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healthy cities

Karolina Bierowiec, Katarzyna Płoneczka-Janeczko, Krzysztof Rypuła
Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant pathogen in both human medicine and veterinary medicine. The importance of pets as reservoirs of human infections is still poorly understood. This article provides detailed information of a cross-sectional study of a S. aureus colonization in clinically healthy indoor cats. The study systematically assessed a number of different anatomical locations for the S. aureus colonization and the influence of a range of potential risk factors on the value of the final S...
2016: BioMed Research International
Miguel Ceballos, Gail Wallace, Glenda Goodwin
BACKGROUND: The presence of postpartum depression can lead to poor maternal-child attachment, failure to thrive, and even infant death. Postpartum depression affects 13-19 % of parturients. However, among racial and ethnic minority parturients, postpartum depression rates have been shown to reach up to 35-67 % (as reported by O'Hara and McCabe, Annu Rev Clin Psychol 9:379-407, 2013; Boury et al., Women Health. 39(3):19-34, 2004; Ramos-Marcuse et al.. J Affect Disord. 122(1-2):68-75, 2010; Lucero et al...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Debbie Laliberte Rudman, Deborah Gold, Colleen McGrath, Biljana Zuvela, Marlee M Spafford, Rebecca Renwick
Social participation, a key determinant of healthy aging, is often negatively impacted by age-related vision loss (ARVL). This grounded theory study aimed to understand social participation as a process negotiated in everyday life by older adults with ARVL. Interviews, audio diaries, and life space maps were used to collect data with 21 older adults in two Ontario cities. Inductive data analysis resulted in a transactional model of the process of negotiating social participation in context. This model depicts how environmental features and resources, skills and abilities, and risks and vulnerabilities transacted with values and priorities to affect if and how social participation occurred within the context of daily life...
October 18, 2016: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Wei-Jie Guan, Xue-Yan Zheng, Kian Fan Chung, Nan-Shan Zhong
In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Bing Xu, Jun Yang, Yong Zhang, Peng Gong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Ivana V Yang, Brent S Pedersen, Andrew H Liu, George T O'Connor, Dinesh Pillai, Meyer Kattan, Rana Tawil Misiak, Rebecca Gruchalla, Stanley J Szefler, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn Kercsmar, Adam Richards, Allen D Stevens, Christena A Kolakowski, Melanie Makhija, Christine A Sorkness, Rebecca Z Krouse, Cynthia Visness, Elizabeth J Davidson, Corinne E Hennessy, Richard J Martin, Alkis Togias, William W Busse, David A Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Given the strong environmental influence on both epigenetic marks and allergic asthma in children, the epigenetic alterations in respiratory epithelia might provide insight into allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify DNA methylation and gene expression changes associated with childhood allergic persistent asthma. METHODS: We compared genomic DNA methylation patterns and gene expression in African American children with persistent atopic asthma (n = 36) versus healthy control subjects (n = 36)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Maliyhah Al-Bayan, Nadia Islam, Shawneaqua Edwards, Dustin T Duncan
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women's perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure...
October 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
Thomas Weitzel, Javier López, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Sophie Edouard, Philippe Parola, Katia Abarca
BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii is an important zoonotic pathogen of global distribution. Still, in most parts of South America including Chile, systematic epidemiological data are lacking. The presented study aims to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in healthy adults of four different regions in Chile. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed, which included healthy adults living in rural and urban areas of four cities located in different regions in northern, central, and southern Chile...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Steve Hankey, Greg Lindsey, Julian D Marshall
BACKGROUND: Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. OBJECTIVES: To (1) investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and, (2) assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Rachel Lynn Golden, Wyndol Furman, Charlene Collibee
The sex-positive framework of sexual development hypothesizes that healthy sexual experiences can be developmentally appropriate and rewarding for adolescents despite the risks involved. Research has not examined whether risky behaviors and rewarding cognitions actually change with sexual debut at a normative or late age. This study measured the longitudinal impact of sexual debut using 7 waves of data from 88 male and 86 female adolescents from a western U.S. city who were in the 10th grade at the study's onset...
