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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677385/identification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-c-type-lectins-from-the-larvae-of-housefly-musca-domestica-l
#1
Jing Zhou, Nai-Nai Fang, Ya Zheng, Kai-Yu Liu, Bin Mao, Li-Na Kong, Ya Chen, Hui Ai
Lectins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely distributed in various insects and play crucial roles in primary host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Two AMPs (cecropin and attacin) have been identified and characterized in the larvae of housefly. In this study, two novel C-type lectins (CTLs) were obtained from Musca domestica, while their agglutinating and antiviral properties were evaluated. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of four immune genes (MdCTL1, MdCTL2, Cecropin, and Attacin) from M...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674848/biofilm-infections-between-scylla-and-charybdis-interplay-of-host-antimicrobial-peptides-and-antibiotics
#2
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501691/identification-and-screening-of-potent-antimicrobial-peptides-in-arthropod-genomes
#3
Deepesh Duwadi, Anishma Shrestha, Binyam Yilma, Itamar Kozlovski, Munaya Sa-Eed, Nikesh Dahal, James Jukosky
Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells...
March 1, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435708/intrinsic-antimicrobial-properties-of-silk-spun-by-genetically-modified-silkworm-strains
#4
Alessio Saviane, Ottavia Romoli, Andrea Bozzato, Giuliano Freddi, Chiara Cappelletti, Elena Rosini, Silvia Cappellozza, Gianluca Tettamanti, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a fundamental insect for silk industry. Silk is obtained from cocoons, protective envelopes produced during pupation and composed of single raw silk filaments secreted by the insect silk glands. Currently, silk is used as a textile fibre and to produce new materials for technical and biomedical applications. To enhance the use of both fabrics and silk-based materials, great efforts to obtain silk with antimicrobial properties have been made. In particular, a convincing approach is represented by the enrichment of the textile fibre with antimicrobial peptides, the main effectors of the innate immunity...
February 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410659/gut-microbiota-mediate-insecticide-resistance-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#5
Xiaofeng Xia, Botong Sun, Geoff M Gurr, Liette Vasseur, Minqian Xue, Minsheng You
The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes), Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria), and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria) from the guts of P...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409865/identification-and-evaluation-of-galleria-mellonella-peptides-with-antileishmanial-activity
#6
Isabel A Patiño-Márquez, Edwin Patiño-González, Laura Hernández-Villa, Blanca Ortíz-Reyes, Marcela Manrique-Moreno
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease, World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as high priority worldwide. Colombia is one of the 98 countries in which the disease caused more than 17.000 cases per year. There is a need to explore novel therapies to reduce the side effects of the current treatments. For this reason, this study was aimed to evaluate Galleria mellonella hemolymph for potential peptides with anti-parasitic activity. Larvae were challenged with Leishmania (V) panamensis promastigotes and hemolymph was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), reversed phase chromatography (RP-HPLC), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS)...
January 31, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402269/expression-of-a-recombinant-hybrid-antimicrobial-peptide-magainin-ii-cecropin-b-in-the-mycelium-of-the-medicinal-fungus-cordyceps-militaris-and-its-validation-in-mice
#7
Min Zhang, Yuanlong Shan, Hongtao Gao, Bin Wang, Xin Liu, Yuanyuan Dong, Xiuming Liu, Na Yao, Yonggang Zhou, Xiaowei Li, Haiyan Li
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic residues can cause antibiotic resistance in livestock and their food safety-related issues have increased the consumer demand for products lacking these residues. Hence, developing safe and effective antibiotic alternatives is important to the animal feed industry. With their strong antibacterial actions, antimicrobial peptides have potential as antibiotic alternatives. RESULTS: We investigated the antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities and the mechanisms of action of an antimicrobial peptide...
February 5, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355529/an-enhanced-anti-tumor-effect-of-apoptin-cecropin-b-on-human-hepatoma-cells-by-using-bacterial-magnetic-particle-gene-delivery-system
#8
Xi Wang, Ji-Gui Wang, Yuan-Yuan Geng, Jiao-Jiao Wang, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Shuang-Shuang Yang, Wei Jiang, Wei-Quan Liu
The gene therapy of cancer, due to the limit of its efficiency and safety, has not been widely used in clinical. Recently, bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs), which are membrane-bound nanocrystals found in magnetotactic bacteria, have been exploited as a new gene delivery system. However, its application on gene therapy remains to be explored. In our previous study, we found that a combination of cecropin B (ABPs) and apoptin (VP3) could serve as an effective gene therapeutic agent. Thus, in this study, we used BMPs to deliver the co-expression plasmid of these two gene, namely pVAX1-VA, and evaluated its therapeutic effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2)...
