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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433003/the-plastid-outer-membrane-localized-lptd1-is-important-for-glycerolipid-remodeling-under-phosphate-starvation
#1
Yi-Ching Hsueh, Christian Ehmann, Nadine Flinner, Roman Ladig, Enrico Schleiff
Glycerolipid synthesis in plants is coordinated between plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A central step within the glycerolipid synthesis is the transport of phosphatidic acid from ER to chloroplasts. The chloroplast outer envelope protein TGD4 belongs to the LptD family conserved in bacteria and plants and selectively binds and may transports phosphatidic acid. We describe a second LptD-family protein in A. thaliana (atLPTD1; At2g44640) characterized by a barrel domain with an amino acid signature typical for cyanobacterial LptDs...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425994/modulating-the-therapeutic-response-of-tumours-to-dietary-serine-and-glycine-starvation
#2
Oliver D K Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C Cheung, Pearl Lee, Tong Zhang, Niels J F van den Broek, Gillian M Mackay, Christiaan F Labuschagne, David Gay, Flore Kruiswijk, Julianna Blagih, David F Vincent, Kirsteen J Campbell, Fatih Ceteci, Owen J Sansom, Karen Blyth, Karen H Vousden
The non-essential amino acids serine and glycine are used in multiple anabolic processes that support cancer cell growth and proliferation (reviewed in ref. 1). While some cancer cells upregulate de novo serine synthesis, many others rely on exogenous serine for optimal growth. Restriction of dietary serine and glycine can reduce tumour growth in xenograft and allograft models. Here we show that this observation translates into more clinically relevant autochthonous tumours in genetically engineered mouse models of intestinal cancer (driven by Apc inactivation) or lymphoma (driven by Myc activation)...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400329/deletion-of-type-i-glutamine-synthetase-deregulates-nitrogen-metabolism-and-increases-ethanol-production-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#3
Thomas Rydzak, David Garcia, David M Stevenson, Margaret Sladek, Dawn M Klingeman, Evert K Holwerda, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Steven D Brown, Adam M Guss
Clostridium thermocellum rapidly deconstructs cellulose and ferments resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol and other products, and is thus a promising platform organism for the development of cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. While recent metabolic engineering strategies have targeted eliminating canonical fermentation products (acetate, lactate, formate, and H2), C. thermocellum also secretes amino acids, which has limited ethanol yields in engineered strains to approximately 70% of the theoretical maximum...
April 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394250/ampk-and-vacuole-associated-atg14p-orchestrate-%C3%A2%C2%B5-lipophagy-for-energy-production-and-long-term-survival-under-glucose-starvation
#4
Arnold Young Seo, Pick-Wei Lau, Daniel Feliciano, Prabuddha Sengupta, Mark A Le Gros, Bertrand Cinquin, Carolyn A Larabell, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
Dietary restriction increases the longevity of many organisms but the cell signaling and organellar mechanisms underlying this capability are unclear. We demonstrate that to permit long-term survival in response to sudden glucose depletion, yeast cells activate lipid-droplet (LD) consumption through micro-lipophagy (µ-lipophagy), in which fat is metabolized as an alternative energy source. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation triggered this pathway, which required Atg14p. More gradual glucose starvation, amino acid deprivation or rapamycin did not trigger µ-lipophagy and failed to provide the needed substitute energy source for long-term survival...
April 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387868/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-populus-trichocarpa-rhizophagus-irregularis-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-regulation-of-plant-and-fungal-transportomes-under-nitrogen-starvation
#5
Silvia Calabrese, Annegret Kohler, Annette Niehl, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Thomas Boller, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
Nutrient transfer is a key feature of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Valuable mineral nutrients are transferred from the AM fungus to the plant, increasing its fitness and productivity, and, in exchange, the AM fungus receives carbohydrates as an energy source from the plant. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of the Populus trichocarpa-Rhizophagus irregularis symbiosis using RNA-sequencing of non-mycorrhizal or mycorrhizal fine roots, with a focus on the effect of nitrogen (N) starvation. In R...
