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amino acid starvation

Meriem Durgud, Saurabh Gupta, Ivan Ivanov, Amin Omidbakhshfard, Maria Benina, Saleh Alseekh, Nikola Staykov, Mareike Hauenstein, Paul Dijkwel, Stefan Hörtensteiner, Valentina Toneva, Yariv Brotman, Alisdair R Fernie, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Tsanko Gechev
The desiccation-tolerant plant Haberlea rhodopensis can withstand months of darkness without any visible senescence. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to prolonged (30 days) darkness and subsequent return to light. H. rhodopensis plants remained green and viable throughout the dark treatment. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that darkness regulated several transcription factor (TF) genes. Stress- and autophagy-related TFs such as ERF8, HSFA2b, RD26, TGA1, and WRKY33 were upregulated, while chloroplast- and flowering-related TFs such as ATH1, COL2, COL4, RL1, and PTAC7 were repressed...
May 22, 2018: Plant Physiology
Hirobumi Igawa, Akihiro Kikuchi, Hirofumi Misu, Kiyo-Aki Ishii, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the organism's nutritional status changes the protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in a tissue-specific manner. Although the mechanisms underlying the regulation of IRS-1 in the nutrient-rich conditions associated with diabetes and insulin resistance have been well studied, those under nutrient-poor conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how IRS-1 protein levels change depending on the nutritional status of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Simone C Vitor, Luciano do Amarante, Ladaslav Sodek
A substantial increase in malate in the xylem sap of soybean subjected to mineral N starvation originates mainly from aspartate, a prominent amino acid of the phloem. A substantial increase in xylem malate was found when non-nodulated soybean plants were transferred to a N-free medium. Nodulated plants growing in the absence of mineral N and, therefore, dependent on symbiotic N2 fixation also contained elevated concentrations of malate in the xylem sap. When either nitrate or ammonium was supplied, malate concentrations in the xylem sap were low, both for nodulated and non-nodulated plants...
May 16, 2018: Planta
Yanliang Wang, Erik Lysøe, Tegan Armarego-Marriott, Alexander Erban, Lisa Paruch, Andre van Eerde, Ralph Bock, Jihong Liu-Clarke
Root and root-released organic anions play important roles in uptake of phosphorus (P), an essential macronutrient for food production. Oat, ranking sixth in the world's cereal production, contains valuable nutritional compounds and can withstand poor soil conditions. Our aim was to investigate root transcriptional and metabolic responses of oat grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. We conducted a hydroponic experiment and measured root morphology and organic anion exudation, and analysed changes in the transcriptome and metabolome...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Patrick G Pumputis, Vivian R Dayeh, Lucy E J Lee, Phuc H Pham, Zhenzhen Liu, Senthuri Viththiyapaskaran, Niels C Bols
In order to develop an in vitro system to study the cell biology of starvation in the fish intestine, rainbow trout intestinal epithelial cells were subjected to three kinds of nutrient deprivation and evaluated for 7 days. The RTgutGC cell line was grown into monolayers in Leibovitz's basal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (L15/FBS) and then subjected to deprivation of serum (L15); of serum, amino acids, and vitamin (L15/ex); and of all nutrients (L15/salts). After 7 days of nutrient deprivation, the cells remained attached to the plastic surface as monolayers but changes were seen in shape, with the cells becoming more polygonal, actin and α-tubulin cytoskeleton organization, and in tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1) localization...
May 12, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Ping Fu, Wei Sun, Juan Lai, Yi-Hong Shen, Ze Zhang
Two isoforms, Bmpop-a and Bmpop-b, were cloned and characterized, which were found to encode prolyl oligopeptidase (Pop) of the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori. The full lengths of Bmpop-a and Bmpop-b were 2497 and 2508 bp, deducing 707 and 740 amino acids, respectively. Both of them, possessing the typical characteristics of the Pop family of serine proteinase, were detected to be expressed among different tissues and development stages at the transcription and translation levels. Soluble recombinant BmPop-a (rBmPop-a) had oligopeptidase activity toward the substrates, Z-Gly-Pro-pNA, Z-Gly-Pro-AMC and angiotensin I...
