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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903516/metabolic-abnormalities-and-obesity-s-impact-on-the-risk-for-developing-preeclampsia
#1
Frank T Spradley
Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is increasing as a major contributor to perinatal and long-term morbidity of mother and offspring. PE is thought to originate from ischemic insults in the placenta driving the release of pro-hypertensive anti-angiogenic (sFlt-1) and pro-inflammatory (TNFα) factors into the maternal circulation. While the increased incidence of PE is hypothesized to be largely due to the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms whereby obesity increases this risk are unknown...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871471/endocan-expression-is-increased-in-the-placenta-from-obese-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Padma Murthi, Ramona Sarkis, Ratana Lim, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Anita Pratt, Stella Liong, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Endocan, a member of the proteoglycan family, is involved in a wide range of diseases including obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of (i) maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on placental endocan expression; and (ii) endocan knockdown on markers of inflammation. METHODS: Endocan mRNA and protein expression was determined in human placenta from (i) lean and obese and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women (n = 10 patients per group); and (ii) women with GDM and BMI-matched NGT women (n = 40 patients per group)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780978/maternal-obesity-modulates-intracellular-lipid-turn-over-in-the-human-term-placenta
#3
B Hirschmugl, G Desoye, P Catalano, I Klymiuk, H Scharnagl, S Payr, E Kitzinger, C Schliefsteiner, U Lang, C Wadsack, S Hauguel-de Mouzon
BACKGROUND: Obesity before pregnancy is associated with impaired metabolic status of the mother and the offspring later in life. These adverse effects have been attributed to epigenetic changes in utero, but little is known about the role of placental metabolism and its contribution to fetal development. OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on the expression of genes involved in placental lipid metabolism in lean and obese women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy-three lean and obese women with healthy pregnancy were recruited at term elective cesarean delivery...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697224/placental-histological-examination-and-the-relationship-with-oxidative-stress-in-preterm-infants
#4
Serafina Perrone, Maria Luisa Tataranno, Simona Negro, Mariangela Longini, Maria Stefania Toti, Maria Gabriella Alagna, Fabrizio Proietti, Francesco Bazzini, Paolo Toti, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Prenatal conditions of enhanced oxidative stress (OS) linked to inflammation or hypoxia have been associated with impaired fetal growth and preterm delivery. Little is known regarding biomarkers of OS in the cord blood of preterm infants and placental histological patterns. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that placental lesions indicating chorioamnionitis (CA) or vascular underperfusion (VU) are associated with increased OS in the offspring. METHODS: 120 neonates born below 29(+6) weeks of gestational age (GA) were enrolled...
October 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626035/subclinical-pregnancy-toxemia-induced-gene-expression-changes-in-ovine-placenta-and-uterus
#5
Ramanathan K Kasimanickam
The objective was to elucidate gene expression differences in uterus, caruncle, and cotyledon of ewes with subclinical pregnancy toxemia (SCPT) and healthy ewes, and to identify associated biological functions and pathways involved in pregnancy toxemia. On Day 136 (±1 day) post-breeding, ewes (n = 18) had body condition score (BCS; 1-5; 1, emaciated; 5, obese) assessed, and blood samples were collected for plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) analyses. The ewes were euthanized, and tissue samples were collected from the gravid uterus and placentomes...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604528/placental-origins-of-chronic-disease
#6
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Abigail L Fowden, Kent L Thornburg
Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596280/maternal-low-protein-diet-leads-to-placental-angiogenic-compensation-via-dysregulated-m1-m2-macrophages-and-tnf%C3%AE-expression-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#7
Emilie Vomhof-DeKrey, Diane Darland, Othman Ghribi, Amy Bundy, James Roemmich, Kate Claycombe
