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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727807/digoxin-reveals-a-functional-connection-between-hiv-1-integration-preference-and-t-cell-activation
#1
Alexander Zhyvoloup, Anat Melamed, Ian Anderson, Delphine Planas, Chen-Hsuin Lee, Janos Kriston-Vizi, Robin Ketteler, Andy Merritt, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta, Charles R M Bangham, Ariberto Fassati
HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D) in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726618/global-spread-of-norovirus-gii-17-kawasaki-308-2014-2016
#2
Martin C W Chan, Yunwen Hu, Haili Chen, Alexander T Podkolzin, Ekaterina V Zaytseva, Jun Komano, Naomi Sakon, Yong Poovorawan, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Thanundorn Thanusuwannasak, Joanne Hewitt, Dawn Croucher, Nikail Collins, Jan Vinjé, Xiaoli L Pang, Bonita E Lee, Miranda de Graaf, Janko van Beek, Harry Vennema, Marion P G Koopmans, Sandra Niendorf, Mateja Poljsak-Prijatelj, Andrej Steyer, Peter A White, Jennifer H Lun, Janet Mans, Tin-Nok Hung, Kirsty Kwok, Kelton Cheung, Nelson Lee, Paul K S Chan
Analysis of complete capsid sequences of the emerging norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308 from 13 countries demonstrated that they originated from a single haplotype since the initial emergence in China in late 2014. Global spread of a sublineage SL2 was identified. A new sublineage SL3 emerged in China in 2016.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725225/antiviral-functions-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-specific-igg-antibodies-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-implications-for-therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-design
#3
REVIEW
Martyn A French, M Christian Tjiam, Laila N Abudulai, Sonia Fernandez
Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective and tolerable for long periods of time but cannot eradicate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by either elimination of viral reservoirs or enhancement of HIV-1-specific immune responses. Boosting "protective" HIV-1-specific immune responses by active or passive immunization will therefore be necessary to control or eradicate HIV-1 infection and is currently the topic of intense investigation. Recently reported studies conducted in HIV patients and non-human primate (NHP) models of HIV-1 infection suggest that HIV-1-specific IgG antibody responses may contribute to the control of HIV-1 infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724767/integrity-of-the-linker-of-nucleoskeleton-and-cytoskeleton-is-required-for-efficient-herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#4
Barbara G Klupp, Teresa Hellberg, Harald Granzow, Kati Franzke, Beatriz Dominguez Gonzalez, Rose Goodchild, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Herpesvirus capsids assemble in the nucleus while final virion maturation proceeds in the cytoplasm. This requires that newly formed nucleocapsids cross the nuclear envelope (NE), which occurs by budding at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), release of the primary enveloped virion into the perinuclear space (PNS), and subsequent rapid fusion with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). During this process the NE remains intact, even at late stages of infection. In addition, the spacing between the INM and ONM is maintained, as is that between the primary virion envelope and nuclear membranes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724762/stability-of-cucumber-necrosis-virus-at-the-quasi-six-fold-axis-affects-zoospore-transmission
#5
Michael B Sherman, Kishore Kakani, D'Ann Rochon, Wen Jiang, Neil R Voss, Thomas J Smith
Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus, Olpidium bornovanus As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (1). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (2) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N-termini of the C subunit at the quasi 6-fold axes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722007/physical-properties-of-the-hiv-1-capsid-from-all-atom-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#6
Juan R Perilla, Klaus Schulten
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly dependent on its capsid. The capsid is a large container, made of ∼1,300 proteins with altogether 4 million atoms. Although the capsid proteins are all identical, they nevertheless arrange themselves into a largely asymmetric structure made of hexamers and pentamers. The large number of degrees of freedom and lack of symmetry pose a challenge to studying the chemical details of the HIV capsid. Simulations of over 64 million atoms for over 1 μs allow us to conduct a comprehensive study of the chemical-physical properties of an empty HIV-1 capsid, including its electrostatics, vibrational and acoustic properties, and the effects of solvent (ions and water) on the capsid...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720531/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-genes-encoding-the-proteins-of-zika-virus
#7
Wangheng Hou, Ruth Cruz-Cosme, Najealicka Armstrong, Lilian Akello Obwolo, Fayuan Wen, Wenhui Hu, Min-Hua Luo, Qiyi Tang
Zika virus (ZIKV) encodes a precursor protein (also called polyprotein) of about 3424 amino acids that is processed by proteases to generate 10 mature proteins and a small peptide. In the present study, we characterized the chemical features, suborganelle distribution and potential function of each protein using Flag-tagged protein expression system. Western blot analysis revealed the molecular weight of the proteins and the polymerization of E, NS1, and NS3 proteins. In addition, we performed multi-labeled fluorescent immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation to determine the subcellular localization of these proteins in host cells...
