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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
May 26, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512664/antidepressants-have-anti-inflammatory-effects-that-may-be-relevant-to-dermatology-a-systematic-review
#2
Shirin Eskeland, Jon Anders Halvorsen, Lars Tanum
There is increasing evidence of clinically relevant anti-inflammatory effects of monoaminergic antidepressants. PubMed and Ovid databases were searched systematically for the use and efficacy of antidepressants in association with 5 common inflammatory skin disorders: chronic urticaria, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, other eczema, and alopecia areata. From January 1984 to June 2016, publications included a total of 1,252 dermatological patients in 28 trials or case reports. These unambiguously reported a reduced burden of dermatological symptoms in relation to treatment with antidepressants...
May 17, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507829/bupropion-induced-acute-dystonia-with-dose-escalation-and-use-of-naranjo-nomogram
#3
Nawal Wasif, Komal Wasif, Muhammad W Saif
Acute drug-induced dystonia is commonly associated with antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, antiemetics, and other medications. Bupropion (Wellbutrin and Zyban) is one of the most frequently prescribed antidepressants in the United States and Canada and smoking cessation aid. However, only few reported cases have been published of acute dystonia including dystonia after discontinuation of bupropion and even after a single dose of bupropion. Here, we report another case concerning an acute dystonia resulting from bupropion after dose escalation...
April 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496040/induction-of-human-cytochrome-p450-3a-enzymes-in-cultured-placental-cells-by-thalidomide-and-relevance-to-bioactivation-and-toxicity
#4
Norie Murayama, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Daisuke Satoh, Kazuya Arata, Tasuku Harada, Norio Shibata, F Peter Guengerich, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Evidence has been presented for auto-induced human cytochrome P450 3A enzyme involvement in the teratogenicity and clinical outcome of thalidomide due to oxidation to 5-hydroxythalidomide and subsequent metabolic activation in livers. In this study, more relevant human placenta preparations and placental BeWo cells showed low but detectable P450 3A4/5 mRNA expression and drug oxidation activities. Human placental microsomal fractions from three subjects showed detectable midazolam 1´- and 4-hydroxylation and thalidomide 5-hydroxylation activities...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494748/the-novelty-of-bupropion-as-a-dopaminergic-antidepressant-for-the-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#5
Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hatta, Kok Wei Wee
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder that is prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involved numerous challenges, such as a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delayed the necessary assessment and proper treatment for the debilitating medical condition. Adult ADHD would also be misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the facts that this medical condition is being masked by his or her high level of intellectuality achievement...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489501/smoking-cessation-treatment-for-patients-with-mental-disorders-using-cbt-and-combined-pharmacotherapy
#6
Aline Rodrigues Loreto, Carlos Felipe Cavalcanti Carvalho, Fernanda Piotto Fralonardo, Flavia Ismael, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia
OBJECTIVES: To investigate smoking treatment effectiveness and retention in a population with and without mental disorders (MD). Participants received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus nicotine patch alone or in combination with other medications (i.e., gum, bupropion, or nortriptyline) for smoking cessation treatment in a Brazilian Psychosocial Care Center unit (CAPS), taking into account sociodemographics and smoking profile covariates. METHODS: Comparison of treatment success (7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of the treatment) and retention (presence of the individual in all of the 4 medical consultations and 6 group sessions) in two subsamples of patients with MD (n = 267) and without MD (n = 397) who were included in a 6-week treatment provided by a CAPS from 2007 to 2013...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486709/anhedonia-its-dynamic-relations-with-craving-negative-affect-and-treatment-during-a-quit-smoking-attempt
#7
Jessica W Cook, Stephanie T Lanza, Wanghuan Chu, Timothy B Baker, Megan E Piper
Introduction: Research shows that abstinence from tobacco leads to a withdrawal-related decrement in responsivity to nondrug rewards (ie, anhedonia). However, it remains unclear how anhedonia relates to other key withdrawal symptoms and withdrawal-related constructs over time. We analyzed ecological momentary assessment data to examine whether a decrement in response to rewards during a 10-day period following quitting shows a pattern of associations with other variables (ie, treatment, tobacco dependence, negative affect, and craving) that is consistent with anhedonia being a tobacco withdrawal symptom...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473506/cardiovascular-and-neuropsychiatric-risks-of-varenicline-and-bupropion-in-smokers-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Daniel Kotz, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Colin R Simpson, Onno C P van Schayck, Robert West, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Varenicline and bupropion are effective smoking cessation treatments, but there are concerns about their safety in smokers with COPD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether varenicline and bupropion are associated with serious adverse cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric events in smokers with COPD. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we used data from 14 350 patients with COPD included in the QResearch database, which holds data from 753 National Health Service general practices across England...