May 9, 2018: Gene
Wei Liu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Jing Sun, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Richard A Prinz, Chengming Wang, Jun Sun, Xinan Jiao, Xiulong Xu
Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that functions as a first-line defense to restrict the growth of invading parasitic bacteria. As an intracellular pathogen, Salmonella (S) Typhimurium invades host cells through two Type III secretion systems (T3SS) and resides in the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). When the SCV membrane is perforated and ruptured by T3SS-1, a small portion of the Salmonella egresses from the SCV and replicates rapidly in the nutrient-rich cytosol. Cytosolic Salmonella and those residing in the membrane-damaged SCV are tagged by ubiquitination and marked for autophagy through the ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins such as p62, NDP52, and optineurin...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Scott Latimer, Yubing Li, Thuong T H Nguyen, Eric Soubeyrand, Abdelhak Fatihi, Christian G Elowsky, Anna Block, Eran Pichersky, Gilles J Basset
The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential nutrients for mammals. In plants, BCAAs double as alternative energy sources when carbohydrates become limiting, the catabolism of BCAAs providing electrons to the respiratory chain and intermediates to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, the actual architecture of the degradation pathways of BCAAs is not well understood. In this study, gene network modeling in Arabidopsis and rice, and plant-prokaryote comparative genomics detected candidates for 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase (4...
May 9, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xi Yang, Rui Xia, Cuihua Yue, Wensi Zhai, Wenwen Du, Qianting Yang, Huiling Cao, Xiaojuan Chen, Danielle Obando, Yibei Zhu, Xinchun Chen, Jane-Jane Chen, Jon Piganelli, Peter Wipf, Yu Jiang, Guozhi Xiao, Changping Wu, Jingting Jiang, Binfeng Lu
T cells are strongly regulated by oxidizing environments and amino acid restriction. How T cells reprogram metabolism to adapt to these extracellular stress situations is not well understood. Here, we show that oxidizing environments and amino acid starvation induce ATF4 in CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrate that Atf4-deficient CD4+ T cells have defects in redox homeostasis, proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production. We further reveal that ATF4 regulates a coordinated gene network that drives amino acid intake, mTORC1 activation, protein translation, and an anabolic program for de novo synthesis of amino acids and glutathione...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Bethany Cheree Prudner, Fangdi Sun, Jeffrey Charles Kremer, Jinbin Xu, Chaofeng Huang, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Zachary Morgan, Hayden Leeds, Jonathan McConathy, Brian Andrew Van Tine
Rational : In a subset of cancers, arginine auxotrophy occurs due to the loss of expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1). This loss of ASS1 expression makes cancers sensitive to arginine starvation that is induced by PEGylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20). Although ADI-PEG20 treatment is effective, it does have important limitations. Arginine starvation is only beneficial in patients with cancers that are ASS1-deficient. Also, these tumors may metabolically reprogram to express ASS1, transforming them from an auxotrophic phenotype to a prototrophic phenotype and thus rendering ADI-PEG20 ineffective...
2018: Theranostics
Da Huo, Xiao Jiang, Xiaofen Wu, Chunhua Ren, Zonghe Yu, Jinshang Liu, Hongmei Li, Yao Ruan, Jin Wen, Ting Chen, Chaoqun Hu
Trehalases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of trehalose to glucose, and they are observed in most organisms. In this study, the first echinoderm trehalase, designated Hl-Tre, was identified from a tropical sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of H. leucospilota trehalase (Hl-Tre) is 2461 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1788 bp that encodes a 595-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 67.95 KDa. The Hl-Tre protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal and a functional trehalase domain, which includes the signature motifs 1 and 2...
April 29, 2018: Gene
Scot P Ouellette, Parker R Messerli, Nicholas A Wood, Heather Hajovsky
As an obligate intracellular, developmentally regulated bacterium, Chlamydia is sensitive to amino acid fluctuations within its host cell. When human epithelial cells are treated with the cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ), the tryptophan (trp)-degrading enzyme, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, is induced. Chlamydiae within such cells are starved for trp and enter a state of so-called persistence. Chlamydia lacks the stringent response used by many eubacteria to respond to this stress. Unusually, chlamydial transcription is globally elevated during trp starvation with transcripts for trp-codon containing genes disproportionately increased...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Jingqiang Fu, Minghui Shen, Yawei Shen, Wengang Lü, Miaoqin Huang, Xuan Luo, Jinjin Yu, Caihuan Ke, Weiwei You
Ivory shell, Babylonia areolata, is one of the commercially important mariculture species in China and South East Asia. Survival varies in the artificial hatching and larval rearing of B. areolata. Food deprivation may be involved in rearing mortality, and so, a better understanding of how larvae respond and adjust to starvation is needed. In this study, the metabolite profiles of newly hatched larvae with yolk (I), larvae with yolk exhaustion (II), larvae suffering 24 h starvation after yolk exhaustion (III), and larvae fed with exogenous nutrients after yolk exhaustion (IV) were analyzed by LC-MS/MS...
