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amino acid starvation

Mikaela M Ceder, Emilia Lekholm, Sofie V Hellsten, Emelie Perland, Robert Fredriksson
Many transporters such as the solute carriers belonging to the Major facilitator superfamily Pfam clan are orphans in that their tissue and cellular localization as well as substrate profile and function are still unknown. Here we have characterized the putative solute carrier UNC93A. We aimed to investigate the expression profile on both protein and mRNA level of UNC93A in mouse since it has not been clarified. UNC93A staining was found in cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. It was found to be expressed in many neurons, but not all, with staining located in close proximity to the plasma membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Peter R Flanagan, Ning-Ning Liu, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Karsten Hokamp, Julia R Köhler, Gary P Moran
Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an essential regulator of metabolism in eukaryotic cells and in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans regulates morphogenesis and nitrogen acquisition. Gtr1 encodes a highly conserved GTPase that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates nitrogen sensing and TORC1 activation. Here, we characterize the role of C. albicans GTR1 in TORC1 activation and compare it with the previously characterized GTPase Rhb1. A homozygous gtr1/gtr1 mutant exhibited impaired TORC1-mediated phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and increased susceptibility to rapamycin...
November 2017: MSphere
Xin Zhang, Yundi Gao, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Shuyao Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered in 1995, with various biological functions, has received much attention recently due to its role in the regulation of appetite in mammals. However, the function of CART on the appetite control in fish species is still not very clear. In this study, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) cart gene was cloned for the first time, and the cart mRNA levels in 11 feeding-related tissues was investigated. The Siberian sturgeon cart gene sequence was 1459 base pairs (bp), including a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 39 bp, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 52 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp encoding 115 amino acids...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Lei Sun, Zhaoyue Meng, Yifei Zhu, Jun Lu, Zhichao Li, Qiannan Zhao, Yu Huang, Liwen Jiang, Xiaoqiang Yao
Autophagy is a highly complicated process with participation of large numbers of autophagy-related proteins. Under nutrient starvation, autophagy promotes cell survival by breaking down nonessential cellular components for recycling use. However, due to its high complexity, molecular mechanism of autophagy is still not fully understood. In the present study, we report a novel autophagy-related protein TM9SF4, which plays a functional role in the induction phase of autophagic process. TM9SF4 proteins were abundantly expressed in the kidney, especially in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells...
November 10, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
Yunxia Liu, Weibing Dong, Jing Shao, Yibin Wang, Meiyi Zhou, Haipeng Sun
Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15) is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively controlled by BCAA...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
N Louise Glass
The interplay between translation initiation, modification of translation initiation factors, and selection of start sites on mRNA for protein synthesis can play a regulatory role in the cellular response to stress, development, and cell fate in eukaryotic species by shaping the proteome. As shown by Ivanov et al. (mBio 8:e00844-17, 2017,, in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, both upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and near-cognate start codons negatively or positively regulate the translation of the transcription factor CPC1 and production of CPC1 isoforms, which mediate the cellular response to amino acid starvation...
November 7, 2017: MBio
Md Reyazul Islam, Nan-Sun Kim, Jae-Wan Jung, Hyo-Boon Kim, So-Chon Han, Moon-Sik Yang
A human pepsinogen C (hPGC) gene was synthesized with rice-optimized codon usage and cloned into a rice expression vector containing the promoter, signal peptide, and terminator derived from the rice α-amylase 3D (Ramy3D) gene. In addition, a 6-His tag was added to the 3' end of the synthetic hPGC gene for easy purification. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice calli (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The integration of the hPGC gene into the chromosome of the transgenic rice callus and hPGC expression in transgenic rice cell suspensions was verified via genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification and Northern blot analysis...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
H Edward Wong, Chung-Jr Huang, Zhongqi Zhang
Proteins provide the molecular basis for cellular structure, catalytic activity, signal transduction, and molecular transport in biological systems. Recombinant protein expression is widely used to prepare and manufacture novel proteins that serve as the foundation of many biopharmaceutical products. However, protein translation bioprocesses are inherently prone to low-level errors. These sequence variants caused by amino acid misincorporation have been observed in both native and recombinant proteins. Protein sequence variants impact product quality, and their presence can be exacerbated through cellular stress, overexpression, and nutrient starvation...
