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amino acid starvation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536785/significance-of-accumulation-of-the-alarmone-p-ppgpp-in-chloroplasts-for-controlling-photosynthesis-and-metabolite-balance-during-nitrogen-starvation-in-arabidopsis
#1
Rina Honoki, Sumire Ono, Akira Oikawa, Kazuki Saito, Shinji Masuda
The regulatory nucleotides, guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) and guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), were originally identified in Escherichia coli, and control a large set of gene expression and enzyme activities. The (p)ppGpp-dependent control of cell activities is referred to as the stringent response. A growing number of (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase homologs have been identified in plants, which are localized in plastids in Arabidopsis thaliana. We recently reported that the Arabidopsis mutant overproducing ppGpp in plastids showed dwarf chloroplasts, and transcript levels in the mutant plastids were significantly suppressed...
May 23, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536474/gcn2-phosphorylates-hiv-1-integrase-and-decreases-hiv-1-replication-by-limiting-viral-integration
#2
A Jaspart, C Calmels, O Cosnefroy, P Bellecave, P Pinson, S Claverol, V Guyonnet-Dupérat, B Dartigues, M S Benleulmi, E Mauro, P A Gretteau, V Parissi, M Métifiot, M L Andreola
GCN2 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in cellular stress response related to amino acid starvation. Previously, we showed that GCN2 interacts with HIV-1 integrase and is activated during HIV-1 infection. Herein, we identified HIV-1 integrase as a previously unknown substrate of GCN2 in vitro with a major site of phosphorylation at residue S255 located in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase. The underlying mechanism was investigated and it appeared that the integrase active site was required in order for GCN2 to target the integrase residue S255...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529125/the-evidence-of-apelin-has-the-bidirectional-effects-on-feeding-regulation-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#3
Jin Hao, Qing Liu, Xin Zhang, Yuanbing Wu, Jieyao Zhu, Jinwen Qi, Ni Tang, Shuyao Wang, Hong Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Apelin is a peptide, mainly produced in the brain, which participates in several physiologic effects. However, knowledge about the mechanism of appetite regulation in teleosts, including the role of apelin is not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of feeding status on the expression of apelin mRNA in the whole brain and the effects of injection of apelin on food intake in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). In this study, we first cloned the apelin cDNA sequence of the Siberian sturgeon...
May 18, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526057/recognition-of-a-structural-domain-rwdbd-in-gcn1-proteins-that-interacts-with-the-rwd-domain-containing-proteins
#4
Ramachandran Rakesh, Rangachari Krishnan, Evelyn Sattlegger, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan
The protein Gcn1 (General control non-derepressible 1) is found in virtually all eukaryotes, and is a key component of the general amino acid control signal transduction pathway. This pathway is best known for its importance for cells to sense and overcome amino acid starvation. Gcn1 directly binds to the RWD (RING finger-containing proteins, WD-repeat-containing proteins, and yeast DEAD (DEXD)-like helicases) domain of the protein kinase Gcn2, and this is essential for delivering the starvation signal to Gcn2...
May 19, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495867/sex-differences-in-the-utilization-of-essential-and-non-essential-amino-acids-in-a-lepidoptera
#5
Eran Levin, Marshall D McCue, Goggy Davidowitz
The different reproductive strategies of males and females underlie differences in behavior that may also lead to differences in nutrient use between the two sexes. We study sex differences in the utilization of two essential amino acids (EAAs) and one non-essential amino-acid (NEAA) by the Carolina sphinx moth (Manduca sexta). On day one post-eclosion from the pupae, adult male moths oxidized greater amounts of larval-derived AAs than females, and more nectar derived AAs after feeding. After four days of starvation the opposite pattern was observed; adult females oxidized more larval-derived AAs than males...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486929/ulk1-phosphorylates-sec23a-and-mediates-autophagy-induced-inhibition-of-er-to-golgi-traffic
#6
Wenjia Gan, Caiyun Zhang, Ka Yu Siu, Ayano Satoh, Julian A Tanner, Sidney Yu
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is an inducible autodigestive process that allows cells to recycle proteins and other materials for survival during stress and nutrient deprived conditions. The kinase ULK1 is required to activate this process. ULK1 phosphorylates a number of target proteins and regulates many cellular processes including the early secretory pathway. Recently, ULK1 has been demonstrated to phosphorylate Sec16 and affects the transport of serotonin transporter at the ER exit sites (ERES), but whether ULK1 may affect the transport of other cargo proteins and general secretion has not been fully addressed...