February 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304549/unravelling-a-mechanism-of-action-for-a-cecropin-a-melittin-hybrid-antimicrobial-peptide-the-induced-formation-of-multilamellar-lipid-stacks
#9
Tânia Silva, Bárbara Claro, Bruno F B Silva, Nuno Vale, Paula Gomes, Maria Salomé Gomes, Sérgio S Funari, José Teixeira, Daniela Uhríková, Margarida Bastos
An understanding of the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides is fundamental to the development of new and more active antibiotics. In the present work, we use a wide range of techniques (SANS, SAXD, DSC, ITC, CD, and confocal and electron microscopy) in order to fully characterize the interaction of a cecropin A-melittin hybrid antimicrobial peptide, CA(1-7)M(2-9), of known antimicrobial activity, with a bacterial model membrane of POPE/POPG in an effort to unravel its mechanism of action. We found that CA(1-7)M(2-9) disrupts the vesicles, inducing membrane condensation and forming an onionlike structure of multilamellar stacks, held together by the intercalated peptides...
February 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282543/characterization-of-bactericidal-efficiency-cell-selectivity-and-mechanism-of-short-interspecific-hybrid-peptides
#10
N Dong, X R Li, X Y Xu, Y F Lv, Z Y Li, A S Shan, J L Wang
Facing rising global antibiotics resistance, physical membrane-damaging antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising antimicrobial agents. Various strategies to design effective hybrid peptides offer many advantages in overcoming the adverse effects of natural AMPs. In this study, hybrid peptides from different species were investigated, and three hybrid antimicrobial peptides, LI, LN, and LC, were designed by combining the typical fragment of human cathelicidin-derived LL37 with either indolicidin, pig nematode cecropin P1 (CP-1) or rat neutrophil peptide-1 (NP-1)...
April 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247564/secondary-structure-of-cell-penetrating-peptides-during-interaction-with-fungal-cells
#11
Zifan Gong, Svetlana P Ikonomova, Amy J Karlsson
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are peptides that cross cell membranes, either alone or while carrying molecular cargo. Although their interactions with mammalian cells have been widely studied, much less is known about their interactions with fungal cells, particularly at the biophysical level. We analyzed the interactions of seven CPPs (penetratin, Pep-1, MPG, pVEC, TP-10, MAP, and cecropin B) with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans using experiments and molecular simulations. Circular dichroism (CD) of the peptides revealed a structural transition from a random coil or weak helix to an α-helix occurs for all peptides when the solvent is changed from aqueous to hydrophobic...
March 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232144/interactions-between-surface-immobilized-antimicrobial-peptides-and-model-bacterial-cell-membranes
#12
Xiaofeng Han, Jingguo Zheng, Fengming Lin, Kenichi Kuroda, Zhan Chen
Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study surface immobilization effects on the interactions between antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CP1) and model cell membranes. While free CP1 in solution interacted with a model cell membrane composed of a phosphatidylglycerol (PG) bilayer, electrostatic interaction led to the attachment of CP1 molecules onto the PG surface and the hydrophobic domain in the lipid bilayer enabled the peptides to insert into the bilayer and form α-helices from random coil structures...
