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Paula Molinari, Guido N Molina, Eugenia Tavarone, María Paula Del Médico Zajac, Gabriel Morón, Oscar Taboga
The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) infects lepidopteran invertebrates as natural hosts, although it also has been used as display vector for vaccine development. In this work, we evaluated the effectiveness of repetitive doses of AcMNPV-based vectors on the cytotoxic immune response specific to the capsid-displayed heterologous antigen ovalbumin (OVA). Our results demonstrate that baculovirus vectors induce a boosting effect in the cytotoxic immune response to OVA, making possible to recover the levels obtained in the primary response...
September 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Min Ji Sohn, Jin Min Cho, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko, Hye Ran Yang
Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is common in childhood, and dual positivity of serum EBV IgM and cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibodies occur in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate the cause of EBV and CMV IgM dual positivity to determine whether it represents a false-positive finding or a true coinfection.A total of 494 children diagnosed with primary EBV infection, manifesting as infectious mononucleosis, were recruited. The diagnosis was based on positive EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibodies, and serum CMV IgM antibodies and liver enzymes were also evaluated in 149 subjects...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ming Xia, Pengwei Huang, Chen Sun, Ling Han, Frank S Vago, Kunpeng Li, Weiming Zhong, Wen Jiang, John S Klassen, Xi Jiang, Ming Tan
Homotypic interactions of viral capsid proteins are common, driving viral capsid self-formation. By taking advantage of such interactions of norovirus shell (S) domain that naturally builds the interior shells of norovirus capsids, we have developed a technology to produce 60-valent, icosahedral S60 nanoparticles through the E. coli system. This has been achieved by several modifications to the S domain, including an R69A mutation to destruct an exposed proteinase cleavage site and triple cysteine mutations (V57C/Q58C/S136C) to establish inter-S domain disulfide bonds for enhanced inter-S domain interactions...
September 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Jie Ren, Yuanli Guo, Lili Shao, Yuanjun Liu, Quanzhong Liu
Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections. C. trachomatis genital infection may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility, which are major public health problems. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of this bacterium remain unclear, and the efficacy of clinical therapeutics is unsatisfactory. In the current study, whether Vp1 can alleviate the cytotoxicity induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated. C. trachomatis was pre-treated with BSA or purified Vp1 protein and used to infect HeLa cells...
October 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mo Zhou, Muhammad Abid, Hang Yin, Hongxia Wu, Teshale Teklue, Hua-Ji Qiu, Yuan Sun
Conventional genetic engineering of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is essentially based on homologous recombination or bacterial artificial chromosome. However, these techniques require multiple plaque purification, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient, direct, and flexible genetic manipulation platform for PRV. To this end, the PRV genomic DNA was extracted from purified PRV virions and sheared into approximately 30-45-kb DNA fragments. After end-blunting and phosphorylation, the DNA fragments were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the recovered DNA fragments were inserted into the cloning-ready fosmids...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sisi Ning, Mengwei Yao, Yuan Wu, Xunzhao Zhou, Changtao Zhong, Kui Yan, Zhengbo Wei, Ying Xie
Objective: To evaluate the potential association of variations in the number of tandem repeats in the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin-related (DC-SIGNR) neck region with susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Variations in the number of repeats in the genotypes and alleles in the neck region of DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR were analyzed in 477 unrelated NPC patients and 561 cancer-free controls...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Zhili Li, Yuejia Cai, Guozhi Liang, Saeed El-Ashram, Minmin Mei, Wenjing Huang, Xiaowen Li, Wenfeng Li, Cheng He, Shujian Huang
Here we present a visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detecting the gene encoding the σB major outer-capsid protein of novel duck reovirus (NDRV). A set of primers, composed of two outer primers, two inner primers and two loop primers, was designed based on the gene of interest. The LAMP reaction was conducted in a traditional laboratory water bath at 65 °C for 50 min. We compared the performance of calcein/Mn2+ and SYBR Green I dyes, as well as electrophoresis on agarose gel stained with GoldView nucleic acid dye to detect the RT-LAMP-amplified products and all assays could be employed to discriminate between positive and negative specimens in visible or UV light...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bingqian Qu, Yi Ni, Florian A Lempp, Florian W R Vondran, Stephan Urban