October 26, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Amin Mokhlesi, Fabian Stuhldreier, Katharina W Wex, Anne Berscheid, Rudolf Hartmann, Nidja Rehberg, Parichat Sureechatchaiyan, Chaidir Chaidir, Matthias U Kassack, Rainer Kalscheuer, Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt, Sebastian Wesselborg, Björn Stork, Georgios Daletos, Peter Proksch
Investigation of the sponge Clathria basilana collected in Indonesia afforded five new peptides, including microcionamides C (1) and D (2), gombamides B (4), C (5), and D (6), and an unusual amide, (E)-2-amino-3-methyl-N-styrylbutanamide (7), along with 11 known compounds, among them microcionamide A (3). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configurations of the constituent amino acid residues in 1-7 were determined by Marfey's analysis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
María Cristina Vanrell, Antonella Denisse Losinno, Juan Agustín Cueto, Darío Balcazar, Laura Virginia Fraccaroli, Carolina Carrillo, Patricia Silvia Romano
Autophagy is a cellular process required for the removal of aged organelles and cytosolic components through lysosomal degradation. All types of eukaryotic cells from yeasts to mammalian cells have the machinery to activate autophagy as a result of many physiological and pathological situations. The most frequent stimulus of autophagy is starvation and the result, in this case, is the fast generation of utilizable food (e.g. amino acids and basic nutrients) to maintain the vital biological processes. In some organisms, starvation also triggers other associated processes such as differentiation...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Monther Abu-Remaileh, Gregory A Wyant, Choah Kim, Nouf N Laqtom, Maria Abbasi, Sze Ham Chan, Elizaveta Freinkman, David M Sabatini
The lysosome degrades and recycles macromolecules, signals to the cytosol and nucleus, and is implicated in many diseases. Here, we describe a method for the rapid isolation of mammalian lysosomes and use it to quantitatively profile lysosomal metabolites under various cell states. Under nutrient-replete conditions, many lysosomal amino acids are in rapid exchange with those in the cytosol. Loss of lysosomal acidification through inhibition of the vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) increased the luminal concentrations of most metabolites but had no effect on those of the majority of essential amino acids...
November 10, 2017: Science
Juliana Ide Aoki, Sandra Marcia Muxel, Ricardo Andrade Zampieri, Stephanie Maia Acuña, Juliane Cristina Ribeiro Fernandes, Rubia Heloisa Vanderlinde, Maria Carmen Oliveira de Pinho Sales, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter
BACKGROUND: Leishmania uses the amino acid L-arginine as a substrate for arginase, enzyme that produces urea and ornithine, last precursor of polyamine pathway. This pathway is used by the parasite to replicate and it is essential to establish the infection in the mammalian host. L-arginine is not synthesized by the parasite, so its uptake occurs through the amino acid permease 3 (AAP3). AAP3 is codified by two copies genes (5.1 and 4.7 copies), organized in tandem in the parasite genome...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ivica Kristoficova, Cláudia Vilhena, Stefan Behr, Kirsten Jung
The CstA (the peptide transporter carbon starvation CstA family; TC# 2.A.114) family of peptide transporters belongs to the second largest superfamily of secondary transporters, the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily. No representative of the CstA family has previously been characterized either biochemically or structurally, but we have now identified the function of one of its members, the transport protein YjiY of Escherichia coli Expression of the yjiY gene is regulated by the LytS-like histidine kinase BtsS, a sensor of extracellular pyruvate, together with the LytTR-like response regulator BtsR...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Amber L Murch, Paul J Skipp, Peter L Roach, Petra C F Oyston
During conditions of nutrient limitation bacteria undergo a series of global gene expression changes to survive conditions of amino acid and fatty acid starvation. Rapid reallocation of cellular resources is brought about by gene expression changes coordinated by the signalling nucleotides' guanosine tetraphosphate or pentaphosphate, collectively termed (p)ppGpp and is known as the stringent response. The stringent response has been implicated in bacterial virulence, with elevated (p)ppGpp levels being associated with increased virulence gene expression...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