January 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197569/non-covalent-interaction-between-ca-tat-and-calf-thymus-dna-deciphering-the-binding-mode-by-in-vitro-studies
#13
Mingxiu Lv, Mengwei Wang, Kui Lu, Bingchao Duan, Yufen Zhao
CA-TAT, a novel peptide analog, was modified at the N-terminus of TAT (47-57), the cell-penetrating peptide transacting activator of transcription, by attaching cecropin A (1-7). CA-TAT, TAT (47-57), and cecropin A (1-7) were synthesized using standard Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis procedures, purified using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and characterized using ESI-MS. CA-TAT demonstrated antibacterial activities against bacteria with low hemolysis (MHC>128μM). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of CA-TAT were in the range of 1-16μM, which completely inhibited both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186139/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-cecropins-from-the-oxysternon-conspicillatum-neotropic-dung-beetle
#14
Lily Johanna Toro Segovia, Germán Alberto Téllez Ramírez, Diana Carolina Henao Arias, Juan David Rivera Duran, Juan Pablo Bedoya, Jhon Carlos Castaño Osorio
Dung beetles are exposed to a complex microbiological ecosystem during their life cycle. Characterization of novel host-defense peptides (HDP) is essential to understanding the host innate immune response in insects. It constitutes a promising alternative to look for new therapeutic agents against pathogenic microbes. We identified four new HDP, Oxysterlins 1, 2, 3, and 4 from the transcriptome of the Oxysternon conspicillatum dung beetle. These HDP display a highly conserved signal peptide and a mature peptide, characterized by an overall positive charge (cationic) (pI: 10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180688/involvement-of-cecropin-b-in-the-formation-of-the-aedes-aegypti-mosquito-cuticle
#15
Wei-Ting Liu, Wu-Chun Tu, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Ueng-Cheng Yang, Cheng-Chen Chen
In this study, we found a mosquito antimicrobial peptide (AMP), Aedes aegypti cecropin B (Aacec B), was expressed constitutively in pupae. Knockdown in the pupae of Aacec B using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) resulted in high mortality, the emergence of deformed adults and an impairment of pharate adult cuticle formation with fewer lamellae being deposited and the helicoidal pattern of the chitin microfibrils being disorganized. Simultaneous injection of Aacec B dsRNA and Aacec B peptide into pupae significantly reduced this mortality and no deformed adults then emerged...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079530/identification-and-function-of-camp-response-element-binding-protein-in-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#16
Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Chen Chen, Saima Kausar, Jiwu Tian, Baojian Zhu, Chaoliang Liu
Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) proteins participate in the regulation of many biological processes. However, little is known about their role in immune regulation in the Oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). In this study, a CREB gene was identified in A. pernyi and its role in immune regulation was investigated. ApCREB shares conserved signature motifs with other CREB proteins, and includes a typical leucine zipper domain, specific DNA-binding site, nuclear localisation signal (NLS) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965426/implementation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-for-sample-preparation-prior-to-nucleic-acid-amplification-in-point-of-care-settings
#17
Katrin Krõlov, Julia Uusna, Tiia Grellier, Liis Andresen, Jekaterina Jevtuševskaja, Indrek Tulp, Ülo Langel
BACKGROUND: A variety of sample preparation techniques are used prior to nucleic acid amplification. However, their efficiency is not always sufficient and nucleic acid purification remains the preferred method for template preparation. Purification is difficult and costly to apply in point-of-care (POC) settings and there is a strong need for more robust, rapid, and efficient biological sample preparation techniques in molecular diagnostics. METHODS: Here, the authors applied antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for urine sample preparation prior to isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP)...
October 9, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939559/microbiome-symbionts-and-diet-diversity-incur-costs-on-the-immune-system-of-insect-larvae
#18
Indrikis A Krams, Sanita Kecko, Priit Jõers, Giedrius Trakimas, Didzis Elferts, Ronalds Krams, Severi Luoto, Markus J Rantala, Inna Inashkina, Dita Gudrā, Dāvids Fridmanis, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Lelde Grantiņa-Ieviņa, Tatjana Krama
Communities of symbiotic microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in food digestion and protection against opportunistic microbes. Diet diversity increases the number of symbionts in the intestines, a benefit that is considered to impose no cost for the host organism. However, less is known about the possible immunological investments that hosts have to make in order to control the infections caused by symbiont populations that increase due to diet diversity. By using taxonomical composition analysis of the 16S rRNA V3 region, we show that Enterococci are the dominating group of bacteria in the midgut of the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893327/new-activity-of-yamamarin-an-insect-pentapeptide-on-immune-system-of-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor
#19
K Walkowiak-Nowicka, G Nowicki, M Kuczer, G Rosiński
In insects, two types of the immune responses, cellular and humoral, constitute a defensive barrier against various parasites and pathogens. In response to pathogens, insects produce a wide range of immune agents that act on pathogens directly, such as cecropins or lysozyme, or indirectly by the stimulation of hemocyte migration or by increasing phenoloxidase (PO) activity. Recently, many new immunologically active substances from insects, such as peptides and polypeptides, have been identified. Nevertheless, in the most cases, their physiological functions are not fully known...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872999/analysis-of-the-early-cellular-and-humoral-responses-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae-to-infection-by-candida-albicans
#20
Gerard Sheehan, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella larvae were administered an inoculum of Candida albicans and the response to infection over 24 hours was monitored. The yeast cell density in infected larvae declined initially but replication commenced six hours post-infection. The hemocyte density decreased from 5.2 × 106/ml to 2.5 × 106/ml at 2 hours but increased to 4.2 × 106 at 6 hours and decreased subsequently. Administration of β - glucan to larvae also caused a fluctuation in hemocyte density (5.1 ± 0.22 × 106/ml (0 hour) to 6...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
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