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Placenta obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625088/mitochondrial-content-and-hepcidin-are-increased-in-obese-pregnant-mothers
#1
G M Anelli, M Cardellicchio, C Novielli, P Antonazzo, M I Mazzocco, I Cetin, C Mandò
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity is characterized by systemic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress (OxS) with the contribution of fetal sex dimorphism. We recently described increased mitochondrial content (mtDNA) in placentas of obese pregnancies. Here we quantify mtDNA and hepcidin as indexes of OxS and systemic inflammation in the obese maternal circulation. METHODS: Forty-one pregnant women were enrolled at elective Caesarean section: 16 were normal-weight [NW] and 25 were obese (OB)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619690/metformin-the-aspirin-of-the-21-st-century-its-role-in-gestational-diabetes-prevention-of-preeclampsia-and-cancer-and-the-promotion-of-longevity
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Maik Hüttemann, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Agustin Conde-Agudelo, Percy Pacora, Bo Hyun Yoon, Lawrence I Grossman
Metformin is everywhere. Originally introduced in clinical practice as an anti-diabetic agent, its role as a therapeutic agent is expanding to include treatment of pre-diabetes, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovarian disease, and more recently, experimental studies, as well as observations in randomized clinical trials, suggest that metformin could have a place in the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia. This article provides a brief overview of the history of metformin in the treatment of diabetes, reviews the results of meta-analyses of metformin in gestational diabetes, and the treatment of obese non-diabetic pregnant women to prevent macrosomia...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588199/contributions-of-the-maternal-oral-and-gut-microbiome-to-placental-microbial-colonization-in-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#3
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
A distinct bacterial signature of the placenta was reported, providing evidence that the fetus does not develop in a sterile environment. The oral microbiome was suggested as a possible source of the bacterial DNA present in the placenta based on similarities to the oral non-pregnant microbiome. Here, the possible origin of the placental microbiome was assessed, examining the gut, oral and placental microbiomes from the same pregnant women. Microbiome profiles from 37 overweight and obese pregnant women were examined by 16SrRNA sequencing...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588000/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-fetal-growth-and-the-expression-of-placental-fatty-acid-transporters
#4
Kui Ye, Li Li, Dan Zhang, Yi Li, Hai Qing Wang, Han Lin Lai, Chuan Lai Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity on fetal growth and the expression of placental nutrient transporters. METHODS: Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy high-fat (HF) diet feeding, while rats in the control group were fed with normal (CON) diet. Diet induced obesity (DIO) rats and diet induced obesity resistant (DIR) rats were selected according to body weight gain over this period. After copulation, the CON rats were divided into two groups: switched to HF diet (CON-HF group) or maintained on the CON diet (CON-CON group)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541534/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-placental-lipid-metabolism
#5
Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Maricela Haghiac, Judi Minium, Patricia Glazebrook, Geraldine Cheyana Ranasinghe, Charles Hoppel, Sylvie Hauguel de-Mouzon, Patrick Catalano, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
Obese women, on average, give birth to babies with high fat mass. Placental lipid metabolism alters fetal lipid delivery, potentially moderating neonatal adiposity, yet how it is affected by maternal obesity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that fatty acid (FA) accumulation (esterification) is higher, and FA oxidation (FAO) is lower, in placentas from obese, compared to lean women. We assessed acylcarnitine profiles (lipid oxidation intermediates) in mother-baby-placenta triads, in addition to lipid content, and mRNA/protein expression of key regulators of FA metabolism pathways, in placentas of lean and obese women with normal glucose tolerance recruited at scheduled term Cesarean delivery...
May 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515391/advanced-glycation-end-products-regulate-interleukin-1%C3%AE-production-in-human-placenta
#6
Kotomi Seno, Saoko Sase, Ayae Ozeki, Hironori Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Hirotada Suzuki, Shigeki Matsubara, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
Maternal obesity is a major risk factor for pregnancy complications, causing inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8. Pregnant women with obesity develop accelerated systemic and placental inflammation with elevated circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs). IL-1β is a pivotal inflammatory cytokine associated with obesity and pregnancy complications, and its production is regulated by NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509412/-three-hits-hypothesis-for-developmental-origins-of-health-and-diseases-in-view-of-cardiovascular-abnormalities
#7
REVIEW
Xiang Li, Mengshu Zhang, Xinghua Pan, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
"Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) or "Barker hypothesis," also known as the developmental origins of health and diseases (DoHaD), was initially proposed by David Barker in the 1980s. Progress in past 2 to 3 decades demonstrated that many adult disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others, could be linked to poor development resulting from in utero insults. Utero-environments play a critical role in fetal development. Because the placenta and umbilical cord are the only important connections between the fetus and mother in the uterus, this review pays special attention to recent research and progress in the study of the relationship between those tissues and FOAD...