A maternal low-protein (LP) diet in Sprague-Dawley rats results in low birth weight, rapid adipose tissue catch-up growth, adult obesity, and insulin resistance. The placenta functions to fulfill the fetus' nutrient demands. Adequate angiogenic factor concentrations help to ensure normal growth and vasculature development of the placenta and, in turn, optimum maternal-to-fetal nutrient delivery. Maternal malnutrition creates a proinflammatory environment that leads to inhibition of placental tissue growth. Therefore, we hypothesized that a maternal LP diet will lead to abnormal angiogenesis via dysregulation of immune cells resulting in increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and reduced angiogenic factor expression...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555877/the-effects-of-prenatal-metformin-on-obesogenic-diet-induced-alterations-in-maternal-and-fetal-fatty-acid-metabolism
#8
Kemoy Harris, Neeraj Desai, Madhu Gupta, Xiangying Xue, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Burton Rochelson, Christine N Metz
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity may program the fetus and increase the susceptibility of the offspring to adult diseases. Metformin crosses the placenta and has been associated with decreased inflammation and reversal of fatty liver in obese leptin-deficient mice. We investigated the effects of metformin on maternal and fetal lipid metabolism and hepatic inflammation using a rat model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (6-7 weeks old) were fed normal or high calorie diets for 5 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535280/causal-relationship-between-obesity-related-traits-and-tlr4-driven-responses-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#9
Xiaohua Yang, Ming Li, Maricela Haghiac, Patrick M Catalano, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity triggers complex inflammatory networks within the innate immune system. During pregnancy, the placenta amplifies the low-grade inflammation through activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on placental TLR4 expression and inflammatory signals. The secondary aim was to analyse the placental cell type responsible for TLR4 activation. METHODS: Thirty-nine women recruited at term-scheduled Caesarean section were grouped according to their pre-gravid BMI (<25 kg/m(2) and >30 kg/m(2))...
November 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527166/transcriptomic-insights-into-the-response-of-placenta-and-decidua-basalis-to-the-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotide-stimulation-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice-and-wild-type-controls
#10
Xiao-Rui Liu, Yu-Na Guo, Chuan-Mei Qin, Xiao-Li Qin, Fei Tao, Fei Su, Fu-Ju Tian, Yan Zhang, Yi Lin
Intrauterine infection is one of the most frequent causes of miscarriage. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) can mimic intrauterine infection. CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption was observed consistently in the NK-cell deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice but not in the wild-type (WT) mice. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of differential pregnancy outcomes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the placenta and decidua basalis was revealed by RNA-Seq with CpG ODN or control ODN treatment. Common DEGs in the WT and NOD mice were enriched in antimicrobial/antibacterial humoral responses that may be activated as a primary response to bacterial infection...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506263/ifpa-meeting-2015-workshop-report-iv-placenta-and-obesity-stem-cells-of-the-feto-maternal-interface-placental-immunobiology-and-infection
#11
M H Abumaree, A Almutairi, S Cash, P Boeuf, L W Chamley, T Gamage, J L James, B Kalionis, T Y Khong, K S Kolahi, R Lim, S Liong, T K Morgan, K Motomura, H N Peiris, R A Pelekanos, E Pelzer, A Shafiee, G E Lash, D Natale
Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At the 2015 IFPA annual meeting there were 12 themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology and collectively covered areas of obesity and the placenta, stem cells of the feto-maternal interface, and placental immunobiology and infection.
August 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497146/expression-and-correlation-of-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-and-insulin-signal-transduction-and-glucose-transporter-proteins-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-placental-tissue
#12
Bao Zhang, Zhen Jin, Lei Sun, Yang Zheng, Jiexuan Jiang, Chong Feng, Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the probable pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by analyzing the correlation between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) secreted by the placenta during pregnancy and insulin signaling components and glucose transporter proteins (GLUTs) in the placental tissue. DESIGN AND METHODS: Placental tissue was collected from full-term and non-obese [body mass index <25kg/m(2)] pregnant women; 10 diagnosed with GDM and 10 with normal pregnancy...
