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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737763/melanoma-subtypes-demonstrate-distinct-pd-l1-expression-profiles
#1
Genevieve J Kaunitz, Tricia R Cottrell, Mohammed Lilo, Valliammai Muthappan, Jessica Esandrio, Sneha Berry, Haiying Xu, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Robert A Anders, Alexander H Fischer, Stefan Kraft, Meg R Gerstenblith, Cheryl L Thompson, Kord Honda, Jonathan D Cuda, Charles G Eberhart, James T Handa, Evan J Lipson, Janis M Taube
PD-L1 expression in the tumor immune microenvironment is recognized as both a prognostic and predictive biomarker in patients with cutaneous melanoma, a finding closely related to its adaptive (IFN-γ-mediated) mechanism of expression. Approximately 35% of cutaneous melanomas express PD-L1, however, the expression patterns, levels, and prevalence in rarer melanoma subtypes are not well described. We performed immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 and CD8 on 200 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients with acral (n=16), mucosal (n=36), uveal (n=103), and chronic sun-damaged (CSD) (n=45) melanomas (24 lentigo maligna, 13 'mixed' desmoplastic, and 8 'pure' desmoplastic melanomas)...
July 24, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736821/testing-for-high-risk-hpv-in-cervical-and-tonsillar-paraffin-embedded-tissue-using-a-cartridge-based-assay
#2
Elina Virtanen, Pekka Laurila, Jaana Hagström, Pekka Nieminen, Eeva Auvinen
This study evaluates the suitability of Xpert HPV (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) test for cervical and tonsillar formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples as compared to the tests currently used in diagnostics. Cervical biopsies and liquid cytology (LC) samples were collected from 48 women attending colposcopy. Biopsies were processed for histology and tested for hrHPV using Xpert HPV. LC samples were tested using Xpert and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) tests. Also 29 archived tonsillar carcinoma samples were tested using Xpert, and the results were compared with histology and immunohistochemical p16INK4a (p16) staining...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736816/antinociceptive-activity-of-ent-dihydrotucumanoic-acid-isolated-from-gymnosperma-glutinosum-spreng-less
#3
Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Alexia Karina Verdinez-Portales, Amanda Sánchez-Recillas, Rolffy Ortiz-Andrade, Mario Isiordia-Espinoza, Fidel Martínez-Gutiérrez, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Morales, Fabiola Domínguez, María Elizabeth Juache-Flores, Roberto Martínez
Preclinical Research The diterpene ent-dihydrotumanoic acid (DTA) was among the compounds isolated from Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng) Less (Asteraceae). There are no reports regarding the pharmacological effects of DTA. Cytotoxicity against cancer cells (1-250 µM), and the antibacterial (50-1400 µM) activity of DTA were evaluated using the MTT assay, and the minimum inhibitory concentration test, respectively. The antidiarrheal (1-100 mg/kg p.o.) and anti-inflammatory (2 mg/ear) effects of DTA were evaluated using castor oil and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, respectively...
