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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809986/static-and-dynamic-hidden-symmetries-of-icosahedral-viral-capsids
#1
Sergey B Rochal, Olga V Konevtsova, Vladimir L Lorman
Viral shells self-assemble from identical proteins, which tend to form equivalent environments in the resulting assembly. However, in icosahedral capsids containing more than 60 proteins, they are enforced to occupy not only the symmetrically equivalent locations but also the quasi-equivalent ones. Due to this important fact, static and dynamic symmetries of viral shells can include additional hidden components. Here, developing the Caspar and Klug ideas concerning the quasi-equivalence of protein environments, we derive the simplest hexagonal tilings, that in principle could correspond to the local protein order in viral shells, and apply the resulting theory to nucleocytoplasmic large dsDNA viruses...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802994/expression-and-purification-of-norovirus-virus-like-particles-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-immunogenicity-in-mice
#2
Yuqi Huo, Xin Wan, Tong Ling, Jie Wu, Wenhui Wang, Shuo Shen
Norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs) produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been tested in human volunteers as vaccine candidate and were shown to be protective against NoV induced acute gastroenteritis. In this study, prevailing Sydney-2012-like NoV major capsid protein gene with or without N-terminal deletions (N26 and N38, 26 and 38 amino acids deleted from N terminus,respectively) were sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector, pCold III and pCold IV. Soluble and insoluble proteins were detected for both vectors after induction and higher levels of protein expression were observed for constructs pCold III-N26 and pCold III-N38...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802715/elucidating-virus-entry-using-a-tetracysteine-tagged-virus
#3
REVIEW
Bjorn-Patrick Mohl, Polly Roy
Fluorescent tags constitute an invaluable tool in facilitating a deeper understanding of the mechanistic processes governing virus-host interactions. However, when selecting a fluorescent tag for in vivo imaging of cells, a number of parameters and aspects must be considered. These include whether the tag may affect and interfere with protein conformation or localization, cell toxicity, spectral overlap, photo-stability and background. Cumulatively, these constitute challenges to be overcome. Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the Orbivirus genus in the Reoviridae family, is a non-enveloped virus that is comprised of two architecturally complex capsids...
August 9, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802032/deciphering-critical-amino-acid-residues-to-modify-and-enhance-the-binding-affinity-of-ankyrin-scaffold-specific-to-capsid-protein-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1
#4
Somphot Saoin, Tanchanok Wisitponchai, Kannaporn Intachai, Koollawat Chupradit, Sutpirat Moonmuang, Sawitree Nangola, Kuntida Kitidee, Kanda Fanhchaksai, Vannajan Sanghiran Lee, Saw-See Hong, Pierre Boulanger, Phimonphan Chuankhayan, Chun-Jung Chen, Chatchai Tayapiwatana
BACKGROUND: AnkGAG1D4 is an artificial ankyrin repeat protein which recognizes the capsid protein (CA) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and exhibits the intracellular antiviral activity on the viral assembly process. Improving the binding affinity of AnkGAG1D4 would potentially enhance the AnkGAG1D4-mediated antiviral activity. OBJECTIVE: To augment the affinity of AnkGAG1D4 scaffold towards its CA target, through computational predictions and experimental designs...
August 8, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800730/genotypes-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-turkey-first-report-and-clinical-profile-of-children-infected-with-sub-genotypes-ia-and-iiia
#5
Huseyin Yilmaz, Asiye Karakullukcu, Nuri Turan, Utku Y Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Ayse A Ozkul, Ozge Aydin, Alper Gunduz, Mahmut Mete, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Taner T Kirazoglu, Juergen A Richt, Bekir Kocazeybek
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a food and water-borne virus causing clinical (mainly hepatitis) and subclinical disease in humans. It is important to characterize circulating strains of HAV in order to prevent HAV infections using efficacious vaccines. The aim of this study was the detection and characterization of the circulating strains of HAV in Turkey by performing serology, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. METHODS: In this study, 355 HAV suspected cases were analysed by ELISA for the presence of antibodies to HAV...
August 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800489/polioviruses-that-bind-a-chimeric-pvr-nectin-2-protein-identify-capsid-residues-involved-in-receptor-interaction
#6
Yi Lin, Vincent R Racaniello
Amino acid changes in the C'C"D region in poliovirus receptor domain 1 disrupt poliovirus binding. To examine further the role of the C'C"D region in poliovirus infection, we substituted this region of Pvr into the corresponding region of a murine homolog, nectin-2. The chimeric receptor, nectin-2(Pvr(c'c"d)), rendered transformed L cells susceptible to infection with poliovirus P1/Mahoney, but not with polioviruses P2/Lansing and P3/Leon, due to lack of binding. Twenty-four variants of P2/Lansing were selected that replicate in nectin-2(Pvr(c'c"d)) producing cell lines...
