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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421338/tailoring-pharmacotherapy-to-specific-eating-behaviours-in-obesity-can-recommendations-for-personalised-therapy-be-made-from-the-current-data
#1
Carl A Roberts, Paul Christiansen, Jason C G Halford
Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity...
April 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403462/medicaid-coverage-of-smoking-cessation-counseling-and-medication-is-underutilized-for-pregnant-women
#2
Taneisha S Scheuermann, Kimber P Richter, Lisette T Jacobson, Theresa I Shireman
Introduction: Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. Methods: We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013...
May 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396528/human-enterocytes-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-evaluation-of-intestinal-drug-metabolism-characterization-of-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-activities-of-cryopreserved-human-enterocytes-from-twenty-four-donors
#3
Ming-Chih David Ho, Nick Ring, Kirsten Amaral, Utkarsh Doshi, Albert Li
We report here successful isolation and cryopreservation of enterocytes from human small intestine. The enterocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion of the intestinal lumen followed by partial purification via differential centrifugation. The enterocytes were cryopreserved directly after isolation without culturing to maximize retention of in vivo drug metabolizing enzyme activities. Post-thaw viability of the cryopreserved enterocytes was consistently over 80% based on trypan blue exclusion. Cryopreserved enterocytes pooled from 8 donors (4 male and 4 female) were evaluated for their metabolism of 14 pathway-selective substrates: CYP1A2 (phenacetin hydroxylation), CYP2A6 (coumarin 7-hydroxylation), CYP2B6 (bupropion hydroxylation), CYP2C8 (paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation), CYP2C9 (diclofenac 4-hydroxylation), CYP2C19 (s-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan hydroxylation), CYP2E1 (chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation), CYP3A4 (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation), CYP2J2 (astemizole O-demethylation), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT; 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation), sulfotransferase (SULT; 7-hydroxycoumarin sulfation), and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2; irinotecan hydrolysis) activities...
April 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393897/olanzapine-but-not-clozapine-increases-glutamate-release-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-freely-moving-mice-by-inhibiting-d-aspartate-oxidase-activity
#4
Silvia Sacchi, Vito De Novellis, Giovanna Paolone, Tommaso Nuzzo, Monica Iannotta, Carmela Belardo, Marta Squillace, Paolo Bolognesi, Elena Rosini, Zoraide Motta, Martina Frassineti, Alessandro Bertolino, Loredano Pollegioni, Michele Morari, Sabatino Maione, Francesco Errico, Alessandro Usiello
D-aspartate levels in the brain are regulated by the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-aspartate activates NMDA receptors, and influences brain connectivity and behaviors relevant to schizophrenia in animal models. In addition, recent evidence reported a significant reduction of D-aspartate levels in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia-affected patients, associated to higher DDO activity. In the present work, microdialysis experiments in freely moving mice revealed that exogenously administered D-aspartate efficiently cross the blood brain barrier and stimulates L-glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391970/novel-5-ht7r-antagonists-arylsulfonamide-derivatives-of-aryloxy-propyl-piperidines-add-on-effect-to-the-antidepressant-activity-of-ssri-and-dri-and-pro-cognitive-profile
#5
Vittorio Canale, Anna Partyka, Rafał Kurczab, Martyna Krawczyk, Tomasz Kos, Grzegorz Satała, Bartłomiej Kubica, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Anna Wesołowska, Andrzej J Bojarski, Piotr Popik, Paweł Zajdel
A novel series of arylsulfonamide derivatives of (aryloxy)propyl piperidines was designed to obtain potent 5-HT7R antagonists. Among the compounds evaluated herein, 3-chloro-N-{1-[3-(1,1-biphenyl-2-yloxy)2-hydroxypropyl]piperidin-4-yl}benzenesulfonamide (25) exhibited antagonistic properties at 5-HT7R and showed selectivity over selected serotoninergic and dopaminergic receptors, as well as over serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine transporters. Compound 25 demonstrated significant antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test (0...
May 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391535/discriminative-stimulus-properties-of-s-nicotine-a-drug-for-all-seasons
#6
John A Rosecrans, Richard Young
S(-)-Nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco and can function as an effective discriminative stimulus in both experimental animals and humans. In this model, subjects must detect and communicate the nicotine drug state versus the non-drug state. This review describes the usefulness of the procedure to study nicotine, presents a general overview of the model, and provides some relevant methodological details for the establishment of this drug as a stimulus. Once established, the (-)-nicotine stimulus can be characterized for dose response and time course effects...
