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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413037/exploring-the-effect-of-rotenone-a-known-inducer-of-parkinson-s-disease-on-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-dictyostelium-discoideum
#1
Ethan Chernivec, Jacie Cooper, Kari Naylor
Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) only alleviate symptoms doing little to inhibit the onset and progression of the disease, thus we must research the mechanism of Parkinson's. Rotenone is a known inducer of parkinsonian conditions in rats; we use rotenone to induce parkinsonian cellular conditions in Dictyostelium discoideum . In our model we primarily focus on mitochondrial dynamics. We found that rotenone disrupts the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton but mitochondrial morphology remains intact...
November 8, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406422/the-accuracy-and-trending-ability-of-cardiac-index-measured-by-the-fourth-generation-flotrac-vigileo-system%C3%A2-and-the-fick-method-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#2
Takuma Maeda, Eisuke Hamaguchi, Naoko Kubo, Akira Shimokawa, Hiroko Kanazawa, Yoshihiko Ohnishi
To compare the accuracy and trending ability of the cardiac index (CI) measured by FloTrac/Vigileo™ (CIFT ) or derived by the Fick equation (CIFick ) using E-CAiOVX (enables continuous monitoring of oxygen consumption) with that measured by thermodilution (CITD ) in patients with off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Twenty-two patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were included. CIFT and CIFick were determined simultaneously at six time-points during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405354/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-hsya-improves-learning-and-memory-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats-via-recovering-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Lu Yu, Yanhong Duan, Zheng Zhao, Wendi He, Ming Xia, Qiujuan Zhang, Xiaohua Cao
Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is the major active chemical component of the safflower plant flower, which is widely used in Chinese medicine for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that HSYA exerts neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia, such as neuronal anti-apoptosis, antioxidant activity and oxygen free radical-scavenging. However, whether and how HSYA has a protective effect on cognitive impairment induced by cerebral ischemia reperfusion remains elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403670/role-of-l-carnitine-in-protection-against-the-cardiac-oxidative-stress-induced-by-aspartame-in-wistar-albino-rats
#4
Rasha A Al-Eisa, Fawziah A Al-Salmi, Reham Z Hamza, Nahla S El-Shenawy
Aspartame (ASP) has been used as an alternative to sucrose for diabetics and obese people worldwide. Co-administration of L-carnitine (LC) with ASP has a protective effect against the liver and kidney toxicity induced of ASP. The goal of the investigation was to assess the enhancement of LC effect on the cardiac toxicity caused of ASP. The rats were divided into 6 groups: control with saline, LC (10 mg/kg), ASP (75 mg/kg), ASP (150 mg/kg), LC with 75 mg/kg of ASP, and LC with 150 mg/kg ASP. The antioxidants were determined by measuring the activities of myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and by assessing the levels of lipid peroxidation, total thiols, and glutathione...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403427/the-effect-of-caffeine-loading-on-cerebral-autoregulation-in-preterm-infants
#5
Jacqueline Huvanandana, Cindy Thamrin, Murray Hinder, Alistair McEwan, Mark Tracy
AIM: To evaluate cerebral autoregulation changes in preterm infants receiving a loading dose of caffeine base. METHODS: In a cohort of 30 preterm infants, we extracted measures of cerebral autoregulation using time and frequency domain techniques to determine the correlation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) signals. These measures included the cerebral oximetry index (COx), cross-correlation and coherence measures, and were extracted prior to caffeine loading and in the 2 hours following administration of 10 mg/kg caffeine base...
November 7, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401594/apneic-oxygenation-to-prevent-oxyhemoglobin-desaturation-during-rapid-sequence-intubation-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#6
Kevin M Overmann, Stephanie D Boyd, Yin Zhang, Benjamin T Kerrey
BACKGROUND: Apneic oxygenation is the delivery of oxygen to the nasopharynx during intubation. It may mitigate the risk of oxyhemoglobin desaturation but has not been well-studied in children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in a pediatric emergency department. We compared patients who received apneic oxygenation, delivered via simple nasal cannula at age-specific flow rates, to patients who did not receive apneic oxygenation...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399579/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-mechanisms-and-clinical-application-for-infections
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Yousef Memar, Mina Yekani, Naser Alizadeh, Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment procedure that involves breathing 100% O2 for a certain time and under a certain pressure. HBOT is commonly administrated as a primary or alternative therapy for different diseases such as infections. In this paper, we reviewed the general aspect of HBOT procedures, the mechanisms of antimicrobial effects and the application in the treatment of infections. Parts of the antimicrobial effects of HBOT are believed to result of reactive from the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399388/protein-disulfide-isomerase-a3-significantly-reduces-ischemia-induced-damage-by-reducing-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#8
Dae Young Yoo, Su Bin Cho, Hyo Young Jung, Woosuk Kim, Kwon Young Lee, Jong Whi Kim, Seung Myung Moon, Moo-Ho Won, Jung Hoon Choi, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Won Kim, Soo Young Choi, In Koo Hwang
Ischemia causes oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), accelerates the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins, and may ultimately lead to neuronal cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3), an ER-resident chaperone that catalyzes disulfide-bond formation in a subset of glycoproteins, against oxidative damage in the hypoxic HT22 cell line and against ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus. We also confirmed the neuroprotective effects of PDIA3 by using PDIA3-knockout HAP1 cells...
