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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538876/combination-therapy-with-butyrate-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-for-keloid-fibrogenesis-an-in-vitro-study
#1
Kazuhiro Torii, Noriaki Maeshige, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Makoto Miyoshi, Hiroto Terashi, Makoto Usami
Background: A single, effective therapeutic regimen for keloids has not been established yet, and the development of novel therapeutic approaches is expected. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, play multiple anti-inflammatory and anticancer roles via their respective mechanisms of action. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the antifibrogenic effects of their single and combined use on keloid fibroblasts...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538816/antioxidant-effect-of-quinoline-derivatives-containing-or-not-selenium-relationship-with-antinociceptive-action-quinolines-are-antioxidant-and-antinociceptive
#2
Ethel A Wilhelm, Ana Teresinha Ferreira, Mikaela P Pinz, Angélica S Dos Reis, Ane G Vogt, Andre L Stein, Gilson Zeni, Cristiane Luchese
The present study investigated the antioxidant effect of a new class of quinoline derivatives (a-d) on assays in vitro. Lipid peroxidation, thiol peroxidase-like and free radical scavenging activities were determined to evaluate antioxidant activity of compounds. Thiol oxidase-like and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activities were performed as a toxicological parameter. A second objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antinociceptive effect of the compound with better antioxidant effect and without toxic effects in a model of nociception induced by formalin in mice...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538729/cryo-em-structure-of-the-activated-glp-1-receptor-in-complex-with-a-g-protein
#3
Yan Zhang, Bingfa Sun, Dan Feng, Hongli Hu, Matthew Chu, Qianhui Qu, Jeffrey T Tarrasch, Shane Li, Tong Sun Kobilka, Brian K Kobilka, Georgios Skiniotis
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone with essential roles in regulating insulin secretion, carbohydrate metabolism and appetite. GLP-1 effects are mediated through binding to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that signals primarily through the stimulatory G protein Gs. Class B GPCRs are important therapeutic targets; however, our understanding of their mechanism of action is limited by the lack of structural information on activated and full-length receptors. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the peptide-activated GLP-1R-Gs complex at near atomic resolution...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538692/exploring-anti-prion-glyco-based-and-aromatic-scaffolds-a-chemical-strategy-for-the-quality-of-life
#4
REVIEW
María Teresa Blázquez-Sánchez, Ana M de Matos, Amélia P Rauter
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, affecting the brain progressively and consequently the quality of life. Alzheimer's is also a protein misfolding disease, causing dementia in over 40 million people worldwide. There are no therapeutics able to cure these diseases. Cellular prion protein is a high-affinity binding partner of amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers, the most toxic species in Alzheimer's pathology. These findings motivate the development of new chemicals for a better understanding of the events involved...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538269/novel-therapies-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-the-management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#5
Joao M Serigado, Manhal Izzy, Harmit Kalia
Chronic hepatitis B is a persistent and progressive inflammatory liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). More than 240 million individuals are infected with HBV worldwide and hepatitis B accounts for an estimated 650 000 deaths annually. Approximately up to 30% of chronically infected patients will develop complications of HBV infection including, but not limited to, liver cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently approved therapies have improved clinical outcomes, but have a considerable side-effect profile, elevated cost, and a finite course of treatment...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538201/effects-of-adding-trace-elements-on-rice-straw-anaerobic-mono-digestion-focus-on-changes-in-microbial-communities-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#6
Yafan Cai, Binbin Hua, Lijuan Gao, Yuegao Hu, Xufeng Yuan, Zongjun Cui, Wanbin Zhu, Xiaofen Wang
Although trace elements are known to aid anaerobic digestion, their mechanism of action is still unclear. High-throughput sequencing was used to reveal the mechanism by which adding trace elements affects microbial communities and their action. The results showed that the highest methane yields, with addition of Fe, Mo, Se and Mn were 289.2, 289.6, 285.3, 293.0mL/g volatile solids (VS), respectively. The addition of Fe, Mo, Se and Mn significantly (P<0.05) reduced the level of volatile fatty acids (VFAs)...
