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Woon Yoon, Seung-Hyun Shon, Youjin Hong, Yeon Ho Joo, Jung Sun Lee
Background: The role of antidepressants (ADs) in bipolar disorder is long-standing controversial issue in psychiatry. Many clinicians have used ADs as a treatment for bipolar depression, and the selection of therapeutic agents is very diverse and inconsistent. This study aimed to examine recent AD prescription patterns for patients with bipolar disorder in Korea, using the nationwide, population-based data. Methods: This study utilized the Korean nationwide, whole population-based registry data of the year 2010, 2011, and 2013...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Michael H Baumann, Hailey M Walters, Marco Niello, Harald H Sitte
Synthetic cathinones are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, the main psychoactive ingredient in the khat plant Catha edulis. Cathinone is the β-keto analog of amphetamine, and all synthetic cathinones display a β-keto moiety in their structure. Several synthetic cathinones are widely prescribed medications (e.g., bupropion, Wellbutrin® ), while others are problematic drugs of abuse (e.g., 4-methylmethcathinone, mephedrone). Similar to amphetamines, synthetic cathinones are psychomotor stimulants that exert their effects by impairing the normal function of plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET), and 5-HT (SERT)...
November 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Yang Shen, Yang Yu, Wei Lai, Shuai Li, Zixuan Xu, Jiejing Jin, Xia Yan, Han Xing, Xijing Chen, Aizhen Xiong, Chunhua Xia, Jiake He, Kui Hong
PURPOSE: A three-period digoxin-bupropion drug-drug interaction study was performed in cynomolgus monkeys to assess the effect of bupropion and its metabolites on digoxin disposition. METHODS: Monkeys were administered either an i.v. infusion (0.1 mg/kg) or an oral dose of digoxin (0.2 mg/kg) as control. In single-dosing period, monkeys received an i.v. infusion of bupropion at 1.5 mg/kg together with an infusion or oral dosing of digoxin, respectively. During multiple-dosing period, bupropion was orally administered q...
November 6, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Eleni Pilitsi, Olivia M Farr, Stergios A Polyzos, Nikolaos Perakakis, Eric Nolen-Doerr, Aimilia-Eirini Papathanasiou, Christos S Mantzoros
Obesity is a chronic disease with a continuously rising prevalence that currently affects more than half a billion people worldwide. Energy balance and appetite are highly regulated via central and peripheral mechanisms, and weight loss triggers a homeostatic response leading to weight regain. Lifestyle and behavioral modifications are the cornerstones of obesity management; however, they often fail to achieve or sustain long-term weight loss. Pharmacotherapy added onto lifestyle modifications results in an additional, albeit limited, weight reduction...
October 31, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Annabel E L Walsh, Nathan T M Huneke, Randi Brown, Michael Browning, Phil Cowen, Catherine J Harmer
Background: Previous research indicates that antidepressants can restore the balance between negative and positive emotional processing early in treatment, indicating a role of this effect in later mood improvement. However, less is known about the effect of antidepressants on reward processing despite the potential relevance to the treatment of anhedonia. In this study, we investigated the effects of an acute dose of the atypical antidepressant (dual dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) bupropion on behavioral measures of emotional and reward processing in healthy volunteers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sandra C Bishop-Freeman, Erin M Hensel, Marc S Feaster, Ruth E Winecker
The interpretation of postmortem bupropion is often a challenge to the forensic toxicology community because of the instability of the parent compound. At the North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (NC OCME) toxicology laboratory, one of the active metabolites, threobupropion, is used as a complementary indicator for the extent of exposure to the parent compound. Metabolite data will address postmortem normal concentrations as well as when bupropion was attributed to the cause of death. For 55 natural cases where bupropion was unattributed to the cause of death, the blood and liver mean threobupropion concentrations were 1...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Nancy De La Garza, A John Rush, Michael O Killian, Bruce D Grannemann, Thomas J Carmody, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: The 12-item Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR12 ) is a brief, self-report measure that systematically assesses both suicidal thinking and associated thoughts that may indicate the propensity for suicidal acts. It can be used as a tool to both assess risk and guide treatment interventions targeting associated cognitions. METHODS: This report used acute treatment data from a clinically representative sample of outpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (N = 665) participating in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial, who received up to 12 weeks of escitalopram, escitalopram plus bupropion SR, or venlafaxine XR plus mirtazapine...
October 29, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Saman L Parvar, Robert Fitridge, Joseph Dawson, Stephen J Nicholls
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a global health issue associated with impaired functional capacity and elevated risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). With changing risk factor profiles and an aging population, the burden of disease is expected to increase. This review considers evidence for the noninvasive management of PAD and makes clinical recommendations accordingly. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed to examine the evidence for smoking cessation, exercise therapy, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy, antihypertensive therapy, lipid-lowering therapy, and glycemic control in diabetes for patients with PAD...
November 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Robert E Pyke
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) remains unfulfilled. The only approved medication, flibanserin (FLI), is highly underused owing to concerns about central nervous system (CNS) depression and interactions. Trazodone (TRZ), which is not often used for sexual problems, has evidence suggesting efficacy but similar concerns. AIM: To explore whether the pharmacologic similarities between TRZ and FLI could allow treatment of HSDD without CNS depression...