July 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718047/antigenic-variability-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-serotype-o-during-serial-cytolytic-passage
#8
Saravanan Subramaniam, Biswajit Das, Jitendra K Biswal, Rajeev Ranjan, Bramhadev Pattnaik
The emergence and disappearance of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during a field outbreak occurs periodically due to the volatile nature of its genome. In the present analysis, change in antigenic behavior of serotype O FMDV during the serial cytolytic passage in the absence of immune pressure was observed. Initially, the isolate showed a poor antigenic match (relationship value <0.3) with the serotype O vaccine strain and upon serial passage increase in relationship value was observed...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716906/virus-found-in-a-boreal-lake-links-ssdna-and-dsdna-viruses
#9
Elina Laanto, Sari Mäntynen, Luigi De Colibus, Jenni Marjakangas, Ashley Gillum, David I Stuart, Janne J Ravantti, Juha T Huiskonen, Lotta-Riina Sundberg
Viruses have impacted the biosphere in numerous ways since the dawn of life. However, the evolution, genetic, structural, and taxonomic diversity of viruses remain poorly understood, in part because sparse sampling of the virosphere has concentrated mostly on exploring the abundance and diversity of dsDNA viruses. Furthermore, viral genomes are highly diverse, and using only the current sequence-based methods for classifying viruses and studying their phylogeny is complicated. Here we describe a virus, FLiP (Flavobacterium-infecting, lipid-containing phage), with a circular ssDNA genome and an internal lipid membrane enclosed in the icosahedral capsid...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716183/the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-pathway-of-a-vector-insect-is-activated-by-virus-capsid-protein-and-promotes-viral-replication
#10
Wei Wang, Wan Zhao, Jing Li, Lan Luo, Le Kang, Feng Cui
No evidence has shown whether insect-borne viruses manipulate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway of vector insects. Using a system comprising the plant virus Rice stripe virus (RSV) and its vector insect, the small brown planthopper, we have studied the response of the vector insect's JNK pathway to plant virus infection. We found that RSV increased the level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and decreased the level of G protein Pathway Suppressor 2 (GPS2) in the insect vector. The virus capsid protein competitively bound GPS2 to release it from inhibiting the JNK activation machinery...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715976/astrovirus-biology-and-pathogenesis
#11
Valerie Cortez, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Erik A Karlsson, Virginia Hargest, Cydney Johnson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Astroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastrointestinal illness. Although a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, human astroviruses are among the least characterized enteric RNA viruses. However, by using in vitro methods and animal models to characterize virus-host interactions, researchers have discovered several important properties of astroviruses, including the ability of astrovirus capsid to act as an enterotoxin, disrupting the gut epithelial barrier. Improved animal models are needed to study this phenomenon, along with the pathogenesis of astroviruses, particularly in those strains that can cause extraintestinal disease...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712809/near-atomic-resolution-structure-of-a-plant-geminivirus-determined-by-electron-cryomicroscopy
#12
Katharina Hipp, Clemens Grimm, Holger Jeske, Bettina Böttcher
African cassava mosaic virus is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus which forms unique twin particles of incomplete icosahedra that are joined at five-fold vertices, building an unusual waist. How its 22 capsomers interact within a half-capsid or across the waist is unknown thus far. Using electron cryo-microscopy and image processing, we determined the virion structure with a resolution of 4.2 Å and built an atomic model for its capsid protein. The inter-capsomer contacts mediated by the flexible N termini and loop regions differed within the half-capsids and at the waist, explaining partly the unusual twin structure...
July 5, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711172/the-effect-of-rna-secondary-structure-on%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-self-assembly-of-viral-capsids
#13
Christian Beren, Lisa L Dreesens, Katherine N Liu, Charles M Knobler, William M Gelbart
Previous work has shown that purified capsid protein (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is capable of packaging both purified single-stranded RNA molecules of normal composition (comparable numbers of A, U, G, and C nucleobases) and of varying length and sequence, and anionic synthetic polymers such as polystyrene sulfonate. We find that CCMV CP is also capable of packaging polyU RNAs, which-unlike normal-composition RNAs-do not form secondary structures and which act as essentially structureless linear polymers...
