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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932608/antiviral-activity-of-pocapavir-in-a-randomized-blinded-placebo-controlled-human-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-challenge-model
#1
Marc S Collett, Jeffrey R Hincks, Kimberley Benschop, Erwin Duizer, Harrie van der Avoort, Eric Rhoden, Hongmei Liu, M Steven Oberste, Mark A McKinlay, Marianne Hartford
BACKGROUND: Immunodeficient individuals who excrete vaccine-derived polioviruses threaten polio eradication. Antivirals address this threat. METHODS: In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study, adults were challenged with oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 (mOPV1) and subsequently treated with capsid inhibitor pocapavir or placebo. Time to virus negativity in stool was determined. RESULTS: 144 participants were enrolled; 98% became infected upon OPV challenge...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928008/increasing-type-1-poliovirus-capsid-stability-by-thermal-selection
#2
Oluwapelumi O Adeyemi, Clare Nicol, Nicola J Stonehouse, David J Rowlands
: Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by poliovirus (PV). It can result in paralysis and may be fatal. Integrated global immunisation programmes using live-attenuated oral (OPV) and/or inactivated PV vaccines (IPV) have systematically reduced its spread and paved the way for eradication. Immunisation will continue post-eradication to ensure against reintroduction of the disease, but there are biosafety concerns for both OPV and IPV. These could be addressed by the production and use of virus-free virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines which mimic the 'empty' capsids (ECs) normally produced in viral infection...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928006/cryo-em-study-of-genome-release-of-dicistrovirus-israeli-acute-bee-paralysis-virus
#3
Edukondalu Mullapudi, Tibor Füzik, Antonín Přidal, Pavel Plevka
: Viruses from the family Dicistroviridae can cause substantial economic damage by infecting agriculturally important insects. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV) causes honeybee colony collapse disorder in the United States. High-resolution molecular details of the genome delivery mechanism of dicistroviruses are unknown. Here we present a cryo-EM analysis of IAPV virions induced to release their genomes in vitro We determined structures of full IAPV virions primed to release their genomes to a resolution of 3...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927929/high-throughput-next-generation-sequencing-of-polioviruses
#4
Anna M Montmayeur, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Alexander Schmidt, Kun Zhao, Laura Magaña, Jane Iber, Christina J Castro, Qi Chen, Elizabeth Henderson, Edward Ramos, Jing Shaw, Roman L Tatusov, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Marie Claire Endegue-Zanga, Johnson A Adeniji, M Steven Oberste, Cara C Burns
Poliovirus (PV) is currently targeted for worldwide eradication and containment. Sanger-based sequencing of the VP1 capsid region is the current standard method for PV surveillance; however, the whole genome sequence is sometimes needed for higher resolution global surveillance. In this study, we optimized whole genome sequencing protocols for poliovirus isolates and FTA cards using NGS, aiming for high sequence coverage, efficiency, and throughput. We found that DNase treatment of poliovirus RNA followed by random RT, amplification, and the Nextera XT DNA Library Preparation Kit produced significantly better results than other preparations...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926790/molecular-surveillance-of-dengue-in-minas-gerais-provides-insights-on-dengue-virus-1-and-4-circulation-in-brazil
#5
Karina Rocha Dutra, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Débora de Oliveira Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara Silva, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira, Luciana Lara Dos Santos
Dengue, caused by any of the four types of Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arbovirus in the world. In this study we performed a molecular surveillance of dengue during the greatest dengue outbreak that took place in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais state, Southeast Brazil, in 2013. Samples from 100 patients with clinical symptoms of dengue were studied and 26 were positive. The capsid/premembrane (CprM) and envelope gene sequences of some samples were amplified and sequenced. Molecular analyses demonstrated that two DENV-1 lineages, belonging to genotype V were introduced and co-circulated in Divinópolis...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916667/development-and-validation-of-an-immunohistochemistry-procedure-for-the-detection-of-a-neurotropic-bovine-astrovirus
#6
Céline L Boujon, Senija Selimovic-Hamza, Ilias Bouzalas, Torsten Seuberlich
Members of the Astroviridae family are best known to cause diarrhea in different mammalian species. Lately, some strains have been associated with encephalitis in humans, minks and cattle. In this study, we developed an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure for the detection of a neurotropic bovine astrovirus (BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1), which is associated with non-suppurative encephalitis in cattle. We expressed five recombinant antigens corresponding to different putative viral proteins of BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1. Antigens were then used for the production of hyperimmune sera in rabbits...