September 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340502/ppargc1%C3%AE-gene-dna-methylation-variations-in-human-placenta-mediate-the-link-between-maternal-hyperglycemia-and-leptin-levels-in-newborns
#13
Sandra Côté, Valérie Gagné-Ouellet, Simon-Pierre Guay, Catherine Allard, Andrée-Anne Houde, Patrice Perron, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon, Daniel Gaudet, Renée Guérin, Diane Brisson, Marie-France Hivert, Luigi Bouchard
BACKGROUND: Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. This susceptibility might involve brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is suspected to protect against obesity. The objective of this study is to assess whether fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycemia is associated with DNA methylation variations in genes involved in BAT genesis and activation. METHODS: DNA methylation levels at the PRDM16, BMP7, CTBP2, and PPARGC1α gene loci were measured in placenta samples using bisulfite pyrosequencing in E-21 (n = 133; 33 cases of GDM) and the HumanMethylation450 array in Gen3G (n = 172, all from non-diabetic women) birth cohorts...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300134/palmitic-acid-induces-interleukin-1%C3%AE-secretion-via-nlrp3-inflammasomes-and-inflammatory-responses-through-ros-production-in-human-placental-cells
#14
Koumei Shirasuna, Hiroki Takano, Kotomi Seno, Ayaka Ohtsu, Tadayoshi Karasawa, Masafumi Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Hirotada Suzuki, Shigeki Matsubara, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama
Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals...
August 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210064/indications-for-primary-cesarean-delivery-relative-to-body%C3%A2-mass-index
#15
Tetsuya Kawakita, Uma M Reddy, Helain J Landy, Sara N Iqbal, Chun-Chih Huang, Katherine L Grantz
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index (kg/m(2)) classes to identify the factors contributing to the increased rate of cesarean among obese women...
October 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200306/the-risk-of-emergency-cesarean-section-after-failure-of-vaginal-delivery-according-to-prepregnancy-body-mass-index-or-gestational-weight-gain-by-the-2009-institute-of-medicine-guidelines
#16
Ha Yan Kwon, Ja-Young Kwon, Yong Won Park, Young-Han Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of emergency cesarean section according to the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from 2,765 women with singleton full-term births (2009 to 2012) who attempted a vaginal delivery was conducted. Pregnancies with preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, planned cesarean section, placenta previa, or cesarean section due to fetal anomalies or intrauterine growth restriction were excluded...
May 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197933/the-antecedents-and-correlates-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-spontaneous-intestinal-perforation-among-infants-born-before-the-28th-week-of-gestation
#17
R Singh, B Shah, E N Allred, M Grzybowski, C R Martin, A Leviton
OBJECTIVE: To identify antecedents of "medical" necrotizing enterocolitis (mNEC), "surgical" NEC (sNEC), and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in newborns delivered before 28 weeks gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. During study period, 2002- 2004, women delivering before 28 weeks gestation at one of 14 participating institutions were enrolled. Well defined antenatal and postnatal variables were collected. Bivariate analyses were performed to identify candidates for developing multinomial multivariable time-oriented logistic regression models...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186186/the-impact-of-excessive-maternal-weight-on-the-nutritional-status-of-the-fetus-the-role-of-leptin
#18
Lidia A Biesiada, Ewa Głowacka, Michał Krekora, Stanisław Sobantka, Aleksandra Krokocka, Grzegorz Krasomski
INTRODUCTION: Assessment of leptin concentration in the blood of pregnant women (leptin concentration - Lc) and in their newborns, according to their nutritional status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant women (n = 42) were divided into normal body mass (NBM) and excessive body mass (EBM) groups. Neonates were divided into AGA (eutrophic) and LGA (macrosomic) groups. Leptin concentraction was studied in 4 subgroups: NBM/AGA, NBM/LGA, EBM/AGA, EBM/LGA. RESULTS: Mothers: A significant correlation was found between maternal Lc and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0...
April 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176175/detection-of-fetal-fraction-during-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-nips-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-22
#19
Aleha Aziz, Anne Van Arsdale, Susan Klugman, Rodney L Wright
INTRODUCTION: To describe the reliability of Non Invasive Prenatal Screening (NIPS) in HIV infected pregnant women. NIPS analyzes cell free fetal DNA which circulates in maternal plasma but originates from the placenta and is quantitated as "fetal fraction" (FF). Sensitivity of NIPS increases with FF. In certain populations NIPS reliability decreases, with obesity as the strongest factor negatively associated with FF. Additional variables including PAPP-A and smoking have been shown to affect FF...
May 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170927/fetal-programming-and-early-identification-of-newborns-at-high-risk-of-free-radical-mediated-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Serafina Perrone, Antonino Santacroce, Anna Picardi, Giuseppe Buonocore
Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming...
May 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
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