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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918073/a-directed-evolution-approach-to-select-for-novel-adeno-associated-virus-capsids-on-an-hiv-1-producer-t-cell-line
#1
Dawn P Wooley, Priyanka Sharma, John R Weinstein, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, David V Schaffer, Katherine J D A Excoffon
A directed evolution approach was used to select for Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids that would exhibit more tropism toward an HIV-1 producer T cell line with the long-term goal of developing improved gene transfer vectors. A library of AAV variants was used to infect H9T cells previously infected or uninfected by HIV-1 followed by AAV amplification with wild-type adenovirus. Six rounds of biological selection were performed, including negative selection and diversification after round three. The H9T cells were successfully infected with all three wild-type viruses (AAV, adenovirus, and HIV-1)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918020/rationally-engineered-aav-capsids-improve-transduction-and-volumetric-spread-in-the-cns
#2
Nicholas M Kanaan, Rhyomi C Sellnow, Sanford L Boye, Ben Coberly, Antonette Bennett, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Caryl E Sortwell, William W Hauswirth, Shannon E Boye, Fredric P Manfredsson
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the most common vector for clinical gene therapy of the CNS. This popularity originates from a high safety record and the longevity of transgene expression in neurons. Nevertheless, clinical efficacy for CNS indications is lacking, and one reason for this is the relatively limited spread and transduction efficacy in large regions of the human brain. Using rationally designed modifications of the capsid, novel AAV capsids have been generated that improve intracellular processing and result in increased transgene expression...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917537/hbcag-produced-in-transgenic-tobacco-triggers-th1-and-th2-response-when-intramuscularly-delivered
#3
Marcin Pyrski, Anna Rugowska, Kamil Robert Wierzbiński, Anna Kasprzyk, Maria Bogusiewicz, Piotr Bociąg, Sławomir Samardakiewicz, Marcin Czyż, Maciej Kurpisz, Tomasz Pniewski
Hepatitis B core Antigen (HBcAg) assembled into Capsid-Like Particles (CLPs) is investigated as a therapeutic vaccine in treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in diagnostic tests or as a carrier for various epitopes. While the expression of HBcAg has been thoroughly clarified in E. coli and yeast, it has also been investigated in other expression systems. Stably transformed tobacco expressed HBcAg at a level of 110-250µg/g fresh weight, therefore in view of its large leaf biomass it offers a production platform comparable with transient expression systems regarding the final yield of HBcAg...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916355/grouper-stat1a-is-involved-in-antiviral-immune-response-against-iridovirus-and-nodavirus-infection
#4
Jingcheng Zhang, Xiaohong Huang, Songwei Ni, Jiaxin Liu, Yin Hu, Ying Yang, Yepin Yu, Linli Zhou, Qiwei Qin, Youhua Huang
Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) has been demonstrated to function as a critical mediator in multiple cell processes, such as cell proliferation, cell death, and innate immune response. Interestingly, two orthologues of human STAT1, including STAT1a and STAT1b genes have been identified in different fish. However, the detailed roles of fish STAT1a in virus replication still remained largely uncertain. Here, we cloned a STAT1a from orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (EcSTAT1a) and characterized its roles during fish virus infection...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916111/icosahedral-plant-viral-nanoparticles-bioinspired-synthesis-of-nanomaterials-nanostructures
#5
REVIEW
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Viral nanotechnology utilizes virus nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) of plant viruses as highly versatile platforms for materials synthesis and molecular entrapment that can be used in the nanotechnological fields, such as in next-generation nanoelectronics, nanocatalysis, biosensing and optics, and biomedical applications, such as for targeting, therapeutic delivery, and non-invasive in vivo imaging with high specificity and selectivity. In particular, plant virus capsids provide biotemplates for the production of novel nanostructured materials with organic/inorganic moieties incorporated in a very precise and controlled manner...
August 31, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914805/a-recombinant-hav-expressing-a-neutralization-epitope-of-hev-induces-immune-response-against-hav-and-hev-in-mice
#6
Kui Xiang, Yuri Kusov, Guan Ying, Wang Yan, Yi Shan, Wu Jinyuan, Yin Na, Zhou Yan, Li Hongjun, Sun Maosheng
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are causative agents of acute viral hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Both viruses place a heavy burden on the public health and economy of developing countries. To test the possibility that HAV could be used as an expression vector for the development of a combination vaccine against hepatitis A and E infections, recombinant HAV-HEp148 was created as a vector to express an HEV neutralization epitope (HEp148) located at aa 459-606 of the HEV capsid protein...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914452/comparative-evaluation-of-mcp-gene-in-worldwide-strains-of-megalocytivirus-iridoviridae-family-for-early-diagnostic-marker
#7
A Mishra, G-H Nam, J-A Gim, H-E Lee, A Jo, D Yoon, S Oh, S Kim, A Kim, D-H Kim, Y C Kim, H D Jeong, H-J Cha, Y H Choi, H-S Kim
Members of the Iridoviridae family have been considered as aetiological agents of iridovirus diseases, causing fish mortalities and economic losses all over the world. Virus identification based on candidate gene sequencing is faster, more accurate and more reliable than other traditional phenotype methodologies. Iridoviridae viruses are covered by a protein shell (capsid) encoded by the important candidate gene, major capsid protein (MCP). In this study, we investigated the potential of the MCP gene for use in the diagnosis and identification of infections caused Megalocytivirus of the Iridoviridae family...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912069/generation-of-a-novel-human-cytomegalovirus-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-tailored-for-transduction-of-exogenous-sequences
#8
William L Close, Amit Bhandari, Marwa Hojeij, Philip E Pellett
The study of herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), is complicated by viral genome complexity and inefficient methods for genetic manipulation in tissue culture. Reverse genetics of herpesviruses has been facilitated by propagating their genomes in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), which enables complex and precise genetic manipulation using bacterial recombinational systems. Internal capsid volume imposes a strict limit on the length of genome that can be packaged efficiently...