April 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538178/wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome-candidate-1-is-necessary-for-correct-hematopoietic-and-b-cell-development
#7
Elena Campos-Sanchez, Nerea Deleyto-Seldas, Veronica Dominguez, Enrique Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Kiyoe Ura, Pedro P Rocha, JungHyun Kim, Arafat Aljoufi, Anna Esteve-Codina, Marc Dabad, Marta Gut, Holger Heyn, Yasufumi Kaneda, Keisuke Nimura, Jane A Skok, Maria Luisa Martinez-Frias, Cesar Cobaleda
Immunodeficiency is one of the most important causes of mortality associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a severe rare disease originated by a deletion in chromosome 4p. The WHS candidate 1 (WHSC1) gene has been proposed as one of the main genes responsible for many of the alterations in WHS, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we present in vivo genetic evidence showing that Whsc1 plays an important role at several points of hematopoietic development. Particularly, our results demonstrate that both differentiation and function of Whsc1-deficient B cells are impaired at several key developmental stages due to profound molecular defects affecting B cell lineage specification, commitment, fitness, and proliferation, demonstrating a causal role for WHSC1 in the immunodeficiency of WHS patients...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538150/lanthanides-report-calcium-sensor-in-the-vestibule-of-ryanodine-receptor
#8
Sándor Sárközi, István Komáromi, István Jóna, János Almássy
Ca(2+) regulates ryanodine receptor's (RyR) activity through an activating and an inhibiting Ca(2+)-binding site located on the cytoplasmic side of the RyR channel. Their altered sensitivity plays an important role in the pathology of malignant hyperthermia and heart failure. We used lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) as probes to investigate the Ca(2+) sensors of RyR, because they specifically bind to Ca(2+)-binding proteins and they are impermeable to the channel. Eu(3+)'s and Sm(3+)'s action was tested on single RyR1 channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537978/intralipid-restoration-of-myocardial-contractions-following-bupivacaine-induced-asystole-concentration-and-time-dependence-in-vitro
#9
Wyun Kon Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Soo Hwan Kim, Ja Rang Jung, Carl Lynch, Nar Hyun Min
BACKGROUND: The concentration- and time-response relationships of lipid emulsion (LE; Intralipid) on the recovery of myocardial contractility following bupivacaine (BPV)-induced asystole are poorly defined. METHODS: After achieving asystole by 500-μM BPV, varied concentrations of LE were applied to determine the recovery of stimulated contractile responses and contractions in the cardiac tissues of guinea pigs at a 1.2-Hz stimulation rate. These experiments were performed with LE in either a recirculating (2%-16%) or washout (nonrecirculating) condition (0...
May 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537935/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-abacavir-a-clinical-controversy-in-need-of-a-pharmacological-explanation
#10
Angeles Alvarez, Samuel Orden, Isabel Andújar, Victor Collado-Diaz, Sara Núñez-Delgado, Maria Jose Galindo, Vicente Estrada, Nadezda Apostolova, Juan V Esplugues
: There is a long-lasting controversy surrounding an association between Abacavir (ABC) and an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in HIV-positive subjects. While differing in their specifics, a number of published cohort studies and clinical trials support such an association, usually relating it to recent exposure to the drug, independently of traditional predisposing factors. However, other clinical trials have failed to reveal such a relation, and have pointed to methodological differences to explain discrepancies...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537890/protective-effect-of-madecassoside-on-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy-activation-in-human-melanocytes
#11
Yuting Ling, Qingli Gong, Xixi Xiong, Li Sun, Wene Zhao, Wenyuan Zhu, Yan Lu
BACKGROUND: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. is a traditional Chinese medicine that has many medical applications, including wound healing and anti-oxidation. Some traditional Chinese Medicine doctors have found that it has therapeutic effects for external use in the repigmentation of vitiligo and post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of madecassoside, a major bioactive component of C. asiatica, on oxidative stress in human melanocytes and its possible mechanism of action...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537748/pesticide-interactions-mechanisms-benefits-and-risks
#12
John E Casida
Interactions between pesticides at common molecular targets and detoxification systems often determine their effectiveness and safety. Compounds with the same mode of action or target are candidates for cross resistance and restrictions in their recommended uses. Discovery research is therefore focused on new mechanisms and modes of action. Interactions in detoxification systems also provide cross resistance and synergist and safener mechanisms illustrated with serine hydrolases and inhibitors, cytochrome P450s and insecticide synergists, and glutathione S-transferases and herbicide safeners...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535594/industrial-pm2-5-cause-pulmonary-adverse-effect-through-rhoa-rock-pathway
#13
Junyan Yan, Chia-Hsiang Lai, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, Chongjun Chen, Wen-Cheng Wang, Pin-I Huang, Chia-Hua Lin
According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM2...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535527/treatment-of-acute-antibody-mediated-rejection
#14
Giorgia Comai, Matteo Ravaioli, Olga Baraldi, Vania Cuna, Lorenzo Gasperoni, Giovanni Liviano D''Arcangelo, Maria Cappuccilli, Antonio D Pinna, Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna
Acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) remains an important challenge in the field of kidney transplantation despite the advances in immunosuppressive strategies, and has been recognized as an important cause of allograft dysfunction and graft loss. The treatments of acute AMR are not standardized and poor evidence is currently available on the effectiveness of therapy regimens with combinations of drugs. Standard treatment for acute AMR is based on 3 cornerstones: removal of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) from the bloodstream, reduction of DSAs synthesis, and inhibition of the interaction between DSAs and human leukocyte antigen antigens on donor's cells...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535510/heat-shock-protein-a12b-protects-vascular-endothelial-cells-against-sepsis-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#15
Yi Chen, Lei Wang, Qiuxiang Kang, Xu Zhang, Guifang Yu, Xiaojian Wan, Jiafeng Wang, Keming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelial injury is a critical process in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) during sepsis. Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is mainly expressed in endothelial cells and protects against several harmful factors. However, the effects of HSPA12B in sepsis-induced ALI and its potential mechanisms of action remain unclear. METHODS: For in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=15): a sham operation group, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, a HSPA12B siRNA-CLP group and a negative control (NC) siRNA-CLP group...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535436/microcystin-lr-induces-changes-in-the-gaba-neurotransmitter-system-of-zebrafish
#16
Wei Yan, Li Li, Guangyu Li, Sujuan Zhao
It has been reported that exposure to microcystins altered adult zebrafish swimming performance parameters, but the possible mechanisms of action remain unknown. Neuronal activity depends on the balance between the number of excitatory and inhibitory processes which are associated with neurotransmitters. In the present study, zebrafish embryos (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L (microcystin-LR) MCLR for 90day until reaching sexual maturity. To investigate the effects of MCLR on the neurotransmitter system, mRNA levels involved in amino acid g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate metabolic pathways were tested using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535350/activation-of-phenyl-4-2-oxo-3-alkylimidazolidin-1-yl-benzenesulfonates-prodrugs-by-cyp1a1-as-new-antimitotics-targeting-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Sébastien Fortin, Xavier Charest-Morin, Vanessa Turcotte, Coraline Lauvaux, Jacques Lacroix, Marie-France Côté, Stéphane Gobeil, Rene C-Gaudreault
Prodrug-mediated utilization of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 to obtain the selective release of potent anticancer products within cancer tissues is a promising approach in chemotherapy. We herein report the rationale, preparation, biological evaluation and mechanism of action of phenyl 4-(2-oxo-3-alkylimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates (PAIB-SOs), that are antimicrotubule prodrugs activated by CYP1A1. Although PAIB-SOs are inert in most cells tested, they are highly cytocidal towards several human breast cancer cells, including hormone-independent and chemoresistant types...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535201/regulatory-t-cells-ameliorate-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced-brain-haemorrhage-after-stroke
#18
Leilei Mao, Peiying Li, Wen Zhu, Wei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Yanling Wang, Wenli Luo, Ruth A Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Weifeng Yu, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Gang Chen, Xiaoming Hu
Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated blood-brain barrier damage after cerebral ischaemia...
May 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534950/microrna%C3%A2-296-targets-akt2-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-functions-as-a-potential-tumor-suppressor
#19
Hailing Li, Jilin Li, Baolin Shi, Feng Chen
Although microRNA-296 (miR-296) has been studied in various types of human cancer, its expression, biological role and mechanism of action in pancreatic cancer remains to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression level, possible roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR‑296 in pancreatic cancer. The present study revealed that miR‑296 is significantly downregulated in tissue from patients with pancreatic cancer and in human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, when compared with matched healthy tissue and normal human pancreatic cell lines, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534945/trb3-mediates-advanced-glycation-end-product-induced-apoptosis-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-through-the-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-pathway
#20
Meng Wang, Wenjian Zhang, Shiqing Xu, Liang Peng, Zai Wang, Honglin Liu, Qing Fang, Tingting Deng, Xiuli Men, Jinning Lou
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in the body during the development of diabetes, may be one of the factors leading to pancreatic β-cell failure and reduced β-cell mass. However, the mechanisms responsible for AGE‑induced apoptosis remain unclear. This study identified the role and mechanisms of action of tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) in AGE-induced β-cell oxidative damage and apoptosis. Rat insulinoma cells (INS-1) were treated with 200 µg/ml AGEs for 48 h, and cell apoptosis was then detected by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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