January 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914893/near-atomic-resolution-structure-determination-of-a-cypovirus-capsid-and-polymerase-complex-using-cryo-em-at-200kv
#7
Xiaowu Li, Niyun Zhou, Wenyuan Chen, Bin Zhu, Xurong Wang, Bin Xu, Jiawei Wang, Hongrong Liu, Lingpeng Cheng
Single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) allows high-resolution structural determination of biological assemblies in a near-native environment. However, all high-resolution (better than 3.5Å) cryo-EM structures reported to date were obtained by using 300kV transmission electron microscopes (TEMs). We report here the structures of a cypovirus capsid of 750Å diameter at 3.3Å resolution and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complexes within the capsid at 3.9Å resolution using a 200kV TEM. The newly resolved structure revealed conformational changes of two subdomains in the RdRp...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914222/molecular-diversity-of-human-parvovirus-b19-during-two-outbreaks-of-erythema-infectiosum-in-brazil
#8
Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel Garcia, Renata Freire Alves Pereira, Kátia Martins Lopes de Azevedo, Tatiana Xavier de Castro, Francisco C A Mello, Sérgio Setubal, Marilda M Siqueira, David Brown, Solange Artimos de Oliveira
This study was conducted to provide information on the genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) circulating in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil during 1996-2006, a period with two distinct outbreaks of B19V infection: 1999-2000 and 2004-2005. A total of 27 sera from patients with erythema infectiosum (EI) and five sera from HIV-infected patients that tested positive for B19V DNA during the study period were analyzed. To genotype B19V strains, a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the capsid gene was performed and sequence analysis revealed that 31 sequences belonged to subgenotype 1a (G1a) of the main genotype 1 and one sequence was characterized as subgenotype 3b (G3b)...
November 30, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913973/emergence-of-new-virulent-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-strains-in-saudi-arabia
#9
Mahmoud M Ismail, Mahmoud H A Mohamed, Ibrahim M El-Sabagh, Mohamed A Al-Hammadi
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013...
December 2, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910043/production-and-characterization-of-vectors-based-on-the-cardiotropic-aav-serotype-9
#11
Erik Kohlbrenner, Thomas Weber
Vectors based on adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) efficiently transduce cardiomyocytes in both rodents and large animal models upon either systemic or regional vector delivery. In this chapter, we describe the most widely used production and purification method of AAV9. This production approach does not depend on the use of a helpervirus but instead on transient transfection of HEK293T cells with a plasmid containing the recombinant AAV genome and a second plasmid encoding the AAV9 capsid proteins, the AAV Rep proteins and the adenoviral helper functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908829/exploring-the-binding-mechanism-of-heteroaryldihydropyrimidines-and-hepatitis-b-virus-capsid-combined-3d-qsar-and-molecular-dynamics
#12
Jing Tu, Jiao Jiao Li, Zhi Jie Shan, Hong Lin Zhai
The non-nucleoside drugs have been developed to treat HBV infection owing to their increased efficacy and lesser side effects, in which heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) have been identified as effective inhibitors of HBV capsid. In this paper, the binding mechanism of HAPs targeting on HBV capsid protein was explored through three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship, molecular dynamics and binding free energy decompositions. The obtained models of comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis enable the sufficient interpretation of structure-activity relationship of HAPs-HBV...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#13
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905985/tlr7-8-agonist-induces-a-post-entry-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-monocytes
#14
Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch, Nathaniel R Landau
BACKGROUND: Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen components, inducing the expression of antiviral host proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. TLR agonists that mimic microbial ligands have been found to have activity against HIV-1 in macrophages. The induction of restriction factors in monocytes by TLR agonist activation has not been well studied...