June 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508539/the-effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-fatty-acid-transporter-expression-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-full-term-placenta-of-lean-breed-swine
#8
L Tian, S S Dong, J Hu, J J Yao, P S Yan
This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of back-fat thickness (BF), at mating of sows, on the maternal and newborn circulating lipids, expression of placental fatty acids (FA) transporters and lipid accumulation in placenta. Full-term placentas were obtained by vaginal delivery from BFI (9-14 mm; n = 37), BFII (15-19 mm; n = 43) and BFIII (20-27 mm; n = 38) sows according to BF at mating, and frozen placental sections were analysed for fat accumulation. Blood samples were collected from the sows of day 105 pregnancy and from cord blood at delivery...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487013/placental-pim-1-expression-is-increased-in-obesity-and-regulates-cytokine-and-toll-like-receptor-mediated-inflammation
#9
Stella Liong, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic, and as a consequence the number of obese pregnancies has also increased. Pregnancy is characterised by maternal and placental inflammation which is intensified with maternal obesity. The proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemic virus (Pim)-1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase involved in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. In relation to obesity, however, its role has not been elucidated in human placenta. The aims were to determine the placental expression of Pim-1 with pre-existing maternal obesity and its role in regulating placental inflammation associated with obesity...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486003/placental-lipoprotein-lipase-dna-methylation-alterations-are-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-and-body-composition-at-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#10
Valérie Gagné-Ouellet, Andrée-Anne Houde, Simon-Pierre Guay, Patrice Perron, Daniel Gaudet, Renée Guérin, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon, Marie-France Hivert, Diane Brisson, Luigi Bouchard
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with obesity in childhood. This suggests that consequences of in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia extend beyond the fetal development, possibly through epigenetic programming. The aims of this study were to assess whether placental DNA methylation (DNAm) marks were associated with maternal GDM status and to offspring body composition at 5 years old in a prospective birth cohort. DNAm levels were measured in the fetal side of the placenta in 66 samples (24 from GDM mothers) using bisDNA-pyrosequencing...
May 9, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484667/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-postpartum-hemorrhage-in-native-hawaiians-pacific-islanders-and-asians
#11
Scott A Harvey, Eunjung Lim, Krupa R Gandhi, Jill Miyamura, Kazuma Nakagawa
The objective of this study was to assess racial-ethnic differences in the prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI), Asians, and Whites. We performed a retrospective study on statewide inpatient data for delivery hospitalizations in Hawai'i between January 1995 and December 2013. A total of 243,693 in-hospital delivery discharges (35.0% NHOPI, 44.0% Asian, and 21.0% White) were studied. Among patients with PPH, there were more NHOPI (37.1%) and Asians (47...
May 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483162/quo-vadis-trophoblast-exploring-the-new-ways-of-an-old-cell-lineage
#12
Sascha Drewlo, D Randall Armant
Trophoblast cells are the first embryonic lineage to differentiate during human development, and are needed to sustain fetal life through their role in constructing a placenta. As the fetus grows, the trophoblast rapidly expands and further differentiates to produce an extravillous subtype that invades the maternal tissues. Some of the extravillous trophoblast cells find their way into the reproductive tract, and can be safely captured by noninvasive collection from the endocervical canal, similarly to a Pap smear...
April 26, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468839/human-relaxins-rlnh1-rlnh2-their-receptor-rxfp1-and-fetoplacental-growth
#13
Kelly Yamasato, Pai-Jong Stacy Tsai, James Davis, Sandra Yamamoto, Gillian Bryant-Greenwood
Relaxin, a systemic and placental hormone, has potential roles in fetoplacental growth. Human placenta expresses two RLN genes, RLNH1 and RLNH2. Maternal obesity is common and is associated with abnormal fetal growth. Our aims were to relate systemic and cord blood RLNH2, placental RLNs and their receptor (RXFP1) with fetoplacental growth in context of maternal body mass index, and associations with insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in the same placentas. Systemic, cord blood and placental samples were collected prior to term labor, divided by prepregnancy body mass index: underweight/normal (N=25) and overweight/obese (N=44)...