July 12, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710447/cryo-em-reconstruction-of-the-cafeteria-roenbergensis-virus-capsid-suggests-novel-assembly-pathway-for-giant-viruses
#14
Chuan Xiao, Matthias G Fischer, Duer M Bolotaulo, Nancy Ulloa-Rondeau, Gustavo A Avila, Curtis A Suttle
Whereas the protein composition and overall shape of several giant virus capsids have been described, the mechanism by which these large capsids assemble remains enigmatic. Here, we present a reconstruction of the capsid of Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV), one of the largest viruses analyzed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to date. The CroV capsid has a diameter of 3,000 Å and a Triangulation number of 499. Unlike related mimiviruses, the CroV capsid is not decorated with glycosylated surface fibers, but features 30 Å-long surface protrusions that are formed by loops of the major capsid protein...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709908/variable-rna-expression-from-recently-acquired-endogenous-viral-elements-eve-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-in-shrimp
#15
Heny Budi Utari, Chumporn Soowannayan, Timothy W Flegel, Boonsirm Whityachumnarnkul, Maleeya Kruatrachue
The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations...
July 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709270/orientational-phase-transitions-and-the-assembly-of-viral-capsids
#16
Sanjay Dharmavaram, Fangming Xie, William Klug, Joseph Rudnick, Robijn Bruinsma
We present a Landau theory for large-l orientational phase transitions and apply it to the assembly of icosahedral viral capsids. The theory predicts two distinct types of ordering transitions. Transitions dominated by the l=6,10,12, and 18 icosahedral spherical harmonics resemble robust first-order phase transitions that are not significantly affected by chirality. The remaining transitions depend essentially on including mixed l states denoted as l=15+16 corresponding to a mixture of l=15 and l=16 spherical harmonics...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707271/identification-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-circular-single-stranded-dna-virus-in-a-human-upper-respiratory-tract-sample
#17
Lunbiao Cui, Binyao Wu, Xiaojuan Zhu, Xiling Guo, Yiyue Ge, Kangchen Zhao, Xian Qi, Zhiyang Shi, Fengcai Zhu, Lixin Sun, Minghao Zhou
Metagenomic analysis through high-throughput sequencing is a tool for detecting both known and novel viruses. Using this technique, a novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus genome was discovered in respiratory secretions from a febrile traveler. The virus, named human respiratory-associated PSCV-5-like virus (HRAPLV), has a genome comprising 3,018 bases, with two major putative ORFs inversely encoding capsid (Cap) and replicase (Rep) protein and separated by two intergenic regions. One stem-loop structure was predicted in the larger intergenic region (LIR)...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705762/flexible-connectors-between-capsomer-subunits-that-regulate-capsid-assembly
#18
Mary L Hasek, Joshua B Maurer, Roger W Hendrix, Robert L Duda
Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of E. coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, sixty capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704696/the-function-of-dna-binding-protein-nucleophosmin-in-aav-replication
#19
Stifani Satkunanathan, Robin Thorpe, Yuan Zhao
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) contain minimal viral proteins necessary for their replication. During virus assembly, AAV acquire, inherently and submissively, various cellular proteins. Our previous studies identified the association of AAV vectors with the DNA binding protein nucleophosmin (NPM1). Nucleophosmin has been reported to enhance AAV infection by mobilizing AAV capsids into and out of the nucleolus, indicating the importance of NPM1 in the AAV life cycle; however the role of NPM1 in AAV production remains unknown...
July 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702648/modular-interior-loading-and-exterior-decoration-of-a-virus-like-particle
#20
Jhanvi Sharma, Masaki Uchida, Heini M Miettinen, Trevor Douglas
Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from the bacteriophage P22 offer an interesting and malleable platform for encapsulation and multivalent presentation of cargo molecules. The packaging of cargo in P22 VLP is typically achieved through genetically enabled directed in vivo encapsulation. However, this approach does not allow control over the packing density and composition of the encapsulated cargos. Here, we have adopted an in vitro assembly approach to gain control over cargo packaging in P22. The packaging was controlled by closely regulating the stoichiometric ratio of cargo-fused-scaffold protein and wild-type scaffold protein during the in vitro assembly...
July 12, 2017: Nanoscale
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