September 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910371/surveillance-of-norovirus-among-children-with-diarrhea-in-four-major-hospitals-in-bhutan-replacement-of-gii-21-by-gii-3-as-a-dominant-genotype
#9
Sonam Wangchuk, Takashi Matsumoto, Hidekatsu Iha, Kamruddin Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Bhutanese children. The etiology of diarrhea is not well known due to the challenges of conducting routine surveillance with Bhutan's modest research facilities. Establishing an etiology is crucial toward generating evidence that will contribute to policy discussions on a diarrheal disease control program. Our previous study, during 2010-2012, revealed that norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of diarrhea among Bhutanese children, and that GII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900073/-molecular-mechanisms-of-hiv-1-genetic-diversity
#10
D V Sosin, N A Tchurikov
High genetic diversity of HIV-1 is the main factor behind the fact that HIV infection is widespread and difficult to treat. Although a limited number (or only one) of virus particles enters the blood upon infection, the particles are replicated in infected cells and rapidly produce new genetic variants that are resistant to the host immune system and antiretroviral drugs. This circumstance hampers the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccines and requires new antiretroviral drugs to be designed. The cause of the high variation of HIV-1 is related to the properties of its reverse transcriptase, which is error prone and often makes mistakes when transcribing virus RNA...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898286/structural-investigation-of-c6-36-and-vero-cell-cultures-infected-with-a-brazilian-zika-virus
#11
Debora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira, Fernanda Cunha Jácome, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira, Elen Mello de Souza, Audrien Alves Andrade, Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso, Gisela Freitas Trindade, Sheila Maria Barbosa Lima, Ortrud Monika Barth
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the flavivirus genus, and its genome is approximately 10.8 kilobases of positive-strand RNA enclosed in a capsid and surrounded by a membrane. Studies on the replication dynamics of ZIKV are scarce, which limits the development of antiviral agents and vaccines directed against ZIKV. In this study, Aedes albopictus mosquito lineage cells (C6/36 cells) and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero cells) were inoculated with a ZIKV sample isolated from a Brazilian patient, and the infection was characterized by immunofluorescence staining, phase contrast light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and real-time RT-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894095/atomic-structures-of-coxsackievirus-a6-and-its-complex-with-a-neutralizing-antibody
#12
Longfa Xu, Qingbing Zheng, Shaowei Li, Maozhou He, Yangtao Wu, Yongchao Li, Rui Zhu, Hai Yu, Qiyang Hong, Jie Jiang, Zizhen Li, Shuxuan Li, Huan Zhao, Lisheng Yang, Wangheng Hou, Wei Wang, Xiangzhong Ye, Jun Zhang, Timothy S Baker, Tong Cheng, Z Hong Zhou, Xiaodong Yan, Ningshao Xia
Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has recently emerged as a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in children worldwide but no vaccine is available against CVA6 infections. Here, we demonstrate the isolation of two forms of stable CVA6 particles-procapsid and A-particle-with excellent biochemical stability and natural antigenicity to serve as vaccine candidates. Despite the presence (in A-particle) or absence (in procapsid) of capsid-RNA interactions, the two CVA6 particles have essentially identical atomic capsid structures resembling the uncoating intermediates of other enteroviruses...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893988/cryo-em-structure-of-the-bacteriophage-t4-isometric-head-at-3-3-%C3%A3-resolution-and-its-relevance-to-the-assembly-of-icosahedral-viruses
#13
Zhenguo Chen, Lei Sun, Zhihong Zhang, Andrei Fokine, Victor Padilla-Sanchez, Dorit Hanein, Wen Jiang, Michael G Rossmann, Venigalla B Rao
The 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 860-Å-diameter isometric mutant bacteriophage T4 capsid has been determined. WT T4 has a prolate capsid characterized by triangulation numbers (T numbers) Tend = 13 for end caps and Tmid = 20 for midsection. A mutation in the major capsid protein, gp23, produced T=13 icosahedral capsids. The capsid is stabilized by 660 copies of the outer capsid protein, Soc, which clamp adjacent gp23 hexamers. The occupancies of Soc molecules are proportional to the size of the angle between the planes of adjacent hexameric capsomers...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893935/tumour-virus-vaccines-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#14
REVIEW
Margaret Stanley
Two of the most important human oncogenic viruses are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). HBV infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982; vaccination of neonates and infants is highly effective, resulting already in decreased rates of new infections, chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Nonetheless, HBV remains a global public health problem with high rates of vertical transmission from mother to child in some regions. Prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 capsid protein have been licensed since 2006/2007...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893289/recombinant-expression-of-beak-and-feather-disease-virus-capsid-protein-and-assembly-of-virus-like-particles-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#15
Guy L Regnard, Edward P Rybicki, Inga I Hitzeroth
BACKGROUND: Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is an important disease causing agent affecting psittacines. BFDV is highly infectious and can present as acute, chronic or subclinical disease. The virus causes immunodeficiency and is often associated with secondary infections. No commercial vaccine is available and yields of recombinant BFDV capsid protein (CP) expressed in insect cells and bacteria are yet to be seen as commercially viable, although both systems produced BFDV CP that could successfully assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs)...