August 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795465/a-molecular-breadboard-removal-and-replacement-of-subunits-in-an-hepatitis-b-virus-capsid
#7
Lye Siang Lee, Nicholas Brunk, Daniel G Haywood, David Keifer, Elizabeth Pierson, Panagiotis Kondylis, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Stephen C Jacobson, Martin F Jarrold, Adam Zlotnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is a model system for studying assembly and disassembly of icosahedral structures. Controlling disassembly will allow re-engineering the 120 subunit HBV capsid, making it a molecular breadboard. We examined removal of subunits from partially crosslinked capsids to form stable incomplete particles. To characterize incomplete capsids, we used two single molecule techniques, resistive-pulse sensing and charge detection mass spectrometry. We expected to find a binomial distribution of capsid fragments...
August 10, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794039/the-ul21-tegument-protein-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-is-differentially-required-for-the-syncytial-phenotype
#8
Akua Sarfo, Jason Starkey, Erica Mellinger, Dan Zhang, Pooja Chadha, Jillian Carmichael, John W Wills
The initial goal of this study was to re-examine the requirement of UL21 for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication. Previous studies suggested that UL21 is dispensable for replication in cell cultures, but a recent report on HSV-2 challenges those findings. As was done for the HSV-2 study, a UL21-null virus was made and propagated on complementing cells to discourage selection of compensating mutations. This HSV-1 mutant was able to replicate in non-complementing cells, even at a low MOI, though a reduction in titer was observed...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794033/ancient-evolution-and-dispersion-of-human-papillomavirus-type-58-variants
#9
Zigui Chen, Wendy C S Ho, Siaw Shi Boon, Priscilla T Y Law, Martin C W Chan, Rob DeSalle, Robert D Burk, Paul K S Chan
Human papillomavirus type 58 is found in 10-18% of cervical cancers in East Asia but rather uncommon elsewhere. The distribution and oncogenic potential of HPV58 variants appear to be heterogeneous since the E7 T20I/G63S variant is more prevalent in East Asia and confers 7-9 fold higher risk for cervical precancer and cancer. However, the underlying genomic mechanisms that explain the geographic and carcinogenic diversity of HPV58 variants are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a combination of phylogenetic analyses and bioinformatics to investigate the deep evolutionary history of HPV58 complete genome variants...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794028/the-reovirus-%C3%AE-1-340-343-loop-controls-entry-related-conformational-changes
#10
Anthony J Snyder, Pranav Danthi
Reovirus particles are covered with 200 μ1/σ3 heterohexamers. Following attachment to cell surface receptors, reovirus is internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Within the endosome, particles undergo a series of step-wise disassembly events. First, the σ3 protector protein is degraded by cellular proteases to generate infectious subviral particles (ISVPs). Second, the μ1 protein rearranges into a protease sensitive conformation to generate ISVP*s and releases two virally encoded peptides, μ1N and Φ...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794019/development-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-and-reporter-assay-for-zika-virus
#11
Himanshu Garg, Melina Sedano, Gabrielle Plata, Erin B Punke, Anjali Joshi
Recent worldwide outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and the lack of an approved vaccine raises serious concerns regarding preparedness to combat this emerging virus. We used a Virus Like Particle (VLP) based approach to develop a vaccine and a microneutralization assay against ZIKV. Synthetic C-prM-E (Capsid-preMembrane-Envelope) gene construct of ZIKV was used to generate Reporter Virus Particles (RVPs) that package GFP reporter expressing WNV replicon. The assay was adapted to 96 well format, similar to the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and showed high reproducibility with specific detection of ZIKV neutralizing antibodies...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793206/a-model-for-viral-assembly-around-an-explicit-rna-sequence-generates-an-implicit-fitness-landscape
#12
Eric Charles Dykeman
Previously, a stochastic model of single-stranded RNA virus assembly was created to model the cooperative effects between capsid proteins and genomic RNA that would occur in a packaging signal-mediated assembly process. In such an assembly scenario, multiple secondary structural elements from within the RNA, termed "packaging signals" (PS), contact coat proteins and facilitate efficient capsid assembly. In this work, the assembly model is extended to incorporate explicit nucleotide sequence information as well as simple aspects of RNA folding that would be occurring during the RNA/capsid coassembly process...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792420/primary-culture-of-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri-hemocytes-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-studying-host-pathogen-interactions
#13
Aichang Ji, Xueyu Li, Sha Fang, Zhenkui Qin, Changming Bai, Chongming Wang, Zhifeng Zhang
Primary cultured cells can be a useful tool in studies on physiology, virology, and toxicology. Hemocytes play an important role in animal rapid response to pathogen invasion. In this study, an appropriate medium for primary culture of hemocytes of the bivalve Chlamys farreri was developed by adding 5% fetal bovine serum and 1% C. farreri serum to Leibovitz L-15 medium. These primary cultured hemocytes were maintained for more than 40 d in vitro and were classified into 3 types: (1) granulocytes containing numerous granules in the cytoplasm, (2) hyalinocytes with no or few granules, (3) a small percentage of macrophage-like cells...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791001/novel-in-vitro-screening-system-based-on-differential-scanning-fluorimetry-to-search-for-small-molecules-against-the-disassembly-or-assembly-of-hiv-1-capsid-protein