May 4, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468305/inhibitory-effects-of-dimethyllirioresinol-epimagnolin-a-eudesmin-fargesin-and-magnolin-on-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-activities-in-human-liver-microsomes
#9
Ju-Hyun Kim, Soon-Sang Kwon, Hyeon-Uk Jeong, Hye Suk Lee
Magnolin, epimagnolin A, dimethyllirioresinol, eudesmin, and fargesin are pharmacologically active tetrahydrofurofuranoid lignans found in Flos Magnoliae. The inhibitory potentials of dimethyllirioresinol, epimagnolin A, eudesmin, fargesin, and magnolin on eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in human liver microsomes were evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the inhibition mechanisms and inhibition potency. Fargesin inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation with a Ki value of 16...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462579/pharmacological-management-of-obesity
#10
Amanda Velazquez, Caroline M Apovian
Current management of obesity includes three main arms: behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy, and bariatric surgery. Decades prior, the only pharmacological agents available to treat obesity were approved only for short-term use (≤ 12 weeks) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, in the last several years, the FDA has approved several medications for longer term treatment of obesity. This highlights the important progression that we, as a society, better appreciate now the chronicity and complexity of obesity as a disease...
April 28, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449571/tardive-dyskinesia-associated-with-bupropion
#11
Taha Can Tuman, Uğur Çakır, Osman Yıldırım, Mehmet Akif Camkurt
Present report describes a 46 year old male patient with a diagnosis of major depression who developed tardive dyskinesia during bupropion therapy. Our patient had no history of neuroleptic use and his laboratory and neurologic examinations were normal. He had no family history of neurologic diseases. Although bupropion induced dyskinesia has been previously reported in the literature, it is rare and our case is the first case regarding tardive dyskinesia.
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421338/tailoring-pharmacotherapy-to-specific-eating-behaviours-in-obesity-can-recommendations-for-personalised-therapy-be-made-from-the-current-data
#12
Carl A Roberts, Paul Christiansen, Jason C G Halford
Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity...
April 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403462/medicaid-coverage-of-smoking-cessation-counseling-and-medication-is-underutilized-for-pregnant-women
#13
Taneisha S Scheuermann, Kimber P Richter, Lisette T Jacobson, Theresa I Shireman
Introduction: Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. Methods: We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013...
May 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396528/human-enterocytes-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-evaluation-of-intestinal-drug-metabolism-characterization-of-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-activities-of-cryopreserved-human-enterocytes-from-twenty-four-donors
#14
Ming-Chih David Ho, Nick Ring, Kirsten Amaral, Utkarsh Doshi, Albert Li
We report here successful isolation and cryopreservation of enterocytes from human small intestine. The enterocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion of the intestinal lumen followed by partial purification via differential centrifugation. The enterocytes were cryopreserved directly after isolation without culturing to maximize retention of in vivo drug metabolizing enzyme activities. Post-thaw viability of the cryopreserved enterocytes was consistently over 80% based on trypan blue exclusion. Cryopreserved enterocytes pooled from 8 donors (4 male and 4 female) were evaluated for their metabolism of 14 pathway-selective substrates: CYP1A2 (phenacetin hydroxylation), CYP2A6 (coumarin 7-hydroxylation), CYP2B6 (bupropion hydroxylation), CYP2C8 (paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation), CYP2C9 (diclofenac 4-hydroxylation), CYP2C19 (s-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan hydroxylation), CYP2E1 (chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation), CYP3A4 (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation), CYP2J2 (astemizole O-demethylation), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT; 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation), sulfotransferase (SULT; 7-hydroxycoumarin sulfation), and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2; irinotecan hydrolysis) activities...
