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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331867/classification-and-evolution-of-human-papillomavirus-genome-variants-alpha-5-hpv26-51-69-82-alpha-6-hpv30-53-56-66-alpha-11-hpv34-73-alpha-13-hpv54-and-alpha-3-hpv61
#1
Zigui Chen, Mark Schiffman, Rolando Herrero, Rob DeSalle, Kathryn Anastos, Michel Segondy, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Patti E Gravitt, Ann W Hsing, Paul K S Chan, Robert D Burk
HPV variants from the same type can be classified into lineages and sublineages based on the complete genome differences and the phylogenetic topologies. We examined nucleotide variations of twelve HPV types within the species Alpha-5 (HPV26, 51, 69, 82), Alpha-6 (HPV30, 53, 56, 66), Alpha-11 (HPV34, 73), Alpha-13 (HPV54) and Alpha-3 (HPV61) by analyzing 1432 partial sequences and 181 complete genomes from multiple geographic populations. The inter-lineage and inter-sublineage mean differences of HPV variants ranged between 0...
January 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331865/structure-based-assessment-of-protein-protein-interactions-and-accessibility-of-protein-ix-in-adenoviruses-with-implications-for-antigen-display
#2
Nathaniel L Matteson, Michael A Barry, Vijay S Reddy
The exterior minor protein IX of adenoviruses (AdVs) is a frequent target of attachment of antigens and the modified AdVs are being used as potent vaccine platforms. The organization of protein IX is disticntly different between human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and non-HAdVs. The analysis of solvent accessibility, based on the near atomic resolution structures, suggests that the C-terminal residues of IX are more accessible in non-HAdVs (e.g., bovine adenovirus) than in HAdVs. Although the C-terminal fusions of IX are displayed on the capsid surface, they could disrupt the formation of tetrameric coiled-coils (4-HLXB) in HAdVs due to steric hinderance, thereby potentially affecting the capsid stability...
January 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328922/a-viral-arc-hive-for-metazoan-memory
#3
Nicholas F Parrish, Keizo Tomonaga
Arc, a master regulator of synaptic plasticity, contains sequence elements that are evolutionarily related to retrotransposon Gag genes. Two related papers in this issue of Cell show that Arc retains retroviral-like capsid-forming ability and can transmit mRNA between cells in the nervous system, a process that may be important for synaptic function.
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328916/the-neuronal-gene-arc-encodes-a-repurposed-retrotransposon-gag-protein-that-mediates-intercellular-rna-transfer
#4
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Cameron E Day, Rachel B Kearns, Madeleine Kyrke-Smith, Andrew V Taibi, John McCormick, Nathan Yoder, David M Belnap, Simon Erlendsson, Dustin R Morado, John A G Briggs, Cédric Feschotte, Jason D Shepherd
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the mammalian brain, mediates various forms of synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about Arc's molecular function and evolutionary origins. Here, we show that Arc self-assembles into virus-like capsids that encapsulate RNA. Endogenous Arc protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of Arc mRNA into new target cells, where it can undergo activity-dependent translation...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328915/retrovirus-like-gag-protein-arc1-binds-rna-and-traffics-across-synaptic-boutons
#5
James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson
Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons and is loaded into extracellular vesicles that are transferred from motorneurons to muscles...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327672/linear-epitopes-in-african-swine-fever-virus-p72-recognized-by-monoclonal-antibodies-prepared-against-baculovirus-expressed-antigen
#6
Mallory E Heimerman, Maria V Murgia, Ping Wu, Andre D Lowe, Wei Jia, Raymond R Rowland
Protein p72 is the major capsid protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and is an important target for test and vaccine development. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against a recombinant antigenic fragment, from amino acid (aa) 20-303, expressed in baculovirus. A total of 29 mAbs were recovered and tested by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) staining on ASFV Lisbon-infected Vero cells. Six antibodies were IFA-positive and selected for further characterization. Epitope mapping was performed against overlapping polypeptides expressed in E...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327238/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-hetpv20-an1-an-alphapartitivirus-infecting-the-conifer-pathogenic-fungus-heterobasidion-annosum
#7
Eeva J Vainio
Root rot fungi of the genus Heterobasidion are highly destructive conifer pathogens in the northern Boreal forest region. This report describes the complete genome sequence of Heterobasidion partitivirus 20 infecting a Finnish strain of Heterobasidion annosum. The bisegmented dsRNA genome of HetPV20-an1 encodes a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of 605 amino acids (aa) and a capsid protein of 536 aa. Based on sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, this virus is a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325821/dna-vaccine-encoding-myristoylated-membrane-protein-mmp-of-rock-bream-iridovirus-rbiv-induces-protective-immunity-in-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus
#8
Myung-Hwa Jung, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Sung-Ju Jung
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. In this study, we investigated the potential of viral membrane protein to induce antiviral status protecting rock bream against RBIV infection. We found that fish administered with ORF008L (myristoylated membrane protein, MMP) vaccine exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to ORF007L (major capsid protein, MCP). Moreover, ORF008L-based DNA vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 4 and 8 weeks post vaccination (wpv) than non-vaccinated fish after infected with RBIV (6...
