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Placenta obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773464/sex-and-gender-differences-in-developmental-programming-of-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Laura Dearden, Sebastien G Bouret, Susan E Ozanne
BACKGROUND: The early life environment experienced by an individual in utero and during the neonatal period is a major factor in shaping later life disease risk-including susceptibility to develop obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of metabolic disease is different between males and females. How the early life environment may underlie these sex differences is an area of active investigation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of how the early life environment influences metabolic disease risk in a sex specific manner...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768065/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-adiposity-and-macronutrient-balance-in-a-healthy-pregnant-population-with-overweight-and-obesity
#2
Elizabeth F Sutton, Christopher D Morrison, Jacqueline M Stephens, Leanne M Redman
AIM OF THE STUDY: The regulation and actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are responsive to energy status and macronutrient balance, and investigations of FGF21 in normal pregnancy, which could be informative for FGF21 biology, are seldom. The goal of our study was to examine FGF21 levels in a contemporary healthy, pregnant population. METHODS: We phenotyped 43 women with overweight and obesity during pregnancy for weight, body composition, and fasting blood...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763375/chromosomal-architecture-and-placental-expression-of-the-human-growth-hormone-gene-family-are-targeted-by-pre-pregnancy-maternal-obesity
#3
Yan Jin, Hana Vakili, SongYan Liu, Savas Menticoglou, Margaret E Bock, Peter A Cattini
The human (h) placental lactogenic hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) is highly produced during pregnancy and acts as a metabolic adaptor in response to maternal insulin resistance. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance" and a >75% decrease in CS RNA levels was observed in term placentas from obese versus lean women. The genes coding for hCS (hCS-A and hCS-B) and placental growth hormone (hGH-V) as well as the hCS-L pseudogene and pituitary growth hormone (GH) gene (hGH-N) are located at a single locus on chromosome 17...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702246/placental-lipid-droplet-composition-effect-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-upbeat-in-obese-pregnant-women
#4
Antonio Gázquez, Olaf Uhl, María Ruíz-Palacios, Carolyn Gill, Nashita Patel, Berthold Koletzko, Lucilla Poston, Elvira Larqué
Maternal obesity is associated with adverse outcomes. Placental lipid droplets (LD) have been implicated in maternal-fetal lipid transfer but it is not known whether placental LD fat composition is modifiable. We evaluated the effects of a diet and physical activity intervention in obese pregnant women compared to routine antenatal care (UPBEAT study) on placental LD composition. LD were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Total FAs and phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines, PCs; sphingomyelins, SMs and lyso-phosphatidylcholines, Lyso-PCs) were analyzed by LC-MS/MS...
April 24, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699712/foetoplacental-epigenetic-changes-associated-with-maternal-metabolic-dysfunction
#5
Bredford Kerr, Andrea Leiva, Marcelo Farías, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Francisca Stolzenbach, Luis Silva, Luis Sobrevia
Metabolic-related diseases are attributed to a sedentary lifestyle and eating habits, and there is now an increased awareness regarding pregnancy as a preponderant window in the programming of adulthood health and disease. The developing foetus is susceptible to the maternal environment; hence, any unfavourable condition will result in foetal physiological adaptations that could have a permanent impact on its health. Some of these alterations are maintained via epigenetic modifications capable of modifying gene expression in metabolism-related genes...
April 12, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684673/exercise-as-a-therapeutic-intervention-to-optimize-fetal-weight
#6
REVIEW
Laura M Reyes, Margie H Davenport
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease suggest the in utero environment programs offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is a need to implement safe therapeutic interventions that do not involve the intake of medications or biological products during pregnancy that can improve maternal and fetal health. Prenatal exercise is established to promote maternal and fetal health. It is generally recommended that women accumulate at least 150 min per week of moderate-intensity exercise...
April 22, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679625/nutrition-therapy-within-and-beyond-gestational-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Teri L Hernandez, Archana Mande, Linda A Barbour
With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Many mothers substitute fat for carbohydrate, which may unintentionally enhance lipolysis, promote elevated free fatty acids (FFA), and worsen maternal insulin resistance (IR)...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658922/three-dimensional-rendering-and-analysis-of-immunolabeled-clarified-human-placental-villous-vascular-networks
#8
George Merz, Valerie Schwenk, Ruchit Shah, Carolyn Salafia, Phillip Necaise, Michael Joyce, Tom Villani, Michael Johnson, Nick Crider
Nutrient and gas exchange between mother and fetus occurs at the interface of the maternal intervillous blood and the vast villous capillary network that makes up much of the parenchyma of the human placenta. The distal villous capillary network is the terminus of the fetal blood supply after several generations of branching of vessels extending out from the umbilical cord. This network has a contiguous cellular sheath, the syncytial trophoblast barrier layer, which prevents mixing of fetal blood and the maternal blood in which it is continuously bathed...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626983/hematopoietic-changes-in-the-offspring-induced-by-maternal-overweight-effect-on-placenta-and-fetal-liver-populations
#9
Luana Leirós, Juliana Barbosa Torreão Dáu, Daphne Pinheiro, Ana Carolina Stumbo Machado, Alessandra Alves Thole, Erika Afonso Costa Cortez, Laís de Carvalho, Simone Nunes de Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow cells (BMC) from obese adult mice display an increased apoptosis rate over proliferation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) form all blood cells and are important BMC used in cell therapy. Because it is known that prenatal development can be affected by adverse metabolic epigenetic programming from the maternal organism, this work aimed to investigate the effects of maternal overweight on placenta and fetal liver hematopoietic niches. METHODS: Overweight was induced in female mice by overfeeding during lactation...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626981/placental-lipoprotein-lipase-activity-is-positively-associated-with-newborn-adiposity