October 17, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Laurie Zawertailo, Tara Mansoursadeghi-Gilan, Helena Zhang, Sarwar Hussain, Bernard Le Foll, Peter Selby
BACKGROUND: Varenicline and bupropion are efficacious, prescription-only pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation; however, their real-world impact is limited by prescriber knowledge, affordability, and accessibility. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the MATCH (Medication Aids for Tobacco Cessation Health) study was to evaluate the real-world, long-term effectiveness of mailed bupropion and varenicline in a sample of interested smokers with the utilization of Web-based recruitment and follow-up...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Joanne L Parrott, Chris D Metcalfe
Antidepressant drugs have been detected in municipal wastewater effluents (MWWEs) at ng/L to low μg/L concentrations. We exposed fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) over a full lifecycle to a mixture of five antidepressants at concentrations similar to a MWWE (1× AntiD Mix); venlafaxine at 2400 ng/L, citalopram at 240 ng/L, fluoxetine at 90 ng/L, sertraline at 20 ng/L, and bupropion at 90 ng/L, and 10× these concentrations (i.e. 10× AntiD Mix). Mean measured concentrations of venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, and bupropion were 2300, 160, 110, 7 ng/L, and below detection limits, respectively, for the 1× AntiD Mix, and 33,000, 2900, 1000, 210, and 100 ng/L, respectively for the 10× AntiD Mix...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jose Barboza
Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of death worldwide, with over 7 million deaths per year. Smoking during pregnancy causes harm to the mother, fetus, and can result in problems for the infant from childhood into adulthood. Practitioners should ask all expectant mothers about tobacco use. For expectant mothers who smoke or recently quit, practitioners should advice to quit and provide psychosocial interventions. Rates of smoking during pregnancy differ between geographical locations, with estimates of 10...
October 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Navzer D Sachinvala, Angeline Stergiou, Duane E Haines
In this report, we discuss the case of an multiple sclerosis (MS) patient, age 62, who learned to attain and sustain euthymia despite his ailments. He has Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS), asthma, MS, urticaria, and major depression (MD). Despite thriving limitations, the patient is an accomplished scientist, who struggled for > twelve years to emerge from being confined to bed and wheel chair with MS, to walking with crutches, scuba diving, writing manuscripts, and living a positive life. Through former educators, he reacquired problem-solving habits to study the literature on his illnesses; keep records; try new therapies; and use pharmaceutical, nutritional, physical, and psychological methods to attain euthymia...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Carlos Eduardo de Souza Menezes, Roger S McIntyre, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Sousa, João Quevedo, Thomas N Hyphantis, André F Carvalho, Danielle Macêdo
BACKGROUND: The use of antidepressants in combination is common practice following non-response to single antidepressant agents. Nevertheless, the scientific literature lacks preclinical studies regarding the combined administration of antidepressants across multiple behavioral measures including, but not limited to, cognition. Hence, we aimed to determine the effects of paroxetine (PAR), venlafaxine (VEN) and bupropion (BUP) alone or combined (PAR + BUP or VEN + BUP) on spatial and affective memory tasks to advance the knowledge about the combined use of antidepressants in cognition...
July 21, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
D Thomas, F Paillard, J M Lecerf, F Carré
The behavioral goals of the coronary patient require active management by the cardiologist. Every smoker must be clearly informed about the cardiovascular consequences of smoking and the major benefits of smoking cessation. The only advice to "quit smoking" is not enough. Validated "treatments" (cognitive-behavioral therapy, nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) must be used, with a precise strategy and prolonged follow-up. All drugs assistance can be prescribed in coronary patients and nicotine replacement therapy can even be used just after a myocardial infarction...
October 9, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Anna Partyka, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Jerzy Michaluk, Agnieszka Wąsik, Vittorio Canale, Paweł Zajdel, Marcin Kołaczkowski, Anna Wesołowska
The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the ability of three novel 5-HT6 and/or 5-HT7 receptor antagonists as follows: PZ-668-a preferential 5-HT6 antagonist; PZ-1433-a preferential 5-HT7 antagonist; and ADN-1184-a monoaminergic ligand with potent 5HT6/7 antagonist properties, to augment the effect of antidepressant drugs with different mechanisms of action (escitalopram, reboxetine, and bupropion) in the forced swim test in rats. In neurochemical ex vivo experiments, the influence of the tested compounds on levels of monoamines and their metabolites were determined in the rat frontal cortex, in addition to behavioral experiments...
October 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chandrali Bhattacharya, Danielle Kirby, Michael Van Stipdonk, Robert E Stratford
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant and smoking cessation aid associated with wide intersubject variability. This study compared the formation kinetics of three phase I metabolites (hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion) in human, marmoset, rat, and mouse liver microsomes. The objective was to establish suitability and limitations  for subsequent use of nonclinical species to model bupropion central nervous system (CNS) disposition in humans...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Vasiliki Katsi, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Despite that these outcomes are well known, a considerable proportion of pregnant women continue to smoke during this critical period. This paper evaluates critically smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women. We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert statements to report the efficacy and safety of strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy, including counseling and pharmacotherapy...
October 5, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
Min Ji Kwak, Jongoh Kim, Viraj Bhise, Tong Han Chung, Gabriela Sanchez Petitto
OBJECTIVES: Smoking cessation decreases morbidity and mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is highly effective. However, the optimal prescription rate of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD has not been systemically studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the national prescription rates of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD and to examine any disparities therein. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 2007 to 2012...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Daniel E Fitzpatrick, Timothé Maujean, Amanda C Evans, Steven V Ley
The power of the Cloud has been harnessed for pharmaceutical compound production with remote servers based in Tokyo, Japan being left to autonomously find optimal synthesis conditions for three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in laboratories in Cambridge, UK. A researcher located in Los Angeles, USA controlled the entire process via an internet connection. The constituent synthetic steps for Tramadol, Lidocaine, and Bupropion were thus optimized with minimal intervention from operators within hours, yielding conditions satisfying customizable evaluation functions for all examples...
October 1, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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