January 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325426/naturally-occurring-mutations-in-hiv-1-crf01_ae-capsid-affect-viral-sensitivity-to-restriction-factors
#9
Emi E Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Tahmina Sultana, Zhuan Jin, Kyotaro Nohata, Masato Shibata, Miho Hosoi, Kazushi Motomura, Tatsuo Shioda, Somchai Sangkitporn, Ruangchai Loket, Siriphan Saeng-Aroon
TRIM5α and MxB are known as restriction factors that inhibit the early step of intracellular HIV-1 replication cycle. Both factors are believed to interact with the incoming virus core to suppress HIV-1 infection. The extreme diversity of HIV-1 is thought to be a consequence of its propensity to mutate to escape immune responses and host restriction factors. We recently determined the capsid sequences for 144 HIV-1 CRF01_AE viruses obtained in Thailand from 2005 to 2011. In the present study, we further analyzed the amino acid variations among the capsid sequences of 204 HIV-1 CRF01_AE obtained in Thailand and China, including 84 of the aforementioned 144 viruses, to detect mutations permitting escape from restriction by host factors...
January 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323725/serum-igg-antibodies-from-healthy-subjects-up-to-100-years-old-react-to-jc-polyomavirus
#10
Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Marco Manfredini, Elena Trregiani, Marika Rossini, Francesca Lotito, Giovanni Guerra, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323105/enterovirus-d68-virus-like-particles-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris-potently-induce-neutralizing-antibody-responses-and-confer-protection-against-lethal-viral-infection-in-mice
#11
Chao Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Jing Xie, Liping Ye, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been increasingly associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complications in children worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available to prevent EV-D68 infection. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based EV-D68 vaccine. We found that co-expression of the P1 precursor and 3CD protease of EV-D68 in Pichia pastoris yeast resulted in the generation of EV-D68 VLPs, which were composed of processed VP0, VP1, and VP3 capsid proteins and were visualized as ~30 nm spherical particles...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321332/erk-is-a-critical-regulator-of-jc-polyomavirus-infection
#12
Jeanne K DuShane, Michael P Wilczek, Colleen L Mayberry, Melissa S Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidney. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on LSTc, while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321327/human-papillomavirus-16-infection-induces-vap-dependent-endosomal-tubulation
#13
Abida Siddiqa, Paola Massimi, David Pim, Justyna Broniarczyk, Lawrence Banks
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans-Golgi network and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321321/functional-analysis-of-the-dengue-virus-genome-using-an-insertional-mutagenesis-screen
#14
Jeffrey W Perry, Yanhua Chen, Elizabeth Speliotes, Andrew W Tai
In the last few decades, dengue virus, an arbovirus, has spread to over 120 countries. Although a vaccine has been approved in some countries, limitations on its effectiveness, and a lack of effective antiviral treatments reinforce the need for additional research. The functions of several viral nonstructural proteins are essentially unknown. To better understand the functions of these proteins and thus dengue virus pathogenesis, we embarked on a genome wide transposon mutagenesis screen with Next Generation Sequencing to determine sites in the viral genome that tolerate 15 nucleotide insertions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318247/forced-phage-uncorking-viral-dna-ejection-triggered-by-a-mechanically-sensitive-switch
#15
Miklós S Z Kellermayer, Zsuzsanna Vörös, Gabriella Csík, Levente Herényi
The foremost event of bacteriophage infection is the ejection of genomic material into the host bacterium after virus binding to surface receptor sites. How ejection is triggered is yet unknown. Here we show, in single mature T7 phage particles, that tapping the capsid wall with an oscillating atomic-force-microscope cantilever triggers rapid DNA ejection via the tail complex. The triggering rate increases exponentially as a function of force, following transition-state theory, across an activation barrier of 23 kcal mol-1 at 1...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316545/survival-of-viruses-in-water
#16
Anthony Pinon, Michèle Vialette
Water, a frequent vehicle for the transmission of viruses, may permit their survival, but many environmental factors will have an adverse effect on the viral population. Risk evaluation requires identification of these factors and assessment of the inactivation rate of infectious viruses. A higher temperature means a faster reduction of the viral population, as do increased sunlight, higher antimicrobial concentration, or higher oxygen levels. Another documented impact is linked to the presence of indigenous microbial populations: virus survival is higher in sterile water...