April 9, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378293/pharmacotherapy-of-obesity-clinical-trials-to-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Kishore M Gadde, Y Pritham Raj
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of the current state of drug therapy for obesity, with a focus on four new drug therapies-lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg-which have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for long-term management of obesity since 2012. Topics discussed in this paper include rationale for pharmacotherapy, history of antiobesity drugs, and efficacy and safety data from randomized controlled trials with implications for clinical practice...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376818/smokers-making-a-quit-attempt-using-e-cigarettes-with-or-without-nicotine-or-prescription-nicotine-replacement-therapy-impact-on-cardiovascular-function-isme-nrt-a-study-protocol
#8
Markos Klonizakis, Helen Crank, Anil Gumber, Leonie S Brose
BACKGROUND: The estimated number of cigarette smokers in the world is 1.3 billion, expected to rise to 1.7 billion by 2025, with 10 million smokers living in the U.K. Smoking is the leading, preventable death-cause worldwide, being responsible for almost 650,000 deaths in the E.U. annually. A combination of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural support is the most effective approach to smoking cessation. However, even the best methods have high relapse rates of approximately 75% within 6 months...
April 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373674/early-improvement-in-food-cravings-are-associated-with-long-term-weight-loss-success-in-a-large-clinical-sample
#9
M Dalton, G Finlayson, B Walsh, A Er Halseth, C Duarte, J E Blundell
BACKGROUND: Food cravings are associated with dysregulated eating behaviour and obesity, and may impede successful weight loss attempts. Gaining control over food craving is therefore a component in the management of obesity. The current paper examined whether early changes in control over food craving (assessed using the Craving Control subscale on the Control of Eating Questionnaire [CoEQ]) was predictive of weight loss in four Phase 3 clinical trials investigating a sustained-release combination of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) in obese adults...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349712/escitalopram-induced-thrombocytopenia-reversed-after-shifting-to-bupropion-in-a-depressive-patient
#10
Ching-Wen Chu, Pei-Chun Chao, Hsin-An Chang, Yow-Wen Liu, Tieh-Ching Chang, Pei-Yun Lin, Chuan-Chia Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344390/algal-cultivation-in-urban-wastewater-an-efficient-way-to-reduce-pharmaceutical-pollutants
#11
Francesco G Gentili, Jerker Fick
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pharmaceutical pollutants in urban wastewater can be reduced during algal cultivation. A mixed population of wild freshwater green algal species was grown on urban wastewater influent in a 650 L photobioreactor under natural light and with the addition of flue gases. Removal efficiencies were very high (>90 %), moderate (50-90 %), low (10-50 %), and very low or non-quantifiable (<10 %) for 9, 14, 11, and 18 pharmaceuticals, respectively, over a 7-day period...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340244/bupropion-administration-increases-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-dorso-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Ewelina Rzepa, Zola Dean, Ciara McCabe
Background: Patients on the selective serotonergic re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) like citalopram report emotional blunting. We have shown previously that citalopram reduces resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in healthy volunteers in a number of brain regions including the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, which may be related to its clinical effects. Bupropion is a dopaminergic and noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitor (DNRI) and is not reported to cause emotional blunting. However how bupropion affects RSFC in healthy controls remains unknown...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337525/phosphodiesterase-1b-pde1b-knockout-mice-are-resistant-to-forced-swim-and-tail-suspension-induced-immobility-and-show-upregulation-of-pde10a
#13
Jillian R Hufgard, Michael T Williams, Matthew R Skelton, Olivera Grubisha, Filipa M Ferreira, Helen Sanger, Mary E Wright, Tracy M Reed-Kessler, Kurt Rasmussen, Ronald S Duman, Charles V Vorhees
RATIONALE: Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of suicide and disability. Despite this, current antidepressants provide insufficient efficacy in more than 60% of patients. Most current antidepressants are presynaptic reuptake inhibitors; postsynaptic signal regulation has not received as much attention as potential treatment targets. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of disruption of the postsynaptic cyclic nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 1b, on depressive-like behavior and the effects on PDE1B protein in wild-type (WT) mice following stress...