Muktak Aklujkar, Ching Leang, Pravin M Shrestha, Minita Shrestha, Derek R Lovley
Clostridium ljungdahlii derives energy by lithotrophic and organotrophic acetogenesis. C. ljungdahlii was grown organotrophically with fructose and also lithotrophically, either with syngas - a gas mixture containing hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO), or with H2 and CO2. Gene expression was compared quantitatively by microarrays using RNA extracted from all three conditions. Gene expression with fructose and with H2/CO2 was compared by RNA-Seq. Upregulated genes with both syngas and H2/CO2 (compared to fructose) point to the urea cycle, uptake and degradation of peptides and amino acids, response to sulfur starvation, potentially NADPH-producing pathways involving (S)-malate and ornithine, quorum sensing, sporulation, and cell wall remodeling, suggesting a global and multicellular response to lithotrophic conditions...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Peggy R Biga, Mary N Latimer, Jacob Michael Froehlich, Jean-Charles Gabillard, Iban Seiliez
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) remains the teleost fish of choice for biological investigations due to the vast array of molecular tools and resources available. To better understand the epigenetic regulation of autophagy, we utilized a primary myotube culture system generated from isolated myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) from zebrafish grown under starvation conditions using a media devoid of serum and amino acids. Here, we report starvation-induced regulation of several autophagy-related genes (atg) expression and profile the distribution of H3K27me3, H3K9me3, and H3K4me3 marks along lc3b, atg4b and p62/sqstm1 loci...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
Michael Askvad Sørensen, Annaleigh Ohrt Fehler, Sine Lo Svenningsen
Production of the translation apparatus of E. coli is carefully matched to the demand for protein synthesis posed by a given growth condition. For example, the fraction of RNA polymerases that transcribe rRNA and tRNA drops from 80% during rapid growth to 24% within minutes of a sudden amino acid starvation. We recently reported in Nucleic Acids Research that the tRNA pool is more dynamically regulated than previously thought. In addition to the regulation at the level of synthesis, we found that tRNAs are subject to demand-based regulation at the level of their degradation...
October 12, 2017: RNA Biology
Dan Wang, Oren Akhberdi, Xiaoran Hao, Xi Yu, Longfei Chen, Yanjie Liu, Xudong Zhu
The canonical Gcn2/Cpc1 kinase in fungi coordinates the expression of target genes in response to amino acid starvation. To investigate its possible role in secondary metabolism, we characterized a gcn2 homolog in the taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Deletion of the gene led to severe physiological defects under amino acid starvation, suggesting a conserved function of gcn2 in amino acid sensing. The mutant strain Δgcn2 displayed retardation in vegetative growth. It generated dramatically fewer conidia, suggesting a connection between amino acid metabolism and conidiation in this fungus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ruijuan Ma, Yan Li, Yinghua Lu
The PII signaling protein is a key protein for controlling nitrogen assimilatory reactions in most organisms, but little information is reported on PII proteins of green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. Since H. pluvialis cells can produce a large amount of astaxanthin upon nitrogen starvation, its PII protein may represent an important factor on elevated production of Haematococcus astaxanthin. This study identified and isolated the coding gene (HpGLB1) from this microalga. The full-length of HpGLB1 was 1222 bp, including 621 bp coding sequence (CDS), 103 bp 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), and 498 bp 3' untranslated region (3' UTR)...
October 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
Justin Joachim, Sharon A Tooze
Within minutes of induction of autophagy by amino-acid starvation in mammalian cells, multiple autophagosomes form throughout the cell cytoplasm. During their formation, the autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic material and deliver it to lysosomes for degradation. How these organelles can be so rapidly formed and how their formation is acutely regulated are major questions in the autophagy field. Protein and lipid trafficking from diverse cell compartments contribute membrane to, or regulate the formation of the autophagosome...
October 9, 2017: Biology of the Cell
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