December 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904467/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-bacteriophage-preying-an-antifungal-bacterium
#15
Aryan Rahimi-Midani, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Seon-Woo Lee, Sang Bong Jung, Tae-Jin Choi
Several Bacillus species were isolated from rice field soils, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Bacillus cereus was the most abundant. A strain named BC1 showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Bacteriophages infecting strain BC1 were isolated from the same soil sample. The isolated phage PK16 had an icosahedral head of 100 ± 5 nm and tail of 200 ± 5 nm, indicating that it belonged to the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the complete linear dsDNA genome revealed a 158,127-bp genome with G + C content of 39...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903804/structural-protein-vp2-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-is-not-essential-for-virus-replication-in-vitro
#16
René G P van Gennip, Sandra G P van de Water, Christiaan A Potgieter, Piet A van Rijn
: The Reoviridae family consists of non-enveloped multi-layered viruses with a double stranded RNA genome consisting of 9 to 12 genome segments. The Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family contains African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus causing notifiable diseases and are spread by biting Culicoides species. Here, we used reverse genetics for AHSV to study the role of outer capsid protein VP2 encoded by genome segment 2 (Seg-2)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903094/effects-of-self-complementarity-codon-optimization-transgene-and-dose-on-liver-transduction-with-aav8
#17
Peter Bell, Lili Wang, Shu-Jen Chen, Hongwei Yu, Yanqing Zhu, Mohamad Nayal, Zhenning He, John White, Deborah Lebel-Hagan, James M Wilson
Numerous methods of vector design and delivery have been employed in an attempt to increase transgene expression following AAV-based gene therapy. Here, we conducted a gene transfer study in mice to compare the effects of vector self-complementarity (double- or single-stranded DNA), codon optimization of the transgene, and vector dose on transgene expression levels in liver. Two different reporter genes were used: human ornithine transcarbamylase (hOTC) detected by immunofluorescence, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) detected by direct fluorescence...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902702/selective-inhibitor-of-nuclear-export-sine-compounds-alter-new-world-alphavirus-capsid-localization-and-reduce-viral-replication-in-mammalian-cells
#18
Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Cynthia de la Fuente, Ashwini Brahms, Nazly Shafagati, Kylie M Wagstaff, David A Jans, Sharon Tamir, Kylene Kehn-Hall
The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902397/vesivirus-2117-capsids-more-closely-resemble-sapovirus-and-lagovirus-particles-than-other-known-vesivirus-structures
#19
Michaela Conley, Edward Emmott, Richard Orton, David Taylor, Daniel Carneiro, Kazuyoshi Murata, Ian Goodfellow, Grant Hansman, David Bhella
Vesivirus 2117 is an adventitious agent that in 2009, was identified as a contaminant of CHO cells propagated in bioreactors at a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant belonging to Genzyme. The consequent interruption in supply of Fabrazyme and Cerezyme (drugs used to treat Fabry and Gaucher disease respectively), caused significant economic losses. Vesivirus 2117 is a member of the Caliciviridae; a family of small icosahedral viruses encoding a positive sense RNA genome. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and three dimensional image reconstruction to calculate a structure of vesivirus 2117 virus like particles as well as feline calicivirus and a chimeric sapovirus...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902382/the-genetic-diversity-and-phenotypic-associations-of-feline-caliciviruses-from-cats-in-switzerland
#20
Andrea M Spiri, Julien Thézé, Marina L Meli, Valentino Cattori, Alice Berger, Adolf Steinrigl, Oliver G Pybus, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral pathogen in domestic cats worldwide. The variable regions of the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV have one of the highest recorded rates of molecular evolution. Understanding the genetic diversity and phylogeny of FCV is a prerequisite to exploring the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this virus and to the development of efficacious vaccine strategies. In this study, we undertook a nationwide molecular characterization of FCV using for the first time nearly complete capsid (VP1) gene sequences...
October 7, 2016: Journal of General Virology
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