May 10, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484042/a-proteomic-signature-of-dormancy-in-an-actinobacterium-micrococcus-luteus
#7
Sujina Mali, Morgan Mitchell, Spencer Havis, Abiodun Bodunrin, Jonathan Rangel, Gabriella Olson, William R Widger, Steven J Bark
Dormancy is a protective state where diverse bacteria including M. tuberculosis, S. aureus, T. pallidum (syphilis), and B. burgdorferi (Lyme Disease) curtail metabolic activity to survive external stresses including antibiotics. Evidence suggests dormancy consists of a continuum of interrelated states including viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and persistence states. VBNC and persistence contribute to antibiotic tolerance, reemergence from latent infections, and even quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Previous studies indicate that the protein mechanisms regulating persistence and VBNC states are not well understood...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455332/absence-of-ppgpp-leads-to-increased-mobilization-of-intermediately-accumulated-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-phb-in-ralstonia-eutropha-h16
#8
Janina R Jüngert, Marina Borisova, Christoph Mayer, Christiane Wolz, Christopher J Brigham, Anthony J Sinskey, Dieter Jendrossek
In this study, we constructed a set of single-, double-, and triple-gene deletion strains of Ralstonia eutropha H16 in (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase (spoT1), (p)ppGpp synthase (spoT2) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase (phaZa1 or phaZa3) genes and determined the impact on the levels of (p)ppGpp and on accumulated PHB. Double deletion mutants in both spoT1 and spoT2 genes were unable to synthesize detectable amounts of (p)ppGpp and accumulated only minor amounts of PHB due to PhaZa1-mediated depolymerization of PHB...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453381/degradation-of-protein-translation-machinery-by-amino-acid-starvation-induced-macroautophagy
#9
Christine Gretzmeier, Sven Eiselein, Gregory R Johnson, Rudolf Engelke, Heike Nowag, Mostafa Zarei, Victoria Küttner, Andrea C Becker, Kristoffer T G Rigbolt, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Jens S Andersen, Christian Münz, Robert F Murphy, Jörn Dengjel
Macroautophagy is regarded as a nonspecific bulk degradation process of cytoplasmic material within the lysosome. However, the process has mainly been studied by nonspecific bulk degradation assays using radiolabeling. In the present study we monitor protein turnover and degradation by global, unbiased approaches relying on quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Macroautophagy is induced by rapamycin treatment, and by amino acid and glucose starvation in differentially, metabolically labeled cells...
April 28, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450371/adaptive-roles-of-ssy1-and-sir3-during-cycles-of-growth-and-starvation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-populations-enriched-for-quiescent-or-non-quiescent-cells
#10
Dominika M Wloch-Salamon, Katarzyna Tomala, Dimitra Aggeli, Barbara Dunn
Over its evolutionary history, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved to be well-adapted to fluctuating nutrient availability. In the presence of sufficient nutrients, yeast cells continue to proliferate, but upon starvation haploid yeast cells enter stationary phase and differentiate into non-quiescent (NQ) and quiescent (Q) cells. Q cells survive stress better than NQ cells and show greater viability when nutrient-rich conditions are restored. To investigate the genes that may be involved in the differentiation of Q and NQ cells we serially propagated yeast populations that were enriched for either only Q or only NQ cell types over many repeated growth-starvation cycles...
April 26, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443109/novel-alleles-of-phosphorus-starvation-tolerance-1-gene-pstol1-from-oryza-rufipogon-confers-high-phosphorus-uptake-efficiency
#11
Kumari Neelam, Shiwali Thakur, Neha, Inderjit S Yadav, Kishor Kumar, Salwinder S Dhaliwal, Kuldeep Singh
Limited phosphorus availability in the soil is one of the major constraints to the growth and productivity of rice across Asian, African and South American countries, where 50% of the rice is grown under rain-fed systems on poor and problematic soils. With an aim to determine novel alleles for enhanced phosphorus uptake efficiency in wild species germplasm of rice Oryza rufipogon, we investigated phosphorus uptake1 (Pup1) locus with 11 previously reported SSR markers and sequence characterized the phosphorus-starvation tolerance 1 (PSTOL1) gene...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441889/insight-on-the-impacts-of-free-amino-acids-and-their-metabolites-on-the-immune-system-from-a-perspective-of-inborn-errors-of-amino-acid-metabolism
#12
Malgorzata M Pakula, Thorsten J Maier, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Amino acids (AAs) support a broad range of functions in living organisms, including several that affect the immune system. The functions of the immune system are affected when free AAs are depleted or in excess because of external factors, such as starvation, or because of genetic factors, such as inborn errors of metabolism. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the current insights into how free AAs affect immune responses. When possible, we make comparisons to known disease states resulting from inborn errors of metabolism, in which changed levels of AAs or AA metabolites provide insight into the impact of AAs on the human immune system in vivo...