July 24, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736583/microrna-profiling-of-ovarian-granulosa-cell-tumours-reveals-novel-diagnostic-and-prognostic-markers
#4
Wei-Tzu Cheng, Roseanne Rosario, Anita Muthukaruppan, Michelle K Wilson, Kathryn Payne, Peter C Fong, Andrew N Shelling, Cherie Blenkiron
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the clinical utility of microRNAs (miRNAs) as improved markers of ovarian granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) for cancer diagnosis and prognosis prediction. Current histopathological and genetic markers, such as the presence of a FOXL2 gene mutation to distinguish between the two major subtypes are not wholly accurate and as such novel biomarkers are warranted. METHODS: The miRNA expression profiles of five formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) adult-GCTs and five juvenile-GCTs were assessed using Affymetrix miRNA 3...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736107/cholinergic-opioid-interaction-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-reduces-the-nociceptive-response-of-vocalization-in-guinea-pigs
#5
João Zugaib, Leda Menescal-de-Oliveira
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial in the modulation of the sensory, affective and cognitive aspects of nociceptive processing. Also, it participates in the plannig and execution of behavioral responses evoked by nociceptive stimuli via descending projections to the brainstem. In laboratory animals nociceptive experimental tests evaluate behavioral responses that preferentially express the sensory-discriminative or affective-motivational component of pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of opioid and cholinergic neurotransmission in the ACC on different nociceptive responses in guinea pigs...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735527/fibroblast-activating-protein-%C3%AE-expression-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-esophagus-in-primary-and-irradiated-tumors-the-use-of-archival-ffpe-material-for-molecular-techniques
#6
Renata Tabola, Magdalena Zaremba-Czogalla, Dagmara Baczynska, Roberto Cirocchi, Kamila Stach, Krzysztof Grabowski, Katarzyna Augoff
There are numerous reports suggesting that fibroblast activating protein-α (FAP-α) plays an important role in invasion of various tumor types. We studied the expression pattern of FAP-α in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients who had not been treated primarily and those who had received neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. Our goal was to establish whether readily available tissue specimens fixed in formalin and stored in paraffin blocks for years might still be a source of FAP-α RNA for PCR analysis...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735303/acid-fast-bacterium-detection-and-identification-from-paraffin-embedded-tissues-using-a-pcr-pyrosequencing-method
#7
Jian R Bao, Richard B Clark, Ronald N Master, Kileen L Shier, Lynn L Eklund
AIMS: Acid-fast bacterium (AFB) identification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is challenging and may not be readily available to the clinical laboratory. A method to detect and identify AFB from FFPE tissues using PCR and pyrosequencing (PCR-Seq) was developed and evaluated. METHODS: The method was validated using spiked cell-clotted paraffin blocks before use with patients' specimens. DNA was extracted from tissue sections, and a 16S rRNA gene fragment was amplified and a signature sequence was produced on a PyroMark ID system...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734863/significant-linkage-evidence-for-interstitial-cystitis-painful-bladder-syndrome-on-chromosome-3
#8
Kristina Allen-Brady, Kerry Rowe, Melissa Cessna, Sara Lenherr, Peggy Norton
PURPOSE: Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic pelvic pain condition with unknown etiology. We hypothesized that related IC/PBS cases were more likely to have a genetic etiology. The purpose of this study was to perform a genetic linkage analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IC/PBS cases were identified using diagnostic codes linked to a population-based genealogy resource (Utah Population Database) and electronic medical records. For this analysis, 13 high-risk pedigrees (defined as having a statistical excess number of IC/PBS cases among descendants compared to matched hospital population rates) were used...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734796/clonal-composition-of-human-ovarian-cancer-based-on-copy-number-analysis-reveals-a-reciprocal-relation-with-oncogenic-mutation-status
#9
Kazuko Sakai, Masayo Ukita, Jeanette Schmidt, Longyang Wu, Marco De Velasco, Alan Roter, Luis Jevons, Kazuto Nishio, Masaki Mandai