September 11, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890324/direct-head-to-head-evaluation-of-recombinant-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-manufactured-in-human-versus-insect-cells
#16
Oleksandr Kondratov, Damien Marsic, Sean M Crosson, Hector R Mendez-Gomez, Oleksandr Moskalenko, Mario Mietzsch, Regine Heilbronn, Jonathan R Allison, Kari B Green, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Sergei Zolotukhin
The major drawback of the Baculovirus/Sf9 system for recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) manufacturing is that most of the Bac-derived rAAV vector serotypes, with few exceptions, demonstrate altered capsid compositions and lower biological potencies. Here, we describe a new insect cell-based production platform utilizing attenuated Kozak sequence and a leaky ribosome scanning to achieve a serotype-specific modulation of AAV capsid proteins stoichiometry. By way of example, rAAV5 and rAAV9 were produced and comprehensively characterized side by side with HEK293-derived vectors...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888627/genetic-and-pathogenic-characterization-of-a-novel-reassortant-mammalian-orthoreovirus-3-mrv3-from-a-diarrheic-piglet-and-seroepidemiological-survey-of-mrv3-in-diarrheic-pigs-from-east-china
#17
Pan Qin, Huan Li, Jing-Wei Wang, Bin Wang, Rong-Hui Xie, Hui Xu, Ling-Yan Zhao, Long Li, Yongfei Pan, Yanhua Song, Yao-Wei Huang
Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), which cause gastrointestinal and respiratory illness, have been isolated from a wide variety of mammalian species including bats, minks, pigs and humans. Here we report the isolation and genetic and pathogenic characterization of a novel MRV type 3 (MRV3), named MRV-ZJ2013, from the diarrheic feces of piglets in Zhejiang province, China. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis shows that MRV-ZJ2013 may have originated from reassortments among mink, bat, and pig MRVs, suggesting the hypothesis that interspecies transmission has occurred in pig herds...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884236/identification-of-a-serotype-independent-linear-epitope-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus
#18
Baolin Yang, Mingxia Wang, Wenming Liu, Zhiqiang Xu, Haiwei Wang, Decheng Yang, Wenge Ma, Guohui Zhou, Li Yu
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. VP2 is a structural protein of FMDV. In this study, an FMDV serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (MAb), 10B10, against the viral capsid protein VP2 was generated, and a series of GST fusion proteins expressing a truncated peptide of VP2 was subjected to Western blot analysis using MAb 10B10. Their results indicated that the peptide (8)TLLEDRILT(16) of VP2 is the minimal requirement of the epitope recognized by MAb 10B10...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883126/genome-sequences-of-a-novel-picorna-like-virus-from-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai-in-south-korea
#19
Jong-Oh Kim, Jong Kyu Lee, Yong Bae Seo, Han-Kyu Lim, Gun-Do Kim
We report the draft genome sequences of a novel member of the Picornavirales isolated from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The full length of the assembled draft genome sequences, obtained by use of a next-generation sequencing technique, were 8,019 nucleotides, including an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (5,088 nucleotides) and a capsid protein gene (2,553 nucleotides). This genome sequence will be useful for understanding viral disease of Pacific abalone.
September 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878350/functional-association-of-cellular-microtubules-with-viral-capsid-assembly-supports-efficient-hepatitis-b-virus-replication
#20
Masashi Iwamoto, Dawei Cai, Masaya Sugiyama, Ryosuke Suzuki, Hideki Aizaki, Akihide Ryo, Naoko Ohtani, Yasuhito Tanaka, Masashi Mizokami, Takaji Wakita, Haitao Guo, Koichi Watashi
Viruses exploit host factors and environment for their efficient replication. The virus-host interaction mechanisms for achieving an optimal hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication have been largely unknown. Here, a single cell cloning revealed that HepAD38 cells, a widely-used HBV-inducible cell line, contain cell clones with diverse permissiveness to HBV replication. The HBV permissiveness was impaired upon treatment with microtubule inhibitor nocodazole, which was identified as an HBV replication inhibitor from a pharmacological screening...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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