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Cecropin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232144/interactions-between-surface-immobilized-antimicrobial-peptides-and-model-bacterial-cell-membranes
#1
Xiaofeng Han, Jingguo Zheng, Fengming Lin, Kenichi Kuroda, Zhan Chen
Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) was used to study surface immobilization effects on the interactions between antimicrobial peptide (AMP) cecropin P1 (CP1) and model cell membranes. While free CP1 in solution interacted with a model cell membrane composed of a phosphatidylglycerole (PG) bilayer, electrostatic interaction led to the attachment of the CP1 molecules onto the PG surface, and the hydrophobic domain in the lipid bilayer enabled the peptides to insert into the bilayer and form α-helices from random coil structures...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197569/non-covalent-interaction-between-ca-tat-and-calf-thymus-dna-deciphering-the-binding-mode-by-in-vitro-studies
#2
Mingxiu Lv, Mengwei Wang, Kui Lu, Bingchao Duan, Yufen Zhao
CA-TAT, a novel peptide analog, was modified at the N-terminus of TAT (47-57), the cell-penetrating peptide transacting activator of transcription, by attaching cecropin A (1-7). CA-TAT, TAT (47-57), and cecropin A (1-7) were synthesized using standard Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis procedures, purified using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and characterized using ESI-MS. CA-TAT demonstrated antibacterial activities against bacteria with low hemolysis (MHC>128μM). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of CA-TAT were in the range of 1-16μM, which completely inhibited both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186139/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-cecropins-from-the-oxysternon-conspicillatum-neotropic-dung-beetle
#3
Lily Johanna Toro Segovia, Germán Alberto Téllez Ramírez, Diana Carolina Henao Arias, Juan David Rivera Duran, Juan Pablo Bedoya, Jhon Carlos Castaño Osorio
Dung beetles are exposed to a complex microbiological ecosystem during their life cycle. Characterization of novel host-defense peptides (HDP) is essential to understanding the host innate immune response in insects. It constitutes a promising alternative to look for new therapeutic agents against pathogenic microbes. We identified four new HDP, Oxysterlins 1, 2, 3, and 4 from the transcriptome of the Oxysternon conspicillatum dung beetle. These HDP display a highly conserved signal peptide and a mature peptide, characterized by an overall positive charge (cationic) (pI: 10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180688/involvement-of-cecropin-b-in-the-formation-of-the-aedes-aegypti-mosquito-cuticle
#4
Wei-Ting Liu, Wu-Chun Tu, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Ueng-Cheng Yang, Cheng-Chen Chen
In this study, we found a mosquito antimicrobial peptide (AMP), Aedes aegypti cecropin B (Aacec B), was expressed constitutively in pupae. Knockdown in the pupae of Aacec B using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) resulted in high mortality, the emergence of deformed adults and an impairment of pharate adult cuticle formation with fewer lamellae being deposited and the helicoidal pattern of the chitin microfibrils being disorganized. Simultaneous injection of Aacec B dsRNA and Aacec B peptide into pupae significantly reduced this mortality and no deformed adults then emerged...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079530/identification-and-function-of-camp-response-element-binding-protein-in-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#5
Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Chen Chen, Saima Kausar, Jiwu Tian, Baojian Zhu, Chaoliang Liu
Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) proteins participate in the regulation of many biological processes. However, little is known about their role in immune regulation in the Oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). In this study, a CREB gene was identified in A. pernyi and its role in immune regulation was investigated. ApCREB shares conserved signature motifs with other CREB proteins, and includes a typical leucine zipper domain, specific DNA-binding site, nuclear localisation signal (NLS) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965426/implementation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-for-sample-preparation-prior-to-nucleic-acid-amplification-in-point-of-care-settings
#6
Katrin Krõlov, Julia Uusna, Tiia Grellier, Liis Andresen, Jekaterina Jevtuševskaja, Indrek Tulp, Ülo Langel
BACKGROUND: A variety of sample preparation techniques are used prior to nucleic acid amplification. However, their efficiency is not always sufficient and nucleic acid purification remains the preferred method for template preparation. Purification is difficult and costly to apply in point-of-care (POC) settings and there is a strong need for more robust, rapid, and efficient biological sample preparation techniques in molecular diagnostics. METHODS: Here, the authors applied antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for urine sample preparation prior to isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP)...
