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Xubiao Wei, Rujuan Wu, Lulu Zhang, Baseer Ahmad, Dayong Si, Rijun Zhang
The hybrid peptide cecropin A (1⁻8)⁻LL37 (17⁻30) (C⁻L), derived from the sequence of cecropin A (C) and LL-37 (L), showed significantly increased antibacterial activity and minimized hemolytic activity than C and L alone. To obtain high-level production of C⁻L, the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence encoding C⁻L with preferred codons was cloned into pET-SUMO to construct a fusion expression vector, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) BL21 (DE3). The maximum fusion protein (92% purity) was obtained with the yield of 89...
June 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tellez German Alberto, Zapata Jesica Alejandra, Toro Lily Johanna, Henao Diana Carolina, Bedoya Juan Pablo, Rivera Juan David, Trujillo Juan Valentin, Rivas Bruno, Richard Onalbi Hoyos Lopez, Castano Jhon Carlos
Maggots from the Lucilia sp. genus are used for debridement of infected and necrotic wounds. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity has been described in the excretion/secretions (ES1 ) of these larvae. This study identifies the genetic sequence of a cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide from Lucilia eximia. Total RNA was extracted and used for PCR-RACE amplification of a cecropin, the native peptide was immunolocalized in the tissues and secretions of the larvae, and a synthetic analog was used to explore its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, LPS neutralizing and wound-healing activities in vitro...
June 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Éanna Forde, Ghady Shafiy, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes, Adam A Strömstedt, Marc Devocelle
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising broad-spectrum antibiotic candidates in the wake of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Their clinical use still requires a solution based on lead optimisation and/or formulation to overcome certain limitations, such as unwanted cytotoxicity. A prodrug approach could overcome this safety barrier and can be achieved through reversible reduction or neutralisation of the AMPs' net cationic charge. By prodrug activation through pathogen associated enzymes, this approach could increase the therapeutic index of membrane active peptides...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Jiao Zhang, Xiuxia Su, Dong Yang, Chonglin Luan
A label-free liquid crystal (LC) biosensor based on orientation changes of LC molecules was reported for the detection of cecropin B. The homeotropic-to-tilted alignment transition of LC molecules, induced by the specific binding event between cecropin B and anti-cecropin B antibody immobilized via glutaraldehyde, could result in obvious change of the optical appearance from a dark to a bright response and as a result, the detection limit of cecropin B was as low as 50 ng/mL. The average gray-scale intensities (GIs) of optical appearances were calculated to quantitatively analyse cecropin B concentrations...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Ya-Wen Hsiao, Magnus Hedström, Valeria Losasso, Sebastian Metz, Jason Crain, Martyn D Winn
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely-occurring host defense agents, of interest as one route for addressing the growing problem of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Understanding the mechanisms behind their anti-pathogen activity is instrumental in designing new AMPs. Herein, we present an all-atom molecular dynamics and free energy study on cecropin B (CB), and its constituent domains. We find a cooperative mechanism in which CB inserts into an anionic model membrane with its amphipathic N-terminal segment, supported by the hydrophobic C-terminal segment of a second peptide...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Meriem Msaad Guerfali, Wafa Djobbi, Kamel Charaabi, Heithem Hamden, Salma Fadhl, Wafa Marzouki, Ferjani Dhaouedi, Claude Chevrier
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is often referred to as the most severe agricultural pest. Its biological control is mainly through the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Colonization, mass-rearing conditions and the irradiation process impact the competitiveness of sterile males and disrupt symbiotic associations by favoring some bacterial species and suppressing others. Levels of Providencia species have been shown to fluctuate considerably in the gut of the medfly laboratory strain Vienna 8 under irradiation, increasing by up to 22%...
2018: PloS One
Anurag Agrawal, James C Weisshaar
The outermost layer of Gram negative bacteria is composed of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) network that forms a dense protective hydrophilic barrier against entry of hydrophobic drugs. At low μM concentrations, a large family of cationic polypeptides known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are able to penetrate the LPS layer and permeabilize the outer membrane (OM) and the cytoplasmic membrane (CM), causing cell death. Cecropin A is a well-studied cationic AMP from moth. Here a battery of time-resolved, single-cell microscopy experiments explores how deletion of sugar layers and/or phosphoryl negative charges from the core oligosaccharide layer (core OS) of K12 E...
July 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Isabel Andrea Patiño-Márquez, Marcela Manrique-Moreno, Edwin Patiño-González, Małgorzata Jemioła-Rzemińska, Kazimierz Strzałka
Antimicrobial peptides are molecules of natural origin, produced by organisms such as insects, which have focused attention as potential antiparasitic agents. They can cause the death of parasites such Leishmania by interacting with their membrane. In this study, additional information was obtained on how the anionic peptide 2 and cecropin D-like peptide derived from Galleria mellonella interact with liposomes that mimic the composition of the Leishmania membrane. In order to do this, lipid bilayers consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dimyristoylphosphatidylserine, and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol were constructed...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Jing Zhou, Nai-Nai Fang, Ya Zheng, Kai-Yu Liu, Bin Mao, Li-Na Kong, Ya Chen, Hui Ai
Lectins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely distributed in various insects and play crucial roles in primary host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Two AMPs (cecropin and attacin) have been identified and characterized in the larvae of housefly. In this study, two novel C-type lectins (CTLs) were obtained from Musca domestica, while their agglutinating and antiviral properties were evaluated. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of four immune genes (MdCTL1, MdCTL2, Cecropin, and Attacin) from M...
