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oxygen administration

Kristina I Ringe, Christian von Falck, Hans-Jürgen Raatschen, Frank Wacker, Jan Hinrichs
PURPOSE: To evaluate transient severe respiratory motion artifacts (TSM) at gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI dependent on the mode of contrast agent application. METHODS: 200 patients (71f, 129m; mean 51y) were included in this retrospective IRB-approved study. Contrast application protocols (n = 4) differed with regards to injection rate (2ml or 1ml/sec), dose (weight-based or fixed 10ml) and supplemental oxygen administration (yes/no). SNR measurements were performed in the aorta and portal vein...
2018: PloS One
Michael D Delost, David Townsend Smith, Benton J Anderson, Jon T Njardarson
Oxygen heterocycles are the second most common type of heterocycles that appear as structural components of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceuticals. Analysis of our database of drugs approved through 2017, reveals 311 distinct pharmaceuticals containing at least one oxygen heterocycle. Most prevalent among these are pyranoses, with furanoses, macrolactones, morpholines, and dioxolanes rounding out the top five. The main body of this perspective is organized according to ring-size, commencing with three and four membered rings and ending with macrocycles, polymers, and unusual oxygen-containing heterocycles...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Evanna L Mills, Kerry A Pierce, Mark P Jedrychowski, Ryan Garrity, Sally Winther, Sara Vidoni, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Jessica B Spinelli, Gina Z Lu, Lawrence Kazak, Alexander S Banks, Marcia C Haigis, Shingo Kajimura, Michael P Murphy, Steven P Gygi, Clary B Clish, Edward T Chouchani
Thermogenesis by brown and beige adipose tissue, which requires activation by external stimuli, can counter metabolic disease1 . Thermogenic respiration is initiated by adipocyte lipolysis through cyclic AMP-protein kinase A signalling; this pathway has been subject to longstanding clinical investigation2-4 . Here we apply a comparative metabolomics approach and identify an independent metabolic pathway that controls acute activation of adipose tissue thermogenesis in vivo. We show that substantial and selective accumulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate succinate is a metabolic signature of adipose tissue thermogenesis upon activation by exposure to cold...
July 18, 2018: Nature
Jin Yan, Ming Li, Xiao-Dong Wang, Zi-Ying Lu, Xiao-Long Ni
Peperomin E (PepE) is a type of secolignan, a major component of the plant Peperomia dindygulensis. It has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects; however, the effects of PepE on human atherosclerosis remain unexplored. In the study, we investigated the role of PepE in high fat diet (HFD) induced atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E defcient (ApoE-/- ) mice. Elevated serum homocyteine, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and exacerbated macrophage infiltration into atherosclerotic lesions were observed in HFD-fed ApoE-/- mice, which were attenuated by PepE treatment...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
V Zochios, T Collier, G Blaudszun, A Butchart, M Earwaker, N Jones, A A Klein
There has been increased interest in the prophylactic and therapeutic use of high-flow nasal oxygen in patients with, or at risk of, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. There are no randomised trials examining the efficacy of high-flow nasal oxygen in high-risk cardiac surgical patients. We sought to determine whether routine administration of high-flow nasal oxygen, compared with standard oxygen therapy, leads to reduced hospital length of stay after cardiac surgery in patients with pre-existing respiratory disease at high risk for postoperative pulmonary complications...