October 9, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939559/microbiome-symbionts-and-diet-diversity-incur-costs-on-the-immune-system-of-insect-larvae
#7
Indrikis A Krams, Sanita Kecko, Priit Jõers, Giedrius Trakimas, Didzis Elferts, Ronalds Krams, Severi Luoto, Markus J Rantala, Inna Inashkina, Dita Gudrā, Dāvids Fridmanis, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Lelde Grantiņa-Ieviņa, Tatjana Krama
Communities of symbiotic microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in food digestion and protection against opportunistic microbes. Diet diversity increases the number of symbionts in the intestines, a benefit that is considered to impose no cost for the host organism. However, less is known about the possible immunological investments that hosts have to make in order to control the infections caused by symbiont populations that increase due to diet diversity. By using taxonomical composition analysis of the 16S rRNA V3 region, we show that Enterococci are the dominating group of bacteria in the midgut of the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893327/new-activity-of-yamamarin-an-insect-pentapeptide-on-immune-system-of-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor
#8
K Walkowiak-Nowicka, G Nowicki, M Kuczer, G Rosiński
In insects, two types of the immune responses, cellular and humoral, constitute a defensive barrier against various parasites and pathogens. In response to pathogens, insects produce a wide range of immune agents that act on pathogens directly, such as cecropins or lysozyme, or indirectly by the stimulation of hemocyte migration or by increasing phenoloxidase (PO) activity. Recently, many new immunologically active substances from insects, such as peptides and polypeptides, have been identified. Nevertheless, in the most cases, their physiological functions are not fully known...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872999/analysis-of-the-early-cellular-and-humoral-responses-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae-to-infection-by-candida-albicans
#9
Gerard Sheehan, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella larvae were administered an inoculum of Candida albicans and the response to infection over 24 hours was monitored. The yeast cell density in infected larvae declined initially but replication commenced six hours post-infection. The hemocyte density decreased from 5.2 × 106/ml to 2.5 × 106/ml at 2 hours but increased to 4.2 × 106 at 6 hours and decreased subsequently. Administration of β - glucan to larvae also caused a fluctuation in hemocyte density (5.1 ± 0.22 × 106/ml (0 hour) to 6...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827116/targeting-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptide-cama-syn-by-adenovirus-vector-in-macrophages-inhibits-the-growth-of-intracellular-bacteria
#10
Junlin Zhang, Lilan Xie, Dingfeng Xu, Shuohao Yue, Yi Li, Xiaohong Guo, Xiaojing Lai
Although purified and synthesized Cecropin A-magainin 2 (CAMA-syn) shows potent antibacterial activity in vitro, its ability to inhibit bacteria within mammal cells mediated by virus vector has not yet been investigated. To enhance its antimicrobial potential and reduce systemic side effects, it would be desirable to deliver CAMA-syn in macrophages by adenovirus vector. In this study,recombinant adenovirus Ad-MSP-CAMA/GFP were used to infect macrophages RAW264.7 cells in vitro and macrophages cells of lungs in vivo and the expression of CAMA-syn was detected by RT-PCR and observation of co-expression of GFP...
September 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827052/expression-and-characterization-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-abp-dhc-cecropin-a-in-the-methylotrophic-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#11
Ming Sang, Hui Wei, Jiaxin Zhang, Zhiheng Wei, Xiaolong Wu, Yan Chen, Qiang Zhuge
ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a linear cationic peptide that exhibits antimicrobial properties. To explore a new approach for expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, we cloned the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene into the vector pPICZαA. The SacI-linearized plasmid pPICZαA-ABP-dHC-cecropin A was then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Expression was induced after a 96-h incubation with 0.5% methanol at 20 °C in a culture supplied with 2% casamino acids to avoid proteolysis...