May 3, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460045/large-reduction-in-adiponectin-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-large-for-gestational-age-newborns
#14
Tove Lekva, Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland, Annika E Michelsen, Camilla Margrethe Friis, Pål Aukrust, Jens Bollerslev, Tore Henriksen, Thor Ueland
Context: Fetuses exposed to an obese intrauterine environment are more likely to be born large-for-gestational age (LGA) and are at increased risk of obesity in childhood and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as adults, but which factors that influence the intrauterine environment is less clear. Objective: To investigate the association between circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin, measured multiple times during pregnancy, and birth weight and prevalence of LGA or small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454694/review-on-intrauterine-programming-consequences-in-rodent-models-of-mild-diabetes-and-mild-fat-overfeeding-are-not-mild
#15
A Jawerbaum, V White
An adverse intrauterine programming occurs in diabetes and obesity as the consequence of an adverse maternal environment that affects the appropriate fetoplacental development and growth. Experimental models of diabetes and fat overfeeding have provided relevant tools to address putative mechanisms of the adverse intrauterine programming. The current knowledge far extends from the original thoughts of the resulting intrauterine programming of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases to a full range of alterations that affect multiple tissues, organs, and systems that will compromise the long-life health of the offspring...
April 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451583/pregnancy-an-underutilized-window-of-opportunity-to-improve-long-term-maternal-and-infant-health-an-appeal-for-continuous-family-care-and-interdisciplinary-communication
#16
REVIEW
Birgit Arabin, Ahmet A Baschat
Physiologic adaptations during pregnancy unmask a woman's predisposition to diseases. Complications are increasingly predicted by first-trimester algorithms, amplify a pre-existing maternal phenotype and accelerate risks for chronic diseases in the offspring up to adulthood (Barker hypothesis). Recent evidence suggests that vice versa, pregnancy diseases also indicate maternal and even grandparent's risks for chronic diseases (reverse Barker hypothesis). Pub-Med and Embase were reviewed for Mesh terms "fetal programming" and "pregnancy complications combined with maternal disease" until January 2017...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443479/melatonin-improves-mitochondrial-respiration-in-syncytiotrophoblasts-from-placentas-of-obese-women
#17
Kayla E Ireland, Alina Maloyan, Leslie Myatt
Maternal obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress but decreased placental mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I to V. Melatonin acts as an antioxidant and prevents oxidative stress-induced changes in cytotrophoblasts. Placentas were collected at term by cesarean delivery from obese (first trimester body mass index [BMI] ≥30, n = 10) or lean (BMI < 25, n = 6) women. Cytotrophoblasts were isolated and allowed to syncytialize for 72 hours with or without melatonin (0...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#18
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream that cross the placenta and enter the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
May 17, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368446/dysregulation-of-placental-mirna-in-maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-pre-and-post-natal-growth
#19
Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Alexandra Bonmatí, Francisco-Jose Ortega, Josep-Maria Mercader, Marta Guindo-Martínez, David Torrents, Anna Prats-Puig, Jose-Maria Martinez-Calcerrada, Francis DE Zegher, Lourdes Ibáñez, Jose-Manuel Fernandez-Real, Abel Lopez-Bermejo, Judit Bassols
Context: Human placenta exhibits a specific miRNA expression pattern. Some of these miRNAs are dysregulated in pregnancy disorders like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, and are potential biomarkers for these pathologies. Objective: To study the placental miRNA profile in pregnant women with pregestational (preOB) or gestational obesity (gestOB) and explore the associations of placental miRNAs dysregulated in maternal obesity with pre- and post-natal growth...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346921/bacterial-colonization-of-the-newborn-gut-immune-development-and-prevention-of-disease
#20
W Allan Walker
We now know that the fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment but is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut which cross the placenta and infiltrate the amniotic fluid. This exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life, and it has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Cross talk with colonizing bacteria in the developing neonatal intestine helps in the initial adaptation of the infant to extrauterine life, particularly in acquiring immune homeostasis, and provides protection against disease expression (e...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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