Intratumoral heterogeneity of cancer cells remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated the composition of ovarian cancer and its biological relevance. A whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array was applied to detect the clonal composition of 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of human ovarian cancer. Genome-wide segmentation data consisting of the log2 ratio (log2R) and B allele frequency (BAF) were used to calculate an estimate of the clonal composition number (CC number) for each tumor...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733544/identification-of-lefty-as-a-molecular-marker-for-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#10
Masashi Akiya, Masaaki Yamazaki, Toshihide Matsumoto, Yusuke Kawashima, Yasuko Oguri, Sabine Kajita, Daiki Kijima, Risako Chiba, Ako Yokoi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Yoshio Kodera, Makoto Saegusa
To identify proteins involved in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCCa), shotgun proteomics analysis was applied using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of ovarian carcinoma. Analysis of 1521 proteins revealed that 52 were differentially expressed between four OCCCa and 12 non-OCCCa samples. Of the highly expressed proteins in OCCCa, we focused on left-right determination factor (LEFTY), a novel member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. In 143 cases of ovarian epithelial carcinoma including 99 OCCCas and 44 non-OCCCas, LEFTY expression at both mRNA and protein levels was significantly higher in OCCCas compared with non-OCCCas, with the mRNA expression of LEFTY1 being predominant compared to that of LEFTY2...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732214/crispr-cas9-technology-based-xenograft-tumors-as-candidate-reference-materials-for-multiple-eml4-alk-rearrangements-testing
#11
Rongxue Peng, Rui Zhang, Guigao Lin, Xin Yang, Ziyang Li, Kuo Zhang, Jiawei Zhang, Jinming Li
The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangement is an important biomarker that plays a pivotal role in therapeutic decision making for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Ensuring accuracy and reproducibility of EML4-ALK testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and next-generation sequencing requires reliable reference materials for monitoring assay sensitivity and specificity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731982/peripheral-oxytocin-receptors-inhibit-the-nociceptive-input-signal-to-spinal-dorsal-horn-wide-dynamic-range-neurons
#12
Abimael González-Hernández, Alfredo Manzano-García, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Irma A Tello-García, Martha Carranza, Carlos Arámburo, Miguel Condés-Lara
Oxytocin has emerged as a mediator of endogenous analgesia in behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. In fact, oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the spinal dorsal horn participate in a selective inhibition of the neuronal activity mediated by Aδ- and C-fibers but not Aβ-fibers. This study shows that OTRs are expressed in the terminal nerve endings and are able to inhibit nociceptive neuronal firing. Indeed, local peripheral oxytocin blocked the first sensorial activity Aδ- and C-fibers recorded in the spinal cord neurons...
July 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731134/a-novel-gene-expression-scoring-system-for-accurate-diagnosis-of-basaloid-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-esophagus
#13
Takeshi Tada, Reiko Honma, Jun-Ichi Imai, Zenichiro Saze, Michihiko Kogure, Shigeru Marubashi, Kazuhiro Tasaki, Masamitu Unakami, Junji Ezaki, Hirosumi Tamura, Akira Nishikawa, Yuko Hashimoto, Satoshi Waguri, Shinya Watanabe, Mitsukazu Gotoh
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCE) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma that is difficult to distinguish from other carcinomas by preoperative endoscopic biopsy because of its histological varieties. Accurate diagnosis is essential for adequate treatment, and the methods proposed so far (e.g., immunohistochemical staining) have limitations. In this study, we tried to identify the characteristic bundles of gene expression in BSCE using comprehensive gene expression analysis (CGEA)...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731043/gastroblastoma-harbors-a-recurrent-somatic-malat1-gli1-fusion-gene
#14
Rondell P Graham, Asha A Nair, Jaime I Davila, Long Jin, Jin Jen, William R Sukov, Tsung-Teh Wu, Henry D Appelman, Jorge Torres-Mora, Kyle D Perry, Lizhi Zhang, Sara M Kloft-Nelson, Ryan A Knudson, Patricia T Greipp, Andrew L Folpe
Gastroblastoma is a rare distinctive biphasic tumor of the stomach. The molecular biology of gastroblastoma has not been studied, and no affirmative diagnostic markers have been developed. We retrieved two gastroblastomas from the consultation practices of the authors and performed transcriptome sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Recurrent predicted fusion genes were validated at genomic and RNA levels. The presence of the fusion gene was confirmed on two additional paraffin-embedded cases of gastroblastoma...