July 18, 2018: Anaesthesia
Susan M Seav, Nathaniel M Schuster
Background There are cases in the headache literature described as "cluster-migraine," but none of stereotyped cases of cluster headache evolving into status migrainosus. We believe this is the first documented case of "cluster-status migrainosus". Case A 54 year-old female hospital administrator presented with headaches with a unique periodicity and semiology that were acutely responsive to high-flow oxygen. She experienced cluster headache attacks every Thursday morning at 3-4 am, which would evolve into status migrainosus lasting through Sunday evening...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Jin-Yuan Lin, Ren Jing, Fei Lin, Wan-Yun Ge, Hui-Jun Dai, Linghui Pan
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether high tidal volume (HTV) induce mitochondria damage and mitophagy, contributing to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Another aim of the present study was to investigate the role and mechanism of mtDNA in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in rats. Methods: Rats were tracheotomized and allowed to breathe spontaneously or mechanically ventilated for 4 h. After that, lung injury was assessed. Inhibition of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), named ODN2088, was used to determine the involvement of TLR9/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in VILI...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Adriana R Rodrigues, Maria J Salazar, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Inês O Gonçalves, Célia Cruz, Delminda Neves, Henrique Almeida, José Magalhães, Alexandra M Gouveia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been in the spotlight during the last years, becoming an attractive approach to combat obesity. Melanocortin neuropeptides, such as α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), are well-known regulators of appetite at the central nervous system, but its role in adipocyte metabolism is poorly elucidated. This study sought to verify if α-MSH can induce transdifferentiation of white to brown/beige adipocytes and to determine whether it can ameliorate the obesity phenotype...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yu Liming, Yang Guang, Zhang Xinjian, Wang Peng, Weng Xinyu, Yang Yuyu, Li Zilong, Fang Mingming, Yong Xu, Sun Aijun, Ge Junbo
Background -Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalyzed by the NADPH oxidases (NOX), is involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The underlying epigenetic mechanism remains elusive. Methods -We evaluated the potential role of megakaryocytic leukemia 1, or MKL1, as a bridge linking epigenetic activation of NOX to ROS production and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results -Following I/R injury, MKL1 deficient (KO) mice exhibited smaller myocardial infarction along with improved heart function compared to wild type (WT) littermates...
July 17, 2018: Circulation
Martial Caillaud, Benjamin Chantemargue, Laurence Richard, Laetitia Vignaud, Frédéric Favreau, Pierre-Antoine Faye, Philippe Vignoles, Franck Sturtz, Patrick Trouillas, Jean-Michel Vallat, Alexis Desmoulière, Fabrice Billet
Traumatic injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent, however, specific pharmacological treatments are currently lacking. Curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties but high oral doses are required for therapeutic use, particularly due to its low bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of local and continuous treatment using low curcumin doses on functional recovery and nerve regeneration after rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC). Curcumin was administered by osmotic pumps with a catheter delivering the drug at the injury site (0...
July 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Anita T Layton, Volker Vallon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To maintain electrolyte homeostasis, the kidneys reabsorb more than 99% of the filtered Na under physiological conditions, resulting in less than 1% of the filtered Na excreted in urine. In contrast, due to distal tubular secretion, urinary K output may exceed filtered load. This review focuses on a relatively new methodology for investigating renal epithelial transport, computational modelling and highlights recent insights regarding renal Na and K transport and O2 consumption under pathophysiological conditions, with a focus on nephrectomy...
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Shashi Bala, Neha Arora Chugh, Subhash Chand Bansal, Mohan Lal Garg, Ashwani Koul
The present study was aimed to explore the protective role of Aloe vera gel extract against hepatic and renal damage caused by X-ray exposure to mice. Male balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control, Aloe vera gel extract [AV] (50 mg/ kg b.w on alternate days for 30 days), X-ray (2 Gy) and AV + X-ray. X-ray irradiation enhanced the serum levels of liver function indices and chromosomal abnormalities in liver. Kidney function markers were found to be deranged and were accompanied by reduced glomerular filtration rate indicating renal dysfunction...