May 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433003/the-plastid-outer-membrane-localized-lptd1-is-important-for-glycerolipid-remodeling-under-phosphate-starvation
#13
Yi-Ching Hsueh, Christian Ehmann, Nadine Flinner, Roman Ladig, Enrico Schleiff
Glycerolipid synthesis in plants is coordinated between plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A central step within the glycerolipid synthesis is the transport of phosphatidic acid from ER to chloroplasts. The chloroplast outer envelope protein TGD4 belongs to the LptD family conserved in bacteria and plants and selectively binds and may transports phosphatidic acid. We describe a second LptD-family protein in A. thaliana (atLPTD1; At2g44640) characterized by a barrel domain with an amino acid signature typical for cyanobacterial LptDs...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425994/modulating-the-therapeutic-response-of-tumours-to-dietary-serine-and-glycine-starvation
#14
Oliver D K Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C Cheung, Pearl Lee, Tong Zhang, Niels J F van den Broek, Gillian M Mackay, Christiaan F Labuschagne, David Gay, Flore Kruiswijk, Julianna Blagih, David F Vincent, Kirsteen J Campbell, Fatih Ceteci, Owen J Sansom, Karen Blyth, Karen H Vousden
The non-essential amino acids serine and glycine are used in multiple anabolic processes that support cancer cell growth and proliferation (reviewed in ref. 1). While some cancer cells upregulate de novo serine synthesis, many others rely on exogenous serine for optimal growth. Restriction of dietary serine and glycine can reduce tumour growth in xenograft and allograft models. Here we show that this observation translates into more clinically relevant autochthonous tumours in genetically engineered mouse models of intestinal cancer (driven by Apc inactivation) or lymphoma (driven by Myc activation)...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400329/deletion-of-type-i-glutamine-synthetase-deregulates-nitrogen-metabolism-and-increases-ethanol-production-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#15
Thomas Rydzak, David Garcia, David M Stevenson, Margaret Sladek, Dawn M Klingeman, Evert K Holwerda, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Steven D Brown, Adam M Guss
Clostridium thermocellum rapidly deconstructs cellulose and ferments resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol and other products, and is thus a promising platform organism for the development of cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. While recent metabolic engineering strategies have targeted eliminating canonical fermentation products (acetate, lactate, formate, and H2), C. thermocellum also secretes amino acids, which has limited ethanol yields in engineered strains to approximately 70% of the theoretical maximum...
April 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394250/ampk-and-vacuole-associated-atg14p-orchestrate-%C3%AE-lipophagy-for-energy-production-and-long-term-survival-under-glucose-starvation
#16
Arnold Y Seo, Pick-Wei Lau, Daniel Feliciano, Prabuddha Sengupta, Mark A Le Gros, Bertrand Cinquin, Carolyn A Larabell, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
Dietary restriction increases the longevity of many organisms, but the cell signaling and organellar mechanisms underlying this capability are unclear. We demonstrate that to permit long-term survival in response to sudden glucose depletion, yeast cells activate lipid-droplet (LD) consumption through micro-lipophagy (µ-lipophagy), in which fat is metabolized as an alternative energy source. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation triggered this pathway, which required Atg14p. More gradual glucose starvation, amino acid deprivation or rapamycin did not trigger µ-lipophagy and failed to provide the needed substitute energy source for long-term survival...
April 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387868/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-populus-trichocarpa-rhizophagus-irregularis-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-regulation-of-plant-and-fungal-transportomes-under-nitrogen-starvation
#17
Silvia Calabrese, Annegret Kohler, Annette Niehl, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Thomas Boller, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
Nutrient transfer is a key feature of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Valuable mineral nutrients are transferred from the AM fungus to the plant, increasing its fitness and productivity, and, in exchange, the AM fungus receives carbohydrates as an energy source from the plant. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of the Populus trichocarpa-Rhizophagus irregularis symbiosis using RNA-sequencing of non-mycorrhizal or mycorrhizal fine roots, with a focus on the effect of nitrogen (N) starvation. In R...
April 6, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382234/comparative-proteomics-of-rhizopus-delemar-atcc-20344-unravels-the-role-of-amino-acid-catabolism-in-fumarate-accumulation
#18
Dorett I Odoni, Juan A Tamayo-Ramos, Jasper Sloothaak, Ruben G A van Heck, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Leo H de Graaff, Maria Suarez-Diez, Peter J Schaap
The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and propose that a substantial part of the fumarate accumulated in R...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378827/real-time-itraq-based-proteome-profiling-revealed-the-central-metabolism-involved-in-nitrogen-starvation-induced-lipid-accumulation-in-microalgae
#19
Vineeta Rai, Muthusivaramapandian Muthuraj, Mayuri N Gandhi, Debasish Das, Sanjeeva Srivastava
To understand the post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms attributing to oleaginousness in microalgae challenged with nitrogen starvation (N-starvation), the longitudinal proteome dynamics of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was investigated using multipronged quantitative proteomics and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Physiological data suggested a remarkably enhanced lipid accumulation with concomitant reduction in carbon flux towards carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The proteomics-based investigations identified the down-regulation of enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis (porphobilinogen deaminase) and photosynthetic carbon fixation (sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphate and phosphoribulokinase)...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377524/the-transcriptome-of-leishmania-major-developmental-stages-in-their-natural-sand-fly-vector
#20
Ehud Inbar, V Keith Hughitt, Laura A L Dillon, Kashinath Ghosh, Najib M El-Sayed, David L Sacks
The life cycle of the Leishmania parasite in the sand fly vector involves differentiation into several distinctive forms, each thought to represent an adaptation to specific microenvironments in the midgut of the fly. Based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) results, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of the transcriptome dynamics of four distinct stages of Leishmania major as they develop in a natural vector, Phlebotomus duboscqi The early transformation from tissue amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes in the blood-fed midgut was accompanied by the greatest number of differentially expressed genes, including the downregulation of amastins, and upregulation of multiple cell surface proteins, sugar and amino acid transporters, and genes related to glucose metabolism and cell cycle progression...
April 4, 2017: MBio
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