April 6, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382234/comparative-proteomics-of-rhizopus-delemar-atcc-20344-unravels-the-role-of-amino-acid-catabolism-in-fumarate-accumulation
#6
Dorett I Odoni, Juan A Tamayo-Ramos, Jasper Sloothaak, Ruben G A van Heck, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Leo H de Graaff, Maria Suarez-Diez, Peter J Schaap
The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and propose that a substantial part of the fumarate accumulated in R...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378827/real-time-itraq-based-proteome-profiling-revealed-the-central-metabolism-involved-in-nitrogen-starvation-induced-lipid-accumulation-in-microalgae
#7
Vineeta Rai, Muthusivaramapandian Muthuraj, Mayuri N Gandhi, Debasish Das, Sanjeeva Srivastava
To understand the post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms attributing to oleaginousness in microalgae challenged with nitrogen starvation (N-starvation), the longitudinal proteome dynamics of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was investigated using multipronged quantitative proteomics and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Physiological data suggested a remarkably enhanced lipid accumulation with concomitant reduction in carbon flux towards carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The proteomics-based investigations identified the down-regulation of enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis (porphobilinogen deaminase) and photosynthetic carbon fixation (sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphate and phosphoribulokinase)...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377524/the-transcriptome-of-leishmania-major-developmental-stages-in-their-natural-sand-fly-vector
#8
Ehud Inbar, V Keith Hughitt, Laura A L Dillon, Kashinath Ghosh, Najib M El-Sayed, David L Sacks
The life cycle of the Leishmania parasite in the sand fly vector involves differentiation into several distinctive forms, each thought to represent an adaptation to specific microenvironments in the midgut of the fly. Based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) results, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of the transcriptome dynamics of four distinct stages of Leishmania major as they develop in a natural vector, Phlebotomus duboscqi The early transformation from tissue amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes in the blood-fed midgut was accompanied by the greatest number of differentially expressed genes, including the downregulation of amastins, and upregulation of multiple cell surface proteins, sugar and amino acid transporters, and genes related to glucose metabolism and cell cycle progression...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377034/membrane-bound-organelles-versus-membrane-less-compartments-and-their-control-of-anabolic-pathways-in-drosophila
#9
REVIEW
Angelica Aguilera-Gomez, Catherine Rabouille
Classically, we think of cell compartmentalization as being achieved by membrane-bound organelles. It has nevertheless emerged that membrane-less assemblies also largely contribute to this compartmentalization. Here, we compare the characteristics of both types of compartmentalization in term of maintenance of functional identities. Furthermore, membrane less-compartments are critical for sustaining developmental and cell biological events as they control major metabolic pathways. We describe two examples related to this issue in Drosophila, the role of P-bodies in the translational control of gurken in the Drosophila oocyte, and the formation of Sec bodies upon amino-acid starvation in Drosophila cells...
April 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357393/identification-of-ftr1-and-zrt1-as-iron-and-zinc-micronutrient-transceptors-for-activation-of-the-pka-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Joep Schothorst, Griet V Zeebroeck, Johan M Thevelein
Multiple types of nutrient transceptors, membrane proteins that combine a transporter and receptor function, have now been established in a variety of organisms. However, so far all established transceptors utilize one of the macronutrients, glucose, amino acids, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate or sulfate, as substrate. This is also true for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transceptors mediating activation of the PKA pathway upon re-addition of a macronutrient to glucose-repressed cells starved for that nutrient, re-establishing a fermentable growth medium...
March 2, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356355/metabolomics-profiling-reveals-a-finely-tuned-starvation-induced-metabolic-switch-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-epimastigotes
#11
María Julia Barisón, Ludmila Nakamura Rapado, Emilio F Merino, Elisabeth Mieko Furusho Pral, Brian Suarez Mantilla, Letícia Marchese, Cristina Nowicki, Ariel Mariano Silber, Maria Belen Cassera
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is a protozoan parasite with a complex lifecycle involving a triatomine insect and mammals. Throughout its lifecycle, the T. cruzi parasite faces several alternating events of cell division and cell differentiation in which exponential and stationary growth phases play key biological roles. It is well accepted that arrest of the cell division in the epimastigote stage, both in the midgut of the triatomine insect and in vitro, is required for metacyclogenesis, and it has been previously shown that the parasites change the expression profile of several proteins when entering this quiescent stage...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351924/plasmodium-falciparum-maf1-confers-survival-upon-amino-acid-starvation
#12
Kyle Jarrod McLean, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena
The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway across eukaryotes that integrates nutrient and stress signals to regulate the cellular growth rate and the transition into and maintenance of dormancy. The majority of the pathway's components, including the central TOR kinase, have been lost in the apicomplexan lineage, and it is unknown how these organisms detect and respond to nutrient starvation in its absence. Plasmodium falciparum encodes a putative ortholog of the RNA polymerase (Pol) III repressor Maf1, which has been demonstrated to modulate Pol III transcription in a TOR-dependent manner in a number of organisms...