July 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730788/topoisomerase-i-deregulation-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinomas-based-on-tissue-microarray-analysis
#15
Theodoros A Papadas, Evangelos Tsiambas, Nicholas S Mastronikolis, Andreas Karameris, Stylianos N Mastronikolis, Athanasios T Papadas, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Vasileios Ragos
PURPOSE: Topoisomerases (types: I/IIa-b/IIIa-b) represent a super-family of nucleic enzymes involved in the DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and also chromosome topological formation. Topoisomerase's I (Topo I- gene location: 20q12) aberrant expression is a frequent genetic event in a variety of solid malignancies. Topo I inhibition promotes cell death due to DNA damage and for this reason it is a target for specific targeted chemotherapy (camptothecin, topotecan, irinotecan)...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727443/plasmonic-thermal-decomposition-digestion-of-proteins-a-rapid-on-surface-protein-digestion-technique-for-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#16
Rong Zhou, Franco Basile
A method based on plasmon surface resonance absorption and heating was developed to perform a rapid on-surface protein thermal decomposition and digestion suitable for imaging MS and/or profiling. This photo-thermal process or plasmonic thermal decomposition/digestion (plasmonic-TDD) method incorporates a continuous wave (CW) laser excitation and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to induce known thermal decomposition reactions that cleave peptides and proteins specifically at the C-terminus of aspartic acid and at the N-terminus of cysteine...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727266/next-generation-sequencing-of-cytologic-preparations-an-analysis-of-quality-metrics
#17
David H Hwang, Elizabeth P Garcia, Matthew D Ducar, Edmund S Cibas, Lynette M Sholl
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) fails for many small biopsies (BXs) because of a low overall DNA concentration or tumor percentage. Cytology smears and liquid-based preparations (LBPs), or smears/LBPs, often contain abundant tumor cells and may provide adequate material for molecular testing when other materials are insufficient. This study examined the performance of smears/LBPs on a clinical NGS assay. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed quality metrics from consecutive smear/LBP, core BX, and cell block (CB) cases run on a hybrid-capture NGS assay interrogating 309 cancer-related genes...
July 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726567/possible-mechanisms-involved-in-the-anti-nociceptive-effects-of-hydro-ethanolic-leaf-extract-of-ziziphus-abyssinica
#18
Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Isaac Tabiri Henneh, Wonder Kofi Mensah Abotsi, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw, Eric Woode
CONTEXT: Various parts of Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst ex. A. Rich (Rhamnaceae) have been used in Ghanaian and African traditional medicine as an analgesic. However, there are little scientific data to support the anti-nociceptive effects of the hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus abyssinica (EthE) as well as the possible mechanisms involved in its anti-nociceptive effects. PURPOSE: To predict possible nociceptive pathways involved in the anti-nociceptive effects of EthE...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725107/retrospective-study-of-the-relationship-of-torque-teno-sus-virus-1a-and-torque-teno-sus-virus-1b-with-porcine-circovirus-associated-disease
#19
Alejandro Vargas-Ruiz, Hugo Ramírez-Álvarez, José I Sánchez-Betancourt, Víctor Quintero-Ramírez, Ignacio C Rangel-Rodríguez, Joel A Vázquez-Perez, Lucia A García-Camacho
Genus Iotatorquevirus consists of 2 species, Torque teno sus virus 1a and Torque teno sus virus 1b, which are ubiquitous in swine populations, and are widely reported in association with porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD). To evaluate the relationship with PCVAD, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were used to detect both Iotatorquevirus species by nested PCR and sequencing. Sixty-eight PCVAD cases were selected as well as 32 porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) non-affected cases. Overall, 33 of the 100 cases were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a and 8 of 100 were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1b...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724973/alternatives-to-mineral-oil-adjuvants-in-vaccines-against-aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida-in-rainbow-trout-offer-reductions-in-adverse-effects
#20
Kasper Rømer Villumsen, Erling Olaf Koppang, Dennis Christensen, Anders Miki Bojesen
In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as recipients, injection vaccines based on formalin-inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida were formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, the liposomal cationic adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) or with Freund's incomplete adjuvant and administered intraperitoneally...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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