July 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Deepesh Duwadi, Anishma Shrestha, Binyam Yilma, Itamar Kozlovski, Munaya Sa-Eed, Nikesh Dahal, James Jukosky
Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells...
May 2018: Peptides
Alessio Saviane, Ottavia Romoli, Andrea Bozzato, Giuliano Freddi, Chiara Cappelletti, Elena Rosini, Silvia Cappellozza, Gianluca Tettamanti, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a fundamental insect for silk industry. Silk is obtained from cocoons, protective envelopes produced during pupation and composed of single raw silk filaments secreted by the insect silk glands. Currently, silk is used as a textile fibre and to produce new materials for technical and biomedical applications. To enhance the use of both fabrics and silk-based materials, great efforts to obtain silk with antimicrobial properties have been made. In particular, a convincing approach is represented by the enrichment of the textile fibre with antimicrobial peptides, the main effectors of the innate immunity...
February 2018: Transgenic Research
Xiaofeng Xia, Botong Sun, Geoff M Gurr, Liette Vasseur, Minqian Xue, Minsheng You
The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes), Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria), and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria) from the guts of P...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Isabel A Patiño-Márquez, Edwin Patiño-González, Laura Hernández-Villa, Blanca Ortíz-Reyes, Marcela Manrique-Moreno
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease, World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as high priority worldwide. Colombia is one of the 98 countries in which the disease caused more than 17.000 cases per year. There is a need to explore novel therapies to reduce the side effects of the current treatments. For this reason, this study was aimed to evaluate Galleria mellonella hemolymph for potential peptides with anti-parasitic activity. Larvae were challenged with Leishmania (V) panamensis promastigotes and hemolymph was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), reversed-phase chromatography (RP-HPLC), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS)...
April 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Min Zhang, Yuanlong Shan, Hongtao Gao, Bin Wang, Xin Liu, Yuanyuan Dong, Xiuming Liu, Na Yao, Yonggang Zhou, Xiaowei Li, Haiyan Li
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic residues can cause antibiotic resistance in livestock and their food safety-related issues have increased the consumer demand for products lacking these residues. Hence, developing safe and effective antibiotic alternatives is important to the animal feed industry. With their strong antibacterial actions, antimicrobial peptides have potential as antibiotic alternatives. RESULTS: We investigated the antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities and the mechanisms of action of an antimicrobial peptide...
February 5, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Xi Wang, Ji-Gui Wang, Yuan-Yuan Geng, Jiao-Jiao Wang, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Shuang-Shuang Yang, Wei Jiang, Wei-Quan Liu
The gene therapy of cancer, due to the limit of its efficiency and safety, has not been widely used in clinical. Recently, bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs), which are membrane-bound nanocrystals found in magnetotactic bacteria, have been exploited as a new gene delivery system. However, its application on gene therapy remains to be explored. In our previous study, we found that a combination of cecropin B (ABPs) and apoptin (VP3) could serve as an effective gene therapeutic agent. Thus, in this study, we used BMPs to deliver the co-expression plasmid of these two gene, namely pVAX1-VA, and evaluated its therapeutic effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2)...
February 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tânia Silva, Bárbara Claro, Bruno F B Silva, Nuno Vale, Paula Gomes, Maria Salomé Gomes, Sérgio S Funari, José Teixeira, Daniela Uhríková, Margarida Bastos
An understanding of the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides is fundamental to the development of new and more active antibiotics. In the present work, we use a wide range of techniques (SANS, SAXD, DSC, ITC, CD, and confocal and electron microscopy) in order to fully characterize the interaction of a cecropin A-melittin hybrid antimicrobial peptide, CA(1-7)M(2-9), of known antimicrobial activity, with a bacterial model membrane of POPE/POPG in an effort to unravel its mechanism of action. We found that CA(1-7)M(2-9) disrupts the vesicles, inducing membrane condensation and forming an onionlike structure of multilamellar stacks, held together by the intercalated peptides...
February 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
N Dong, X R Li, X Y Xu, Y F Lv, Z Y Li, A S Shan, J L Wang
Facing rising global antibiotics resistance, physical membrane-damaging antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising antimicrobial agents. Various strategies to design effective hybrid peptides offer many advantages in overcoming the adverse effects of natural AMPs. In this study, hybrid peptides from different species were investigated, and three hybrid antimicrobial peptides, LI, LN, and LC, were designed by combining the typical fragment of human cathelicidin-derived LL37 with either indolicidin, pig nematode cecropin P1 (CP-1) or rat neutrophil peptide-1 (NP-1)...
April 2018: Amino Acids
Zifan Gong, Svetlana P Ikonomova, Amy J Karlsson
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are peptides that cross cell membranes, either alone or while carrying molecular cargo. Although their interactions with mammalian cells have been widely studied, much less is known about their interactions with fungal cells, particularly at the biophysical level. We analyzed the interactions of seven CPPs (penetratin, Pep-1, MPG, pVEC, TP-10, MAP, and cecropin B) with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans using experiments and molecular simulations. Circular dichroism (CD) of the peptides revealed a structural transition from a random coil or weak helix to an α-helix occurs for all peptides when the solvent is changed from aqueous to hydrophobic...
March 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Xiaofeng Han, Jingguo Zheng, Fengming Lin, Kenichi Kuroda, Zhan Chen
Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study surface immobilization effects on the interactions between antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CP1) and model cell membranes. While free CP1 in solution interacted with a model cell membrane composed of a phosphatidylglycerol (PG) bilayer, electrostatic interaction led to the attachment of CP1 molecules onto the PG surface and the hydrophobic domain in the lipid bilayer enabled the peptides to insert into the bilayer and form α-helices from random coil structures...
January 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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