April 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393897/olanzapine-but-not-clozapine-increases-glutamate-release-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-freely-moving-mice-by-inhibiting-d-aspartate-oxidase-activity
#15
Silvia Sacchi, Vito De Novellis, Giovanna Paolone, Tommaso Nuzzo, Monica Iannotta, Carmela Belardo, Marta Squillace, Paolo Bolognesi, Elena Rosini, Zoraide Motta, Martina Frassineti, Alessandro Bertolino, Loredano Pollegioni, Michele Morari, Sabatino Maione, Francesco Errico, Alessandro Usiello
D-aspartate levels in the brain are regulated by the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-aspartate activates NMDA receptors, and influences brain connectivity and behaviors relevant to schizophrenia in animal models. In addition, recent evidence reported a significant reduction of D-aspartate levels in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia-affected patients, associated to higher DDO activity. In the present work, microdialysis experiments in freely moving mice revealed that exogenously administered D-aspartate efficiently cross the blood brain barrier and stimulates L-glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391970/novel-5-ht7r-antagonists-arylsulfonamide-derivatives-of-aryloxy-propyl-piperidines-add-on-effect-to-the-antidepressant-activity-of-ssri-and-dri-and-pro-cognitive-profile
#16
Vittorio Canale, Anna Partyka, Rafał Kurczab, Martyna Krawczyk, Tomasz Kos, Grzegorz Satała, Bartłomiej Kubica, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Anna Wesołowska, Andrzej J Bojarski, Piotr Popik, Paweł Zajdel
A novel series of arylsulfonamide derivatives of (aryloxy)propyl piperidines was designed to obtain potent 5-HT7R antagonists. Among the compounds evaluated herein, 3-chloro-N-{1-[3-(1,1-biphenyl-2-yloxy)2-hydroxypropyl]piperidin-4-yl}benzenesulfonamide (25) exhibited antagonistic properties at 5-HT7R and showed selectivity over selected serotoninergic and dopaminergic receptors, as well as over serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine transporters. Compound 25 demonstrated significant antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test (0...
May 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391535/discriminative-stimulus-properties-of-s-nicotine-a-drug-for-all-seasons
#17
John A Rosecrans, Richard Young
S(-)-Nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco and can function as an effective discriminative stimulus in both experimental animals and humans. In this model, subjects must detect and communicate the nicotine drug state versus the non-drug state. This review describes the usefulness of the procedure to study nicotine, presents a general overview of the model, and provides some relevant methodological details for the establishment of this drug as a stimulus. Once established, the (-)-nicotine stimulus can be characterized for dose response and time course effects...
April 9, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378293/pharmacotherapy-of-obesity-clinical-trials-to-clinical-practice
#18
REVIEW
Kishore M Gadde, Y Pritham Raj
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of the current state of drug therapy for obesity, with a focus on four new drug therapies-lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg-which have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for long-term management of obesity since 2012. Topics discussed in this paper include rationale for pharmacotherapy, history of antiobesity drugs, and efficacy and safety data from randomized controlled trials with implications for clinical practice...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376818/smokers-making-a-quit-attempt-using-e-cigarettes-with-or-without-nicotine-or-prescription-nicotine-replacement-therapy-impact-on-cardiovascular-function-isme-nrt-a-study-protocol
#19
Markos Klonizakis, Helen Crank, Anil Gumber, Leonie S Brose
BACKGROUND: The estimated number of cigarette smokers in the world is 1.3 billion, expected to rise to 1.7 billion by 2025, with 10 million smokers living in the U.K. Smoking is the leading, preventable death-cause worldwide, being responsible for almost 650,000 deaths in the E.U. annually. A combination of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural support is the most effective approach to smoking cessation. However, even the best methods have high relapse rates of approximately 75% within 6 months...
April 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373674/early-improvement-in-food-cravings-are-associated-with-long-term-weight-loss-success-in-a-large-clinical-sample
#20
M Dalton, G Finlayson, B Walsh, A Er Halseth, C Duarte, J E Blundell
BACKGROUND: Food cravings are associated with dysregulated eating behaviour and obesity, and may impede successful weight loss attempts. Gaining control over food craving is therefore a component in the management of obesity. The current paper examined whether early changes in control over food craving (assessed using the Craving Control subscale on the Control of Eating Questionnaire [CoEQ]) was predictive of weight loss in four Phase 3 clinical trials investigating a sustained-release combination of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) in obese adults...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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