December 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755911/itraq-proteomic-analysis-of-the-interactions-between-bombyx-mori-nuclear-polyhedrosis-virus-and-silkworm
#12
Wei-Tao Dong, Long-Fei Xiao, Jun-Jie Hu, Xin-Xu Zhao, Ji-Xing Liu, Yong Zhang
The silkworm hemolymph is an important defense system against bacteria and viruses. In this study, silkworms were infected with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus to investigate the subsequent immune response at the protein level. Proteomes were analyzed before and after infection using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and LC-MS. A total of 456 differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 179 were upregulated and 193 were downregulated. Changes in expression were validated by western blot for several proteins...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735081/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-cecropin-a2-from-musca-domestica
#13
Rui-Yang Wei, Jie Bai, Meng-Fei Zhao, Bin Xu, Wen-Jia Li, Feng-Xian Wei, Yan-Yan Xi, Shao-Yu Li
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Musca domestica cecropin-A2 (Mdc-A2) toward Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to learn more about their immunological functions. RAW264.7 cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviruses introduce pLEX-Mdc-A2into the RAW264.7 cell line (RAW-Mdc-A2). The RAW264.7 cell line with empty pLEX (RAW-pLEX) was produced in the same manner as a negative control. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of TNF-a, IL-1β, NFκB-1 and NFκB-2 in S...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720376/the-increase-in-positively-charged-residues-in-cecropin-d-like-galleria-mellonella-favors-its-interaction-with-membrane-models-that-imitate-bacterial-membranes
#14
José Oñate-Garzón, Alessio Ausili, Marcela Manrique-Moreno, Alejandro Torrecillas, Francisco J Aranda, Edwin Patiño, Juan C Gomez-Fernández
A comparative study of three synthetic peptides, namely neutral Cecropin D-like G. mellonella (WT) and two cationic peptides derived from its sequence, ΔM1 (+5) and ΔM2 (+9) is reported in this work. The influence of charge on the interactions between peptides and membranes and its effect on phase were studied by calorimetric assays. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that ΔM2 peptide showed the strongest effect when the membrane contained phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG), increasing membrane fluidization...
September 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716396/the-role-of-pilin-protein-of-xenorhabdus-nematophila-against-immune-defense-reactions-of-insects
#15
Reyhaneh Darsouei, Javad Karimi, Gary B Dunphy
Xenorhabdus nematophila is a symbiotic bacterium of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). It produces several toxic proteins which interfere with the immune system of insects. The current study shows that purified pilin protein could be a virulence trait of X. nematophila. The fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was injected with purified pilin. Changes in the cellular defenses in terms of total haemocyte counts and granulocyte percentage and humoral factors including total protease, phospholipase A2, and phenoloxidase activities (humoral defense) as well as the expression of the three main antimicrobial peptides attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin were measured at specific times...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705718/antimicrobial-peptide-repertoire-of-thitarodes-armoricanus-a-host-species-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-predicted-based-on-de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-analysis
#16
Min Wang, Xianda Hu
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an entomopathogenic fungus that parasitizes the larvae of ghost moths. The fungus-caterpillar complex resulting from fungal parasitism is a medicinally and economically important traditional Chinese medicine famous for its tonic, aphrodisiac and immunomodulatory activity. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which play predominant roles in responding to infection of pathogenic microorganisms in the immune system of ghost moths, may remain behind the fungus-caterpillar complex. Thitarodes armoricanus, as a widely distributed ghost moth on the Tibetan Plateau, is the first reported and one of the most common host insects of O...
July 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665988/oxidative-stress-induced-in-e-coli-by-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#17
Heejun Choi, Zhilin Yang, James C Weisshaar
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are thought to kill bacterial cells by permeabilizing their membranes. However, some antimicrobial peptides inhibit E. coli growth more efficiently in aerobic than in anaerobic conditions. In the attack of the human cathelicidin LL-37 on E. coli, real-time, single-cell fluorescence imaging reveals the timing of membrane permeabilization and the onset of oxidative stress. For cells growing aerobically, a CellROX Green assay indicates that LL-37 induces rapid formation of oxidative species after entry into the periplasm, but before permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM)...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651889/a-novel-expression-vector-for-the-secretion-of-abaecin-in-bacillus-subtilis
#18
Li Li, Lan Mu, Xiaojuan Wang, Jingfeng Yu, Ruiping Hu, Zhen Li
This study aimed to describe a Bacillus subtilis expression system based on genetically modified B. subtilis. Abaecin, an antimicrobial peptide obtained from Apis mellifera, can enhance the effect of pore-forming peptides from other species on the inhibition of bacterial growth. For the exogenous expression, the abaecin gene was fused with a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site, a promoter Pglv, and a mature beta-glucanase signal peptide. Also, a B. subtilis expression system was constructed. The recombinant abaecin gene was expressed and purified as a recombinant protein in the culture supernatant...
October 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556271/translocation-of-cell-penetrating-peptides-into-candida-fungal-pathogens
#19
Zifan Gong, Amy J Karlsson
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation...
September 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548136/corrigendum-efficient-biosynthesis-of-a-cecropin-a-melittin-mutant-in-bacillus-subtilis-wb700
#20
Shengyue Ji, Weili Li, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Meng Wang, Hengxin Li, Binyun Cao, Hongfu Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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