November 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399139/isoform-6-selective-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-reduces-lesion-size-and-brain-swelling-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#9
Vahagn C Nikolian, Isabel S Dennahy, Michael Weykamp, Aaron M Williams, Umar F Bhatti, Hassan Eidy, Mohamed Ghandour, Kiril Chtraklin, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Non-selective histone deacetylase (pan-HDAC) inhibitors, such as valproic acid (VPA), have demonstrated neuroprotective properties in trauma models. However, isoform-specific HDAC inhibitors may provide opportunity for more effective drug administration with lesser side effects. We investigated HDAC6 inhibition with ACY-1083 in an in vitro and an in vivo large animal model of injury. METHODS: Mouse hippocampal cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (0% O2, glucose-free, serum-free medium, 18 hours) and reoxygenation (21% O2, normal culture media, 4 hours) +/- VPA (4mM) or ACY1083 (30nM, 300nM)...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398602/effect-of-inorganic-nitrite-vs-placebo-on-exercise-capacity-among-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-the-indie-hfpef-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Barry A Borlaug, Kevin J Anstrom, Gregory D Lewis, Sanjiv J Shah, James A Levine, Gabe A Koepp, Michael M Givertz, G Michael Felker, Martin M LeWinter, Douglas L Mann, Kenneth B Margulies, Andrew L Smith, W H Wilson Tang, David J Whellan, Horng H Chen, Victor G Davila-Roman, Steven McNulty, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Adrian F Hernandez, Eugene Braunwald, Margaret M Redfield
Importance: There are few effective treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Short-term administration of inorganic nitrite or nitrate preparations has been shown to enhance nitric oxide signaling, which may improve aerobic capacity in HFpEF. Objective: To determine the effect of 4 weeks' administration of inhaled, nebulized inorganic nitrite on exercise capacity in HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-treatment, crossover trial of 105 patients with HFpEF...
November 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396896/bacterial-clearance-enhanced-by-%C3%AE-2-3-and-%C3%AE-2-6-sialyllactose-via-receptor-mediated-endocytosis-and-phagocytosis
#11
Jimin Kim, Yong Jae Kim, Jae Wha Kim
Sialyllactose (SL) is a representative human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) of human breast milk. The roles of SL in infant brain development and immunity have been reported in previous studies. In this study, we identified the impact of SL on innate immunity. Our results showed that the administration of SL had significant efficacy on bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa K -infected mice. We also examined the role of SL in the human THP-1 macrophage-like cell line. SL effectively promoted receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis...
November 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389283/emergency-physician-administered-sedation-for-pneumatic-reduction-of-ileocolic-intussusception-in-children-a-case-series
#12
Itai Shavit, Danielle Shavit, Oren Feldman, Nir Samuel, Anat Ilivitzki, Daniel M Cohen
BACKGROUND: Ileocolic intussusception is a major cause for intestinal obstruction in early childhood. Reduction of intussusception, in the vast majority of institutions, is performed on awake children, without sedation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the course of the first patients who were sedated by emergency physicians for pneumatic reduction of intussusception (PRI). METHODS: We conducted a case series analysis of prospectively collected data on patients undergoing PRI, using a sedation recording tool...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388225/glucocorticoid-exposure-affects-female-fertility-by-exerting-its-effect-on-the-uterus-but-not-on-the-oocyte-lessons-from-a-hypercortisolism-mouse-model
#13
Qian-Nan Li, Li Li, Guanmei Hou, Zhen-Bo Wang, Yi Hou, Zhong-Hua Liu, Heide Schatten, Qing-Yuan Sun
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of glucocorticoid (GC) on female reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: Corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes little damage to oocyte quality or developmental competence but has an adverse effect on the uterus, which causes decreased implantation, embryo death and subsequent infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Chronic treatment with high GC doses is effective in controlling most allergic diseases but may lead to metabolic disorders such as obesity that are closely related with reproductive function...
November 2, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387852/experimental-studies-on-performance-of-ventilators-stored-in-the-strategic-national-stockpile
#14
Ali Mehrabi, Patricia Dillon, Kyle Kelly, Kristina Hitchins, Eileen Malatino, Susan Gorman, Madhusoodana Nambiar, Hilda Scharen
BACKGROUND: The Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched a collaborative initiative with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to gain a better understanding of ventilators that are used during national emergencies. This initiative was intended to test reliability of ventilator devices stored long term in the CDC Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and also used by the Department of Defense. These ventilators are intended to be used by trained operators to provide ventilatory support to adult and pediatric populations under diverse environmental conditions...