July 7, 2018: Mutation Research
Andrew M Slupe, Jeffrey R Kirsch
Administration of anesthetic agents fundamentally shifts the responsibility for maintenance of homeostasis from the patient and their intrinsic physiological regulatory mechanisms to the anesthesiologist. Continuous delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the brain is necessary to prevent irreversible injury and arises from a complex series of regulatory mechanisms that ensure uninterrupted cerebral blood flow. Our understanding of these regulatory mechanisms and the effects of anesthetics on them has been driven by the tireless work of pioneers in the field...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jun Yang, Jiagui Huang, Changbo Shen, Wei Cheng, Pingping Yu, Li Wang, Fanren Tang, Shuang Guo, Qin Yang, John Zhang
Recent studies have indicated that resveratrol has protective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the best therapeutic time for resveratrol treatment after acute ischemic stroke remains unknown. We aim to investigate whether resveratrol, administrated at different times after neuronal oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) reduced neuronal injury in vitro. There were six experimental groups: normal, model, resveratrol pretreatment, resveratrol post-treatment, resveratrol OGD-treatment, and resveratrol whole-processing group...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
H Akbar, X Duan, R Piatt, S Saleem, A K Davis, N N Tandon, W Bergmeier, Y Zheng
BACKGROUND: Platelets from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease or mice deficient in NADPH oxidase isoform NOX2 exhibit diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and platelet activation. Binding of Rac1 GTPase to p67phox plays a critical role in NOX2 activation by facilitating the assembly of the NOX2 enzyme complex. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that Phox-I, a rationally designed small molecule inhibitor of Rac-p67phox interaction, may serve as an anti-thrombosis agent by suppressing ROS production and platelet activation...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Akihiko Kanki, Tsutomu Tamada, Toshinori Abe, Hiroyuki Ikenaga, Koji Yoshida, Katsuyoshi Ito
PURPOSE: To clarify the relationship between transient sever motion artifact in arterial phase (TSMA) and changes in peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and heart rate (HR) after contrast media administration during MRI or CT of the liver. METHODS: 87 patients undergoing 61 MRI examination with gadoxetic acid or 26 CT examination with iodinated contrast were included. Dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCEI) was obtained at four vascular phase acquisitions...
July 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, Athanasios Michos
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescents exhibit abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence, and impaired glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is aggravated by the existing osteosarcopenia not only in obese but also in overweight youth. Biochemical inflammation, derived from glucose metabolism dysregulation, in combination with increased stress levels lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, also known as ROS, which seem to afflict the integrity of the gastrointestinal wall, gut mucosa, and commensal, intestinal gut microflora...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Jingyao Sun, Semen Kormakov, Ying Liu, Yao Huang, Daming Wu, Zhaogang Yang
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is able to non-invasively treat and diagnose various cancers and nonmalignant diseases by combining light, oxygen, and photosensitizers (PSs). However, the application of PDT is hindered by poor water solubility and limited light-penetration depth of the currently available photosensitizers (PSs). Water solubility of PSs is crucial for designing pharmaceutical formulation and administration routes. Wavelength of light source at visible range normally has therapeutic depth less than 1 mm...
July 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hua Li, Anwen Yin, Zijie Cheng, Mengwen Feng, Hao Zhang, Jia Xu, Fei Wang, Lingmei Qian
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress plays an important role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. And pNaKtide is known to inhibit Na/K-ATPase/Src/reactive oxygen species (ROS) amplification signaling. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the effect of pNaKtide on myocardial I/R injury. METHODS: We first determine the effect of pNaKtide on hypoxia- or cobalt chloride-induced injury in embryonic heart-derived H9c2 cells via measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and trypan blue stain assay...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Francesca Ricci, Costanza Casiraghi, Matteo Storti, Francesco D'Alò, Chiara Catozzi, Roberta Ciccimarra, Francesca Ravanetti, Antonio Cacchioli, Gino Villetti, Maurizio Civelli, Xabi Murgia, Virgilio Carnielli, Fabrizio Salomone
Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) holds great potential as a primary ventilation support method for Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). The use of NIPPV may also be of great value combined with minimally invasive surfactant delivery. Our aim was to implement an in vivo model of RDS, which can be managed with different non-invasive ventilation (NIV) strategies, including non-synchronized NIPPV, synchronized NIPPV (SNIPPV), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Forty-two surfactant-depleted adult rabbits were allocated in six different groups: three groups of animals were treated with only NIV for three hours (NIPPV, SNIPPV, and NCPAP groups), while three other groups were treated with surfactant (SF) followed by NIV (NIPPV+SF, SNIPPV+SF, and NCPAP+SF groups)...
2018: PloS One
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