Chronic infection with the human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major health problem. Virus persistence requires the establishment and maintenance of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA, the episomal virus template in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes. Compared to replicative DNA intermediates (relaxed circular (rc) DNA), copy numbers of cccDNA in infected hepatocytes are low. Accordingly, accurate analyses of cccDNA require enrichment of nuclear fractions and southern blotting or selective qPCR methods allowing discrimination of cccDNA and rcDNA...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
Olga González-López, Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Fengyu Hu, Lucinda Hensley, Kevin L McKnight, Jingshan Ren, David I Stuart, Elizabeth E Fry, Stanley M Lemon
The quasi-envelopment of hepatitis A virus (HAV) capsids in exosome-like virions (eHAV) is an important but incompletely understood aspect of the hepatovirus life cycle. This process is driven by recruitment of newly assembled capsids to endosomal vesicles into which they bud to form multi-vesicular bodies with intraluminal vesicles that are later released at the plasma membrane as eHAV. The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are key to this process, as is the ESCRT-III associated protein, ALIX, which also contributes to membrane budding of conventional enveloped viruses...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
George L Shinn, Brianna L Bullard
Most known giant viruses, i.e., viruses producing giant virions, parasitize amoebae and other unicellular eukaryotes. Although they vary in the level of dependence on host nuclear functions, their virions self-assemble in the host cell's cytoplasm. Here we report the discovery of a new prototype of giant virus infecting epidermal cells of the marine arrow worm Adhesisagitta hispida. Its 1.25 μm-long virions self-assemble and accumulate in the host cell's nucleus. Conventional transmission electron microscopy reveals that the virions have a unique bipartite structure...
2018: PloS One
Elvira Tarasova, Dmitry Nerukh
Classical Molecular Dynamics modelling of whole viruses or their capsids in explicit water is discussed and known examples from the literature are analysed. Only works on all-atom modelling in explicit water are included. Physical chemistry of the whole system is the focus that includes the structure and dynamics of the biomolecules as well as water and ions behaviour in and around the virus particle. It was demonstrated that in most investigations molecular phenomena that currently can not be studied experimentally successfully reproduced and explained by the simulations...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Hélène Chabrolles, Thomas Lahlali, Héloïse Auclair, Anna Salvetti
Chronic infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem with more than 250 millions of people chronically infected worldwide who have a high risk to develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Available treatments reduce viremia but do not eradicate the virus from hepatocytes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new classes of antiviral molecules and the viral capsid protein, Core, constitutes a new favored target. Core protein Allosteric Modulators (CAMs) targeting its assembly functions are in clinical development...
August 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Hyuntae Na, Guang Song
Dynamics of biomolecular assemblies offer invaluable insights into their functional mechanisms. For extremely large biomolecular systems, such as HIV-1 capsid that has nearly 5 millions atoms, obtaining its normal mode dynamics using even coarse-grained models can be a challenging task. In this work, we have successfully carried out a normal mode analysis of an entire HIV-1 capsid in full all-atom details. This is made possible through our newly developed BOSE (Block of Selected Elasticity) model that is founded on the principle of resonance discovered in our recent work...
September 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Mingzhang Wang, Manman Lu, Matthew Fritz, Caitlin Quinn, In-Ja Byeon, Chang-Hyeock Byeon, Jochem Struppe, Werner Maas, Angela Gronenborn, Tatyana Polenova
¹⁹F NMR spectroscopy is an attractive and growing area of research with broad applications in biochemistry, chemical biology, medicinal chemistry, and materials science. We have explored fast magic angle spinning (MAS) ¹⁹F solid-state NMR in assemblies of HIV-1 capsid protein. Tryptophan residues with fluorine substitutions in the 5 position of the indole ring were used as the reporters. The ¹⁹F chemical shifts for the five tryptophans are distinct, reflecting differences in their local environment...