#10
Margaret J R Heerwagen, Diane L Gumina, Teri L Hernandez, Rachael E Van Pelt, Anita W Kramer, Rachel C Janssen, Dalan R Jensen, Theresa L Powell, Jacob E Friedman, Virginia D Winn, Linda A Barbour
INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that in addition to glucose, fetal growth is related to maternal triglycerides (TG). To reach the fetus, TG must be hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFA) and transported across the placenta, but regulation is uncertain. Placental lipoprotein lipase (pLPL) hydrolyzes TG, both dietary chylomicron TG (CM-TG) and very-low density lipoprotein TG (VLDL-TG), to FFA. This may promote fetal fat accretion by increasing the available FFA pool for placental uptake...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562949/the-developing-gut-microbiota-and-its-consequences-for-health
#11
M-J Butel, A-J Waligora-Dupriet, S Wydau-Dematteis
The developmental origin of health and disease highlights the importance of the period of the first 1000 days (from the conception to the 2 years of life). The process of the gut microbiota establishment is included in this time window. Various perinatal determinants, such as cesarean section delivery, type of feeding, antibiotics treatment, gestational age or environment, can affect the pattern of bacterial colonization and result in dysbiosis. The alteration of the early bacterial gut pattern can persist over several months and may have long-lasting functional effects with an impact on disease risk later in life...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533937/maternal-and-foetal-health-implications-of-vitamin-d-status-during-pregnancy
#12
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529267/a-crucial-role-for-maternal-dietary-methyl-donor-intake-in-epigenetic-programming-and-fetal-growth-outcomes
#13
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523493/antecedents-of-screening-positive-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-ten-year-old-children-born-extremely-preterm
#14
Alan Leviton, Stephen R Hooper, Scott J Hunter, Megan N Scott, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514882/genomic-imprinting-growth-and-maternal-fetal-interactions
#15
REVIEW
Féaron C Cassidy, Marika Charalambous
In the 1980s, mouse nuclear transplantation experiments revealed that both male and female parental genomes are required for successful development to term ( McGrath and Solter, 1983; Surani and Barton, 1983). This non-equivalence of parental genomes is because imprinted genes are predominantly expressed from only one parental chromosome. Uniparental inheritance of these genomic regions causes paediatric growth disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (reviewed in Peters, 2014). More than 100 imprinted genes have now been discovered and the functions of many of these genes have been assessed in murine models...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490031/metformin-use-in-pcos-pregnancies-increases-the-risk-of-offspring-overweight-at-4-years-of-age-follow-up-of-two-rcts
#16
Liv Guro Engen Hanem, Solhild Stridsklev, Pétur B Júlíusson, Øyvind Salvesen, Mathieu Roelants, Sven M Carlsen, Rønnaug Ødegård, Eszter Vanky
Context: Metformin is used in pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity. Metformin passes the placenta. Objective: To explore the effects of metformin use in PCOS pregnancies on offspring growth to 4 years of age. Design: Follow-up study of two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials. Setting: Secondary care centers. Eleven public hospitals in Norway...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471404/the-war-on-the-placenta-the-differing-battles-of-high-fat-diet-and-obesity
#17
Angela Odle, Melody Allensworth-James, Gwen V Childs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470513/offspring-sex-impacts-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-in-placentae-from-women-with-diabetes-during-pregnancy
#18
Jacqueline Alexander, April M Teague, Jing Chen, Christopher E Aston, Yuet-Kin Leung, Steven Chernausek, Rebecca A Simmons, Sara E Pinney
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that diabetes during pregnancy (DDP) alters genome-wide DNA methylation in placenta resulting in differentially methylated loci of metabolically relevant genes and downstream changes in RNA and protein expression. METHODS: We mapped genome-wide DNA methylation with the Infinium 450K Human Methylation Bead Chip in term fetal placentae from Native American and Hispanic women with DDP using a nested case-control design (n = 17 pairs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438518/obesity-and-high-fat-diet-induce-distinct-changes-in-placental-gene-expression-and-pregnancy-outcome
#19
Erica B Mahany, Xingfa Han, Beatriz C Borges, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Susan J Allen, David Garcia-Galiano, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Nicole H Bellefontaine, Carol F Elias
Obese women are at high risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal death. In the current study, we aimed to determine the effects of obesity on pregnancy outcome and placental gene expression in preclinical mouse models of genetic and nutritional obesity. The leptin receptor (LepR) null-reactivatable (LepRloxTB), LepR-deficient (Leprdb/+), and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were assessed for fertility, pregnancy outcome, placental morphology, and placental transcriptome using standard quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR arrays...
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417450/zebrafish-as-a-model-for-toxicological-perturbation-of-yolk-and-nutrition-in-the-early-embryo
#20
REVIEW
Karilyn E Sant, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental toxicity assessments often focus on structural outcomes and overlook subtle metabolic differences which occur during the early embryonic period. Deviant embryonic nutrition can result in later-life disease, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to placenta-mediated nutrient exchange, the human embryo requires maternally supplied nutritional substrates for growth, called yolk. Here, we compare the biology of the human and zebrafish yolk and review examples of toxicant-mediated perturbation of yolk defects, composition, and utilization...
March 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
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