September 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387193/exercise-performance-increase-in-smokeless-tobacco-user-athletes-after-overnight-nicotine-abstinence
#15
T Zandonai, E Tam, P Bruseghini, C Capelli, M Baraldo, C Chiamulera
The use of nicotine administered through smokeless tobacco (snus) has increased among athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ergogenic effects of snus on aerobic performance during exercise until exhaustion in athletes after abstinence or satiety nicotine conditions. The study utilised a randomised, controlled, within-subject design experiment. Sixteen male snus-user athletes completed an exercise until exhaustion at a constant load of their 80% of VO2max (calculated by a maximal incremental test) in two separate sessions, corresponding to nicotine conditions: 12-hour overnight abstinence and satiety...
November 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387158/icariin-protects-against-iron-overload-induced-bone-loss-via-suppressing-oxidative-stress
#16
Xingzhi Jing, Ting Du, Kun Chen, Jiachao Guo, Wei Xiang, Xudong Yao, Kai Sun, Yaping Ye, Fengjing Guo
Iron overload is common in patients with diseases such as hemoglobinopathies, hereditary hemochromatosis or elderly men and postmenopausal women. This disorder is frequently associated with bone loss and recently has been considered as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. By excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through Fenton reaction, iron could induce osteoblast apoptosis, inhibit osteoblast osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, Iron could also promote osteoclasts differentiation and bone absorption...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30386989/icariin-ameliorates-angiotensin-ii-induced-cerebrovascular-remodeling-by-inhibiting-nox2-containing-nadph-oxidase-activation
#17
Huanhuan Dong, Shuping Ming, Jie Fang, Yun Li, Ling Liu
Cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) hyperplasia is an important contributor to cerebrovascular remodeling during hypertension. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of Icariin on cerebrovascular SMCs proliferation and remodeling and the underlying mechanisms. The results revealed that Icariin administration attenuated the enhanced basilar artery constriction in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension rat model, as well as the inhibition of basilar artery diameter reduction in response to AngII and phenylephrine...
November 1, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30386757/reducing-brain-injury-of-preterm-infants-in-the-delivery-room
#18
REVIEW
Francesca Viaroli, Po-Yin Cheung, Megan O'Reilly, Graeme R Polglase, Gerhard Pichler, Georg M Schmölzer
Cerebrovascular injury is one of the major detrimental consequences of preterm birth. Recent studies have focused their attention on factors that contribute to the development of brain lesions immediately after birth. Among those factors, hypothermia and lower cerebral oxygen saturation during delivery room resuscitation and high tidal volumes delivered during respiratory support are associated with increased risk of severe neurologic injury. In preterm infants, knowledge about causes and prevention of brain injury must be applied before and at birth...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384844/orally-administered-gold-nanoparticles-protect-against-colitis-by-attenuating-toll-like-receptor-4-and-reactive-oxygen-nitrogen-species-mediated-inflammatory-responses-but-could-induce-gut-dysbiosis-in-mice
#19
Suqin Zhu, Xiumei Jiang, Mary D Boudreau, Guangxin Feng, Yu Miao, Shiyuan Dong, Haohao Wu, Mingyong Zeng, Jun-Jie Yin
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attracting interest as potential therapeutic agents to treat inflammatory diseases, but their anti-inflammatory mechanism of action is not clear yet. In addition, the effect of orally administered AuNPs on gut microbiota has been overlooked so far. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic and gut microbiota-modulating effects, as well as the anti-inflammatory paradigm, of AuNPs with three different coatings and five difference sizes in experimental mouse colitis and RAW264...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382185/cz-7-a-new-derivative-of-claulansine-f-ameliorates-2vo-induced-vascular-dementia-in-rats-through-a-nrf2-mediated-antioxidant-responses
#20
Dan-Dan Liu, Xia Yuan, Shi-Feng Chu, Chen Chen, Qian Ren, Piao Luo, Mei-Yu Lin, Sha-Sha Wang, Tian-Bi Zhu, Qi-di Ai, Ying-da Zang, Dong-Ming Zhang, Xin He, Zhi-Hua Huang, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng, Nai-Hong Chen
Vascular dementia (VD) results from accumulated damage in the vascular system, which is characterized by progressive impairments in memory and cognition and is second only to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prevalence among all types of dementia. In contrast to AD, there is no FDA-approved treatment for VD owing to its multiple etiologies. In this study, we investigated whether CZ-7, a new derivative of Claulansine F (Clau F) with verified neuroprotective activity in vitro, could ameliorate the cognitive impairment of rats with permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) and its potential mechanisms of action...
October 31, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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