April 20, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Wessel van Leeuwen, Felix van der Krift, Catherine Rabouille
As a major anabolic pathway, the secretory pathway needs to adapt to the demands of the surrounding environment and responds to different exogenous signals and stimuli. In this context, the transport in the early secretory pathway from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus appears particularly regulated. For instance, protein export from the ER is critically stimulated by growth factors. Conversely, nutrient starvation also modulates functions of the early secretory pathway in multiple ways...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Fenella Steyfkens, Zhiqiang Zhang, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Johan M Thevelein
The nutrient composition of the medium has dramatic effects on many cellular properties in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . In addition to the well-known specific responses to starvation for an essential nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphate, the presence of fermentable sugar or a respirative carbon source leads to predominance of fermentation or respiration, respectively. Fermenting and respiring cells also show strong differences in other properties, like storage carbohydrate levels, general stress tolerance and cellular growth rate...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Farzaneh Ahmadi, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah, Saeid Kadkhodaei, Siti Mariyam Ijab, Luqman Hamzah, Maheran Abdul Aziz, Zaharah A Rahman, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed Alwee
Oil palm is grown in tropical soils with low bioavailability of Pi. A cDNA clone specifically expressed under phosphate-starvation condition in oil palm roots was identified as a high-affinity phosphate transporter (EgPHT1). The deduced amino acid sequence has 6 transmembrane domains each at the N- and C-termini separated by a hydrophilic linker. Comparison of promoter motifs within 1500 bp upstream of ATG of 10 promoters from high- and low-affinity phosphate transporter from both dicots and monocots including EgPHT1 was performed...
April 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Martina Chiu, Giuseppe Taurino, Massimiliano G Bianchi, Laura Ottaviani, Roberta Andreoli, Tecla Ciociola, Costanza A M Lagrasta, Saverio Tardito, Ovidio Bussolati
In cells derived from several types of cancer, a transcriptional program drives high consumption of glutamine (Gln), which is used for anaplerosis, leading to a metabolic addiction for the amino acid. Low or absent expression of Glutamine Synthetase (GS), the only enzyme that catalyzes de novo Gln synthesis, has been considered a marker of Gln-addicted cancers. In this study, two human cell lines derived from brain tumors with oligodendroglioma features, HOG and Hs683, have been shown to be GS-negative. Viability of both lines depends from extracellular Gln with EC50 of 0...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yashpal Rawal, Răzvan V Chereji, Vishalini Valabhoju, Hongfang Qiu, Josefina Ocampo, David J Clark, Alan G Hinnebusch
Gcn4 is a yeast transcriptional activator induced by amino acid starvation. ChIP-seq analysis revealed 546 genomic sites occupied by Gcn4 in starved cells, representing ∼30% of Gcn4-binding motifs. Surprisingly, only ∼40% of the bound sites are in promoters, of which only ∼60% activate transcription, indicating extensive negative control over Gcn4 function. Most of the remaining ∼300 Gcn4-bound sites are within coding sequences (CDSs), with ∼75 representing the only bound sites near Gcn4-induced genes...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Kristoffer Skovbo Winther, Mohammad Roghanian, Kenn Gerdes
RelA/SpoT homologs (RSHs) are ubiquitous bacterial enzymes that synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in response to environmental challenges. Bacteria cannot survive in hosts and produce infection without activating the (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response, but it is not yet understood how the enzymatic activities of RSHs are controlled. Using UV crosslinking and deep sequencing, we show that Escherichia coli RelA ((p)ppGpp synthetase I) interacts with uncharged tRNA without being activated. Amino acid starvation leads to loading of cognate tRNA⋅RelA complexes at vacant ribosomal A-sites...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
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