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Placenta obesity

Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Alan Leviton, Stephen R Hooper, Scott J Hunter, Megan N Scott, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Féaron C Cassidy, Marika Charalambous
In the 1980s, mouse nuclear transplantation experiments revealed that both male and female parental genomes are required for successful development to term ( McGrath and Solter, 1983; Surani and Barton, 1983). This non-equivalence of parental genomes is because imprinted genes are predominantly expressed from only one parental chromosome. Uniparental inheritance of these genomic regions causes paediatric growth disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (reviewed in Peters, 2014). More than 100 imprinted genes have now been discovered and the functions of many of these genes have been assessed in murine models...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Liv Guro Engen Hanem, Solhild Stridsklev, Pétur B Júlíusson, Øyvind Salvesen, Mathieu Roelants, Sven M Carlsen, Rønnaug Ødegård, Eszter Vanky
Context: Metformin is used in pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity. Metformin passes the placenta. Objective: To explore the effects of metformin use in PCOS pregnancies on offspring growth to 4 years of age. Design: Follow-up study of two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials. Setting: Secondary care centers. Eleven public hospitals in Norway...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Angela Odle, Melody Allensworth-James, Gwen V Childs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Endocrinology
Jacqueline Alexander, April M Teague, Jing Chen, Christopher E Aston, Yuet-Kin Leung, Steven Chernausek, Rebecca A Simmons, Sara E Pinney
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that diabetes during pregnancy (DDP) alters genome-wide DNA methylation in placenta resulting in differentially methylated loci of metabolically relevant genes and downstream changes in RNA and protein expression. METHODS: We mapped genome-wide DNA methylation with the Infinium 450K Human Methylation Bead Chip in term fetal placentae from Native American and Hispanic women with DDP using a nested case-control design (n = 17 pairs)...
2018: PloS One
Erica B Mahany, Xingfa Han, Beatriz C Borges, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Susan J Allen, David Garcia-Galiano, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Nicole H Bellefontaine, Carol F Elias
Obese women are at high risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of obesity on pregnancy outcome and placental gene expression in preclinical mouse models of genetic and nutritional obesity. The leptin receptor null reactivatable (LepRloxTB), the LepR deficient (Leprdb/+) and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were assessed for fertility, pregnancy outcome, placental morphology and placental transcriptome using standard qPCR and qPCR arrays...
February 9, 2018: Endocrinology
Karilyn E Sant, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental toxicity assessments often focus on structural outcomes and overlook subtle metabolic differences which occur during the early embryonic period. Deviant embryonic nutrition can result in later-life disease, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to placenta-mediated nutrient exchange, the human embryo requires maternally supplied nutritional substrates for growth, called yolk. Here, we compare the biology of the human and zebrafish yolk and review examples of toxicant-mediated perturbation of yolk defects, composition, and utilization...
February 7, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Laren Riesche, Suzette D Tardif, Corinna N Ross, Victoria A deMartelly, Toni Ziegler, Julienne N Rutherford
Animal models have been critical in building evidence that the prenatal experience and intrauterine environment are capable of exerting profound and permanent effects on metabolic health through developmental programming of obesity. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World Monkey that has been used as a biomedical model for well over 50 years. The spontaneous, multifactorial, and early life development of obesity in the common marmoset make it a valuable research model for advancing our knowledge about the role of prenatal and placental mechanisms involved in developmental programming of obesity...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Lewis B Holmes, Hanah Nasri, Rebecca Beroukhim, Anne-Therese Hunt, Drucilla J Roberts, M Hassan Toufaily, Marie-Noel Westgate
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth, defined as death of a fetus in utero after 20 weeks of gestation, occurs in 1 to 2% of pregnancies in the United States. Many of these stillborn infants have associated malformations, including chromosome abnormalities, neural tube defects, and malformation syndromes. Other causes are abnormalities of the placenta and maternal conditions, such as pre-eclampsia and obesity. A consecutive sample of malformed stillborn infants can establish the relative frequency and severity of the associated malformations...
January 2018: Birth Defects Research
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. Due to its low toxicity, it is commonly used in obstetrics. The objective of this study was to assess amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, placenta and maternal serum two hours following oral administration among pregnant women at term and to assess obstetric and non-obstetric factors that might affect amoxicillin's penetration of these tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective Caesarean delivery were included in the study...