October 6, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Maria-Cristina de C Brandileone, Rosemeire C Zanella, Samanta C G Almeida, Angela P Brandao, Ana F Ribeiro, Telma-Regina M P Carvalhanas, Helena Sato, Ana-Lúcia Andrade, Jennifer R Verani
In March 2010, Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in the routine infant immunization program using a 4-dose schedule and catch-up for children <23months. We investigated PCV10 effect on nasopharyngeal carriage with vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) among children in São Paulo city. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 (baseline) and 2013 (post-PCV10). Healthy PCV-naïve children aged 12-23months were recruited from primary health centers during immunization campaigns...
September 28, 2016: Vaccine
Monika Łopuszańska-Dawid, Alicja Szklarska, Halina Kołodziej, Anna Lipowicz, Ewa A Jankowska
Population health and its determinants are one of the major challenges to social and economic policy. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupational activity and biological condition in adult working Polish men. The participants of the study were 300 men (30-65 years), healthy inhabitants of the city of Wroclaw, Poland. Seventeen measures of biological condition were examined. The subjects were divided into three different occupational groups: professionals, soldiers and skilled workers...
October 1, 2016: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Tamara Vehige Calise, Wendy Chow, Katelyn F Doré, Michael J O'Brien, Elizabeth R Heitz, Rebecca R Millock
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of the 3-year Healthy Futures program on reducing sexual behaviors among middle school students. METHODS: Fifteen public middle schools in Haverhill, Lowell, and Lynn, Massachusetts, participated in this longitudinal school-cluster randomized controlled trial (2011-2015), which included 1344 boys and girls. We collected student survey data at baseline, immediately after each Nu-CULTURE curriculum (classroom component of Healthy Futures) in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, and at a 1-year follow-up in the ninth grade (cohort 1 students only)...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Gustavo Zubieta-Calleja, Natalia Zubieta-DeUrioste, Poul-Erik Paulev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Parsa Yousefichaijan, Mojtaba Sharafkhah, Mohammad Rafiei, Bahman Salehi
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ADHD in children with overactive bladder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A number of 92 children with overactive bladder and 92 healthy children without overactive bladder (age range of both groups 5 to 12 years old) were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Helen Elsey, Shraddha Manandah, Dilip Sah, Sudeepa Khanal, Frances MacGuire, Rebecca King, Hilary Wallace, Sushil Chandra Baral
BACKGROUND: Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health...
2016: PloS One
Samaneh Abbasi, Manoochehr Makvandi, Gharib Karimi, Niloofar Neisi
BACKGROUND: The SEN virus (SENV) is a prevalent blood borne pathogen that has a worldwide incidence. SENV is comprised of eight genotypes; genotypes H and D are frequently associated with the pathogenesis of non-A - E hepatitis and post-transfusion hepatitis in blood donors and hepatitis patients. So far, no SENV pathogenesis has been reported in the liver biopsies of SENV carriers, but the frequency of SENV and its related genotypes requires further molecular epidemiology studies in different regions of the world...
July 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Lorraine N Bandelli, Heewon Lee Gray, Rachel C Paul, Isobel R Contento, Pamela A Koch
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. METHODS: Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six "do more" (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and "do less" (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories...
September 24, 2016: Appetite
James F Sallis, Fiona Bull, Ricky Burdett, Lawrence D Frank, Peter Griffiths, Billie Giles-Corti, Mark Stevenson
Land-use and transport policies contribute to worldwide epidemics of injuries and non-communicable diseases through traffic exposure, noise, air pollution, social isolation, low physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. Motorised transport is a major cause of the greenhouse gas emissions that are threatening human health. Urban and transport planning and urban design policies in many cities do not reflect the accumulating evidence that, if policies would take health effects into account, they could benefit a wide range of common health problems...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
Shun-Xian Zhang, Li Li, Jian-Wen Yin, Miao Jin, Xiang-Yu Kong, Li-Li Pang, Yong-Kang Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious problems in global public health that causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Human caliciviruses (HuCV) including norovirus (NoV, genogroup GI and GII) and sapovirus (SaV), is a leading cause of acute sporadic diarrhea in individuals across all age groups. However, few studies had been conducted clarifying the characteristics of HuCV in diarrhea cases across all age groups in China. Our study was aimed at assessing the HuCV-related diarrhea burden and NoV genotypes distribution in southwest China...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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