March 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333553/cyclooxygenase-2-induction-by-amino-acid-deprivation-requires-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-human-glioma-cells
#13
Zhiwen Li, Chi-Ming Chang, Lanfang Wang, Ping Zhang, Hui-Kuo G Shu
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors that can outstrip nutrient supplies due to rapid growth. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been linked to GBMs and may contribute to their aggressive phenotypes. Amino acid starvation results in COX-2 mRNA and protein induction in multiple human glioma cell lines in a process requiring p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and the Sp1 transcription factor. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression results from starvation-dependent COX-2 induction...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331578/trophic-discrimination-factor-of-nitrogen-isotopes-within-amino-acids-in-the-dobsonfly-protohermes-grandis-megaloptera-corydalidae-larvae-in-a-controlled-feeding-experiment
#14
Naoto F Ishikawa, Fumio Hayashi, Yoko Sasaki, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi
The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324658/mitochondrial-respiration-links-tor-complex-2-signaling-to-calcium-regulation-and-autophagy
#15
Ariadne Vlahakis, Nerea Lopez Muniozguren, Ted Powers
The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved regulator of cell growth and functions within 2 different protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, where TORC2 positively controls macroautophagy/autophagy during amino acid starvation. Under these conditions, TORC2 signaling inhibits the activity of the calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin and promotes the general amino acid control (GAAC) response and autophagy. Here we demonstrate that TORC2 regulates calcineurin by controlling the respiratory activity of mitochondria...
March 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323406/affinity-selection-mass-spectrometry-identifies-a-novel-antibacterial-rna-polymerase-inhibitor
#16
Scott S Walker, David Degen, Elliott Nickbarg, Donna Carr, Aileen Soriano, Mihir Mandal, Ronald E Painter, Payal Sheth, Li Xiao, Xinwei Sher, Nicholas Murgolo, Jing Su, David B Olsen, Richard H Ebright, Katherine Young
The growing prevalence of drug resistant bacteria is a significant global threat to human health. The antibacterial drug rifampin, which functions by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), is an important part of the antibacterial armamentarium. Here, in order to identify novel inhibitors of bacterial RNAP, we used affinity-selection mass spectrometry to screen a chemical library for compounds that bind to Escherichia coli RNAP. We identified a novel small molecule, MRL-436, that binds to RNAP, inhibits RNAP, and exhibits antibacterial activity...
March 31, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317223/cancer-with-low-cathepsin-d-levels-is-susceptible-to-v-atpase-inhibition
#17
Satoshi Kitazawa, Satoru Nishizawa, Hideyuki Nakagawa, Masaaki Funata, Kazuho Nishimura, Tomoyoshi Soga, Takahito Hara
Vacuolar (H(+) )-ATPases (V-ATPases) have important roles in the supply of nutrients to tumors by mediating autophagy and the endocytic uptake of extracellular fluids. Accordingly, V-ATPases are attractive therapeutic targets for cancer. However, the clinical use of V-ATPase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has not been realized, possibly owing to their high toxicity in humans. V-ATPase inhibition may be an appropriate strategy in highly susceptible cancers. In this study, we explored markers of V-ATPase inhibitor sensitivity...
March 19, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306713/trypanocidal-effect-of-isotretinoin-through-the-inhibition-of-polyamine-and-amino-acid-transporters-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#18
Chantal Reigada, Edward A Valera-Vera, Melisa Sayé, Andrea E Errasti, Carla C Avila, Mariana R Miranda, Claudio A Pereira
Polyamines are essential compounds to all living organisms and in the specific case of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, they are exclusively obtained through transport processes since this parasite is auxotrophic for polyamines. Previous works reported that retinol acetate inhibits Leishmania growth and decreases its intracellular polyamine concentration. The present work describes a combined strategy of drug repositioning by virtual screening followed by in vitro assays to find drugs able to inhibit TcPAT12, the only polyamine transporter described in T...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291750/similarities-in-the-structure-of-the-transcriptional-repressor-amtr-in-two-different-space-groups-suggest-a-model-for-the-interaction-with-glnk
#19
Madhumati Sevvana, Kristin Hasselt, Florian C Grau, Andreas Burkovski, Yves A Muller
AmtR belongs to the TetR family of transcription regulators and is a global nitrogen regulator that is induced under nitrogen-starvation conditions in Corynebacterium glutamicum. AmtR regulates the expression of transporters and enzymes for the assimilation of ammonium and alternative nitrogen sources, for example urea, amino acids etc. The recognition of operator DNA by homodimeric AmtR is not regulated by small-molecule effectors as in other TetR-family members but by a trimeric adenylylated PII-type signal transduction protein named GlnK...
March 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288181/nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-of-fto-does-not-affect-starvation-induced-autophagy
#20
Aleksander Aas, Pauline Isakson, Christian Bindesbøll, Endalkachew A Alemu, Arne Klungland, Anne Simonsen
Polymorphic variants of the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene associate with body mass index in humans, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been firmly determined. FTO is linked to energy homeostasis via amino acid sensing and is thought to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, a negative regulator of autophagy. FTO localises both to the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and in this study we identify a functional nuclear localisation signal (NLS) in the N-terminus of FTO, as well as nuclear localization information in its very C-terminus...
2017: PloS One
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