March 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323838/bupropion-for-the-treatment-of-apathy-in-huntington-s-disease-a-multicenter-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-prospective-crossover-trial
#14
Harald Gelderblom, Torsten Wüstenberg, Tim McLean, Lisanne Mütze, Wilhelm Fischer, Carsten Saft, Rainer Hoffmann, Sigurd Süssmuth, Peter Schlattmann, Erik van Duijn, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Josef Priller
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease (HD). METHODS: In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy-Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302034/co-morbid-erectile-dysfunction-ed-and-antidepressant-treatment-in-a-patient-a-management-challenge
#15
Maszaidi Zainol, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Shaiful Ismail, Muhammad Hizri Hatta, Najwa Baharudin, Arun Ravindran
Across the globe, antidepressants (AD) and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are commonly prescribed psychopharmacological agents for patients with co-morbid mental-health problem and sexual dysfunction (SD). The serotonergic and/or noradrenergic ADs, although is an effective agent are not without SD side-effects, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is an inability to achieve, or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse during the phases of male's sexual arousal. It is recognized as an important reason why non-adherence to treatment was observed in patients who are on AD...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301398/a-pilot-study-cardiac-parameters-in-children-receiving-new-generation-antidepressants
#16
Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Tara Kenworthy, James Chan, Maura Fitzgerald, Ana Maria Rosales, Elana Kagan, Alexandra Saunders, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Because of concerns about potential associations between high doses of citalopram and QTc prolongation in adults, this study examined whether such associations are operant in children. We hypothesized that therapeutic doses of nontricyclic antidepressant medications (non-TCAs) prescribed to children would be cardiovascularly safe. STUDY DESIGN: The sample consisted of 49 psychiatrically referred children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old of both sexes treated with a non-TCA (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, bupropion, duloxetine, venlafaxine, mirtazapine)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296573/the-adverse-effects-and-treatment-results-of-smoking-cessation-pharmacotherapy-during-fasting-non-fasting-state
#17
Sinem Iliaz, Seda Tural Onur, Mehmet Atilla Uysal, Efsun Gonca Uğur Chousein, Elif Tanriverdi, Belma Akbaba Bagci, Ayse Bahadir, Didem Gorgun Hattatoglu, Mediha Gonenc Ortakoylu, Sibel Yurt
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the most common addictions worldwide. Muslim smokers reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke during Ramadan due to the long fasting hours. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to share our experience in a smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan by analyzing the efficacy and adverse effects of once-daily dosing of bupropion or varenicline in a fasting group compared with conventional dosing in a non-fasting group. METHODS: We analyzed 57 patients who attended our smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan of 2014 and 2015, and at least one follow-up visit...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286537/smoking-and-antidepressants-pharmacokinetics-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Pedro Oliveira, Joana Ribeiro, Helena Donato, Nuno Madeira
BACKGROUND: Despite an increasingly recognized relationship between depression and smoking, little is known about how smoking influences antidepressant response and treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the impact of smoking on new-generation antidepressants with an emphasis on the pharmacokinetic perspective. METHODS: We present a systematic review of clinical trials comparing the serum levels of new-generation antidepressants in smokers and nonsmokers...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275830/benefits-of-varenicline-vs-bupropion-for-smoking-cessation-a-bayesian-analysis-of-the-interaction-of-reward-sensitivity-and-treatment
#19
Paul M Cinciripini, Charles E Green, Jason D Robinson, Maher Karam-Hage, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Jennifer A Minnix, David W Wetter, Francesco Versace
RATIONALE: We have shown that differences in the level of neural activation to stimuli associated with smoking vs. natural rewards, a biomarker related to reward sensitivity, predict treatment outcome. OBJECTIVES: This paper examined whether this biomarker moderates the impact of bupropion or varenicline on smoking cessation. METHODS: Prior to treatment randomization, smokers (N = 180) in a placebo-controlled trial using bupropion and varenicline completed event-related potential recording (late positive potential, LPP) while viewing pleasant (P), cigarette (C)-related, and other pictures...
March 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264577/-centers-for-tobacco-dependent-in-the-czech-republic-in-2016
#20
Kamila Zvolská, Eva Králíková
This article sums up the evaluation of the intensive specialized treatment of tobacco dependence in the Czech Republic according to international guidelines and the ratified Framework Convention on Tobacco Control of the World Health Organization. 36 centers (100 %) were evaluated in 2016 and compared with the same survey from 2012.Most of the centers (24 of 36) are based at pulmonary clinics, opening hours for the smokers are on average 7 hours/week (0.5-40.0, SD ± 9, median 4). Average number of new patients is 55/year per center (2-449, SD ± 77...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
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