR-958 significantly reduces the expression of Drosomycin, a key antimicrobial peptide involved in Toll signaling and the innate immune response...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871832/genome-wide-mirna-screening-reveals-mir-310-family-members-negatively-regulate-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-via-co-targeting-drosomycin
#13
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819340/functional-screening-of-mammalian-mechanosensitive-genes-using-drosophila-rnai-library-smarcd3-bap60-is-a-mechanosensitive-pro-inflammatory-gene
#14
Sandeep Kumar, In-Hwan Jang, Chan Woo Kim, Dong-Won Kang, Won Jae Lee, Hanjoong Jo
Disturbed blood flow (d-flow) induces atherosclerosis by altering the expression of mechanosensitive genes in the arterial endothelium. Previously, we identified >580 mechanosensitive genes in the mouse arterial endothelium, but their role in endothelial inflammation is incompletely understood. From this set, we obtained 84 Drosophila RNAi lines that silences the target gene under the control of upstream activation sequence (UAS) promoter. These lines were crossed with C564-GAL4 flies expressing GFP under the control of drosomycin promoter, an NF-κB target gene and a marker of pathogen-induced inflammation...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562645/the-drosomycin-multigene-family-three-disulfide-variants-from-drosophila-takahashii-possess-antibacterial-activity
#15
Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Drosomycin (DRS) is a strictly antifungal peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, which contains four disulfide bridges (DBs) with three buried in molecular interior and one exposed on molecular surface to tie the amino- and carboxyl-termini of the molecule together (called wrapper disulfide bridge, WDB). Based on computational analysis of genomes of Drosophila species belonging to the Oriental lineage, we identified a new multigene family of DRS in Drosphila takahashii that includes a total of 11 DRS-encoding genes (termed DtDRS-1 to DtDRS-11) and a pseudogene...
August 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231872/remote-control-of-intestinal-stem-cell-activity-by-haemocytes-in-drosophila
#16
Sveta Chakrabarti, Jan Paul Dudzic, Xiaoxue Li, Esther Jeanne Collas, Jean-Phillipe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
The JAK/STAT pathway is a key signaling pathway in the regulation of development and immunity in metazoans. In contrast to the multiple combinatorial JAK/STAT pathways in mammals, only one canonical JAK/STAT pathway exists in Drosophila. It is activated by three secreted proteins of the Unpaired family (Upd): Upd1, Upd2 and Upd3. Although many studies have established a link between JAK/STAT activation and tissue damage, the mode of activation and the precise function of this pathway in the Drosophila systemic immune response remain unclear...
May 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190105/drosophila-pkaap-regulates-rab4-rab11-dependent-traffic-and-rab11-exocytosis-of-innate-immune-cargo
#17
Alexandra Sorvina, Tetyana Shandala, Douglas A Brooks
The secretion of immune-mediators is a critical step in the host innate immune response to pathogen invasion, and Rab GTPases have an important role in the regulation of this process. Rab4/Rab11 recycling endosomes are involved in the sorting of immune-mediators into specialist Rab11 vesicles that can traffic this cargo to the plasma membrane; however, how this sequential delivery process is regulated has yet to be fully defined. Here, we report that Drosophila Pkaap, an orthologue of the human dual-specific A-kinase-anchoring protein 2 or D-AKAP2 (also called AKAP10), appeared to have a nucleotide-dependent localisation to Rab4 and Rab11 endosomes...
2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791145/cost-of-surviving-sepsis-a-novel-model-of-recovery-from-sepsis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Ata Murat Kaynar, Veli Bakalov, Silvia Martinez Laverde, Amélie I F Cambriel, Byoung-Hoon Lee, Atif Towheed, Alyssa D Gregory, Steven A R Webb, Michael J Palladino, Fernando A Bozza, Steven D Shapiro, Derek C Angus
BACKGROUND: Multiple organ failure, wasting, increased morbidity, and mortality following acute illness complicates the health span of patients surviving sepsis. Persistent inflammation has been implicated, and it is proposed that insulin signaling contributes to persistent inflammatory signaling during the recovery phase after sepsis. However, mechanisms are unknown and suitable pre-clinical models are lacking. We therefore developed a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of sepsis to recapitulate the clinical course of sepsis, explored inflammation over time, and its relation to impaired mobility, metabolic disturbance, and changes in lifespan...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202785/toll-pathway-modulates-tnf-induced-jnk-dependent-cell-death-in-drosophila
#19
Chenxi Wu, Changyan Chen, Jianli Dai, Fan Zhang, Yujun Chen, Wenzhe Li, José Carlos Pastor-Pareja, Lei Xue
Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death...
July 2015: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26026692/identification-characterization-and-functional-studies-of-a-pelle-gene-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#20
Ying Huang, Yi-Hong Chen, Yu-Zhou Zhang, Jin-Ling Feng, Ling-Ling Zhao, Huan-Xi Zhu, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
The toll-like receptor/NF-κB signaling pathways play an important role in the innate immune system. In the present study, one Pelle gene (named EsPelle) was identified for the first time from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The full-length cDNA of EsPelle is 3797 bp with a 3156 bp-long open reading frame that encodes a 1051 amino acid protein. EsPelle protein contains a death domain at the N-terminal and a serine/threonine kinase domain at the C-terminal. A neighbor joining phylogenetic tree showed that the EsPelle protein, which is closest to those of Scylla paramamosain Pelle and Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle, was clustered to a group of crustacean Pelle proteins...
August 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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