December 25, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Tami J Stuart, Kathleen O'Neill, David Condon, Issac Sasson, Payel Sen, Yunwei Xia, Rebecca A Simmons
Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in offspring. Increasing evidence suggests that the placenta plays an active role in fetal programming. In this study, we used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity to demonstrate that the abnormal metabolic milieu of maternal obesity sets the stage very early in pregnancy by altering the transcriptome of placenta progenitor cells in the pre-implantation (trophectoderm [TE]) and early post-implantation (ectoplacental cone [EPC]) placenta precursors which is associated with later changes in placenta development and function...
January 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Oonagh E Keag, Jane E Norman, Sarah J Stock
BACKGROUND: Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016) reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017), supplemented by manual searches...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
Panayoula C Tsiotra, Panagiotis Halvatsiotis, Konstantinos Patsouras, Eirini Maratou, George Salamalekis, Sotirios A Raptis, George Dimitriadis, Eleni Boutati
Maternal adipose tissue and the placenta secrete various molecules commonly called adipokines such as chemerin, omentin-1, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin that are important players in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a state of glucose intolerance characterized by β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To examine whether circulating adipokines and their mRNA expression in the adipose tissue and the placenta are altered in GDM pregnancy, we compared 15 GDM women [obese (BMI > 30) and non-obese (BMI < 30)] to 23 NGT (normal glucose tolerance) women [obese and non-obese], at the time of the Cesarean section...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
Fatimat M Akinlusi, Kabiru A Rabiu, Idayat A Durojaiye, Adeniyi A Adewunmi, Tawaqualit A Ottun, Yusuf A Oshodi
BACKGROUND: Caesarean delivery carries a risk of major intra-operative blood loss and its performance is often delayed by non-availability of blood and blood products. Unnecessary cross-matching and reservation of blood lead to apparent scarcity in centres with limited supply. This study set out to identify the risk factors for blood transfusion in women who underwent caesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric unit with a view to ensuring efficient blood utilization. METHODS: A prospective cohort analysis of 906 women who had caesarean deliveries at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January and December, 2011...
January 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Claudia Fattuoni, Chiara Mandò, Francesco Palmas, Gaia Maria Anelli, Chiara Novielli, Estefanìa Parejo Laudicina, Valeria Maria Savasi, Luigi Barberini, Angelica Dessì, Roberta Pintus, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Noto, Irene Cetin
INTRODUCTION: Metabolomics identifies phenotypical groups with specific metabolic profiles, being increasingly applied to several pregnancy conditions. This is the first preliminary study analyzing placental metabolomics in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) pregnancies. METHODS: Twenty NW (18.5 ≤ BMI< 25 kg/m2 ) and eighteen OB (BMI≥ 30 kg/m2 ) pregnancies were studied. Placental biopsies were collected at elective caesarean section. Metabolites extraction method was optimized for hydrophilic and lipophilic phases, then analyzed with GC-MS...
January 2018: Placenta
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Zunaira Alina
Leptin is an endogenous protein having 167 amino acids and is derived from adipocytes. It has tertiary structure that resembles with that of the pro-inflammatory cytokines family. The fundamental role of leptin is to maintain the energy homeostasis with the aid of its counter hormone called ghrelin, known as the "hunger hormone." Small quantities of leptin are also present in various tissues like ovary, placenta, pituitary gland, mammary gland, skeletal muscle, stomach, and lymphoid tissue. Expression of leptin is strongly associated with various inflammatory responses and immune system, and plays crucial role in the pathophysiology of obesity and development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Machiko Minatoya, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Yu Ait Bamai, Sachiko Itoh, Jun Yamamoto, Yu Onoda, Kazuki Ogasawara, Toru Matsumura, Reiko Kishi
Bisphenol A and phthalates are widely detected in human urine, blood, breast milk, and amniotic fluid. Both bisphenol A and phthalates have been suggested as playing a role in obesity epidemics. Exposure to these chemicals during fetal development, and its consequences should be concerning because they can cross the placenta. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association between prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates, and cord blood metabolic-related biomarkers. Maternal serum was used during the first trimester, to determine prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates...
February 2018: Environmental Research
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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