January 10, 2018: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316103/easy-to-attach-detach-solubilizing-tag-aided-chemical-synthesis-of-an-aggregative-capsid-protein
#17
Shugo Tsuda, Masayoshi Mochizuki, Hiroyuki Ishiba, Kumiko Yoshizawa-Kumagaye, Hideki Nishio, Shinya Oishi, Taku Yoshiya
A solubilizing "Trt-K10" tag was developed for the effective chemical preparation of peptides/proteins with low solubility. The Trt-K10 tag comprises a hydrophilic oligo-Lys sequence and a trityl anchor, and can be selectively introduced to a side chain thiol of Cys of deprotected peptides/proteins with a trityl alcohol-type introducing reagent "Trt(OH)-K10" under acidic conditions. Significantly, the ligation product in the reaction mixture of a thiol-additive-free native chemical ligation can be modified directly in a one-pot manner to facilitate the isolation of the product by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315776/protective-efficacy-of-a-dna-vaccine-encoding-cap-of-porcine-circovirus-like-virus-p1-against-porcine-circovirus-2-in-mice
#18
Dan Zhang, Kongwang He, Libin Wen, Hongjie Fan
The capsid protein is the major immunogenic protein of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). The nucleotide sequence of porcine-circovirus-like virus P1shares high homology with open reading frame (ORF) 2 of PCV2, and ORF1 of P1 encodes its structural protein. Mice were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a plasmid expressing the P1 ORF1 protein (pcDNA3.1(+)-ORF1) at 2-week intervals. All animals vaccinated with pcDNA3.1(+)-ORF1 developed higher specific anti-P1 antibody levels, and had less PCV2 viremia and milder histopathological changes than PCV2-challenged mice in the control group...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313735/viral-capsid-assembly-a-quantified-uncertainty-approach
#19
Nathan Clement, Muhibur Rasheed, Chandrajit Lal Bajaj
Most of the existing research in assembly pathway prediction/analysis of viral capsids makes the simplifying assumption that the configuration of the intermediate states can be extracted directly from the final configuration of the entire capsid. This assumption does not take into account the conformational changes of the constituent proteins as well as minor changes to the binding interfaces that continue throughout the assembly process until stabilization. This article presents a statistical-ensemble-based approach that samples the configurational space for each monomer with the relative local orientation between monomers, to capture the uncertainties in binding and conformations...
January 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313728/the-potential-of-currently-unavailable-herpes-virus-vaccines
#20
Július Rajcáni, Ferenc Bánáti, Kálmán Szenthe, Susan Szathmary
Despite overwhelming experimental work, there are no licensed vaccines against the most frequent Alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and 2) nor against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirus. Areas covered: Since the DNAs of both HSVs reside in the regional sensory ganglia in a latent state (i.e. as circularized episomal molecules), a corresponding vaccine might be useful for immunotherapy rather than prevention of primary infection. Here we describe the design of a purified subunit vaccine (a mix of at least 3 glycoproteins) as well as the preparation and efficacy of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the gD ectodomain from our domestic attenuated HSV1 strain HSZP...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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