September 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xia-Fei Wei, Chun-Yang Gan, Jing Cui, Ying-Ying Luo, Xue-Fei Cai, Yi Yuan, Jing Shen, Zhi-Ying Li, Wen-Lu Zhang, Quan-Xin Long, Yuan Hu, Juan Chen, Ni Tang, Haitao Guo, Ai-Long Huang, Jie-Li Hu
The capsid of hepatitis B virus is an attractive antiviral target for developing therapies against chronic hepatitis B. Currently available core protein allosteric modulators (CpAMs) mainly affect one of the two major types of protein-protein interactions involved in the process of capsid assembly, which is the interaction between the core dimers. Compounds targeting the interaction between two core monomers have not been rigorously screened due to the lack of screening models. We report herein a cell-based assay in which the formation of core dimers is indicated by the Split Luciferase Complementation (SLC)...
September 17, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
George R Young, Melvyn W Yap, Johan R Michaux, Scott J Steppan, Jonathan P Stoye
Both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses have long been studied in mice, and some of the earliest mouse studies focused on the heritability of genetic factors influencing permissivity and resistance to infection. The prototypic retroviral restriction factor, Fv1 , is now understood to exhibit a degree of control across multiple retroviral genera and is highly diverse within Mus To better understand the age and evolutionary history of Fv1 , a comprehensive survey of the Muroidea was conducted, allowing the progenitor integration to be dated to ∼45 million years...
September 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cécile Richet, Simona Kraberger, Denis Filloux, Pauline Bernardo, Gordon W Harkins, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac, Arvind Varsani
Advances in molecular techniques used in viral metagenomics coupled with high throughput sequencing is rapidly expanding our knowledge of plant-associated virus diversity. Applying such approaches, we have identified five novel circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses from Poaceae and Apiaceae plant from South Africa and New Zealand. These viruses have a simple genomic organization, including two open reading frames that likely encode a Rep and a capsid protein (CP), a conserved nonanucleotide motif on the apex of a putative stem loop structure, and conserved rolling-circle replication and helicase motifs within their likely Rep: all suggesting that they replicate through rolling-circle replication...
September 15, 2018: Archives of Virology
Simone Mattei, Aaron Tan, Bärbel Glass, Barbara Müller, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, John A G Briggs
HIV-1 maturation occurs via multiple proteolytic cleavages of the Gag polyprotein, causing rearrangement of the virus particle required for infectivity. Cleavage results in beta-hairpin formation at the N terminus of the CA (capsid) protein and loss of a six-helix bundle formed by the C terminus of CA and the neighboring SP1 peptide. How individual cleavages contribute to changes in protein structure and interactions, and how the mature, conical capsid forms, are poorly understood. Here, we employed cryoelectron tomography to determine morphology and high-resolution CA lattice structures for HIV-1 derivatives in which Gag cleavage sites are mutated...
September 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joshua M A Stough, Max Kolton, Joel E Kostka, David J Weston, Dale A Pelletier, Steven W Wilhelm
Sphagnum -dominated peatlands play an important role in global carbon storage and represent significant sources of economic and ecological value. While recent efforts to describe microbial diversity and metabolic potential of the Sphagnum microbiome have demonstrated the importance of its microbial community, little is known about the viral constituents. We used metatranscriptomics to describe the diversity and activity of viruses infecting microbes within the Sphagnum peat bog. The vegetative portions of 6 Sphagnum plants were obtained from a peatland in northern Minnesota and total RNA extracted and sequenced...
September 14, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yiqi Cai, Yiling Song, Danwei Cen, Chanqiong Zhang, Shanshan Mao, Xiaoxian Ye, Yirong Xiong, Pengfei Jiang, Jun Chen, Xiangyang Xue, Lifang Zhang, Guanbao Zhu
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widespread and is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Serological detection of EBV is commonly used for screening, diagnosis and epidemiological surveys of NPC. In the present study, a novel B cell multi-epitope peptide fusion protein (EBV-LMP2-3B), which is composed of three B cell linear epitopes (RIEDPPFNSLL, TLNLT and KSLSSTEFIPN) of EBV latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and purified using Ni2+ -nitrilotriacetate-Sepharose...
October 2018: Oncology Letters
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