#14
Yasuyuki Miyazaki, Naoya Doi, Takaaki Koma, Akio Adachi, Masako Nomaguchi
Varieties of in vitro systems have been used to study biochemical properties of human immunodeficiency virus Gag-capsid protein (HIV Gag-CA). Recently, we have comparatively characterized HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag-CA proteins using such technology, and have demonstrated that the NaCl-initiated CA-polymerization in vitro and the stability of CA N-terminal domain as judged by differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) are inversely correlated. In this study, we found that ZnCl2 works as a competent initiator of the in vitro HIV-1 CA-polymerization at much lower concentrations than those of NaCl frequently used for the polymerization initiation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790989/a-proposal-for-a-structural-model-of-the-feline-calicivirus-protease-bound-to-the-substrate-peptide-under-physiological-conditions
#15
Masaru Yokoyama, Tomoichiro Oka, Hirotaka Takagi, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takayoshi Okabe, Tetsuo Nagano, Yukinobu Tohya, Hironori Sato
Feline calicivirus (FCV) protease functions to cleave viral precursor proteins during productive infection. Previous studies have mapped a protease-coding region and six cleavage sites in viral precursor proteins. However, how the FCV protease interacts with its substrates remains unknown. To gain insights into the interactions, we constructed a molecular model of the FCV protease bound with the octapeptide containing a cleavage site of the capsid precursor protein by homology modeling and docking simulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789965/application-of-polyploid-adeno-associated-virus-vectors-for-transduction-enhancement-and-neutralizing-antibody-evasion
#16
Zheng Chai, Junjiang Sun, Kelly Michelle Rigsbee, Mei Wang, R Jude Samulski, Chengwen Li
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been used successfully in clinical trials for patients with hemophilia or blindness, but pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are common in the general population and exclude many patients from clinical trials. Exploration of effective strategies to enhance AAV transduction and escape from Nab activity is still imperative. Previous studies have shown the compatibility of capsids from AAV serotypes and homology of recognition sites of AAV Nab located on different capsid subunits from one virion...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789694/co-infection-of-two-reoviruses-increases-both-viruses-accumulation-in-rice-by-up-regulating-of-viroplasm-components-and-movement-proteins-bilaterally-and-rna-silencing-suppressor-unilaterally
#17
Shu Li, Tong Zhang, Yingzhi Zhu, Guohui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) not only aggravates disease symptoms but also enhances their vector acquisition efficiencies by increasing both viruses' titers in co-infected rice plants, which may exacerbate the epidemic of both viruses and cause significant damage to rice production. The molecular mechanism of viral synergism of these two viruses remains unexplored. METHODS: Single and double infection of SRBSDV and RRSV were obtained with the viruliferous white-backed planthopper and brown planthopper inoculation on four-leaf stage rice seedlings, respectively, under experimental condition...
August 8, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783578/genetic-characterisation-of-norovirus-strains-in-outpatient-children-from-rural-communities-of-vhembe-district-south-africa-2014-2015
#18
Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul R Hunter, Natasha Potgieter
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is now the most common cause of both outbreaks and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data supporting the role of NoV in diarrheal disease are limited in the African continent. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the distribution of NoV genotypes circulating in outpatient children from rural communities of Vhembe district/South Africa. STUDY DESIGN: Stool specimens were collected from children under five years of age with diarrhea, and controls without diarrhea, between July 2014 and April 2015...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782023/a-viral-scaffolding-protein-triggers-portal-ring-oligomerization-and-incorporation-during-procapsid-assembly
#19
Tina Motwani, Ravi K Lokareddy, Carmen A Dunbar, Juliana R Cortines, Martin F Jarrold, Gino Cingolani, Carolyn M Teschke
Most double-stranded DNA viruses package genetic material into empty precursor capsids (or procapsids) through a dodecameric portal protein complex that occupies 1 of the 12 vertices of the icosahedral lattice. Inhibiting incorporation of the portal complex prevents the formation of infectious virions, making this step an excellent target for antiviral drugs. The mechanism by which a sole portal assembly is selectively incorporated at the special vertex is unclear. We recently showed that, as part of the DNA packaging process for bacteriophage P22, the dodecameric procapsid portal changes conformation to a mature virion state...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780630/binding-of-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-like-particles-to-host-histo-blood-group-antigens-is-blocked-by-antisera-from-experimentally-vaccinated-rabbits
#20
Yanhua Song, Zhiyu Fan, Yuanyuan Zuo, Houjun Wei, Bo Hu, Mengmeng Chen, Rulong Qiu, Jiabin Xue, Fang Wang
During infection host histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors that interact with rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and participate in the infectious process. In the present study, baculovirus expressing recombinant RHDV capsid protein (VP60r) as a vaccine immunogen was used to test its antigenicity and immunogenicity via immunization experiments. Each group of rabbits immunized with VP60r was found to be fully protected against RHDV challenge. The duration of immunity of the vaccine following the inoculation of a single dose was determined to be at least 240 days...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
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