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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919878/postural-control-in-bilateral-vestibular-failure-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-vestibular-and-cognitive-input
#1
Andreas Sprenger, Jann F Wojak, Nico M Jandl, Christoph Helmchen
Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915903/a-quantitative-assessment-of-the-evolution-of-cerebellar-syndrome-in-children-with-phosphomannomutase-deficiency-pmm2-cdg
#2
Natalia Lourdes Serrano, Victor De Diego, Daniel Cuadras, Antonio F Martinez Monseny, Ramón Velázquez-Fragua, Laura López, Ana Felipe, Luis G Gutiérrez-Solana, Alfons Macaya, Belén Pérez-Dueñas, Mercedes Serrano
BACKGROUND: We aim to delineate the progression of cerebellar syndrome in children with phosphomannomutase-deficiency (PMM2-CDG) using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). We sought correlation between cerebellar volumetry and clinical situation. We prospectively evaluated PMM2-CDG patients aged from 5 to 18 years through ICARS at two different time points set apart by at least 20 months. We reviewed available MRIs and performed volumetric analysis when it was possible...
September 15, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914235/jump-stabilization-and-landing-control-by-wing-spreading-of-a-locust-inspired-jumper
#3
Avishai Beck, Valentin Zaytsev, Uri Ben-Hanan, Gabor Kosa, Amir Ayali, Avi Weiss
Bio-inspired robotics is a promising design strategy for mobile robots. Jumping is an energy efficient locomotion gait for traversing difficult terrain. Inspired by the jumping and flying behavior of the desert locust, we have recently developed a miniature jumping robot that can jump over 3.5 m high. However, much like the non-adult locust, it rotates while in the air and lands uncontrollably. Inspired by the winged adult locust, we have added spreading wings and a tail to the jumper. After the robot leaps, at the apex of the trajectory, the wings unfold and it glides to the ground...
September 15, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900400/fractional-stability-of-trunk-acceleration-dynamics-of-daily-life-walking-toward-a-unified-concept-of-gait-stability
#4
Espen A F Ihlen, Kimberley S van Schooten, Sjoerd M Bruijn, Mirjam Pijnappels, Jaap H van Dieën
Over the last decades, various measures have been introduced to assess stability during walking. All of these measures assume that gait stability may be equated with exponential stability, where dynamic stability is quantified by a Floquet multiplier or Lyapunov exponent. These specific constructs of dynamic stability assume that the gait dynamics are time independent and without phase transitions. In this case the temporal change in distance, d(t), between neighboring trajectories in state space is assumed to be an exponential function of time...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893202/preliminary-evaluation-of-prototype-footwear-and-insoles-to-optimise-balance-and-gait-in-older-people
#5
Hylton B Menz, Maria Auhl, Shannon E Munteanu
BACKGROUND: Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. METHODS: Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance...
September 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893187/does-dual-task-training-improve-walking-performance-of-older-adults-with-concern-of-falling
#6
B Wollesen, S Schulz, L Seydell, K Delbaere
BACKGROUND: Older adults with concerns of falling show decrements of gait stability under single (ST) and dual task (DT) conditions. To compare the effects of a DT training integrating task managing strategies for independent living older adults with and without concern about falling (CoF) to a non-training control group on walking performance under ST and DT conditions. METHODS: Single center parallel group single blind randomized controlled trial with group-based interventions (DT-managing balance training) compared to a control group (Ninety-five independent living older adults; 71...
September 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889946/dynamic-balance-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-who-have-a-falls-history-is-altered-compared-to-non-fallers-and-to-healthy-controls
#7
Alexander T Peebles, Adam P Bruetsch, Sharon G Lynch, Jessie M Huisinga
Around 60% of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience falls, however the dynamic balance differences between those who fall and those who don't are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to identify distinct biomechanical features of dynamic balance during gait that are different between fallers with MS, non-fallers with MS, and healthy controls. 27 recurrent fallers with MS, 28 persons with MS with no falls history, and 27 healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3min...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888908/quick-foot-placement-adjustments-during-gait-are-less-accurate-in-individuals-with-focal-cerebellar-lesions
#8
Wouter Hoogkamer, Zrinka Potocanac, Frank Van Calenbergh, Jacques Duysens
Online gait corrections are frequently used to restore gait stability and prevent falling. They require shorter response times than voluntary movements which suggests that subcortical pathways contribute to the execution of online gait corrections. To evaluate the potential role of the cerebellum in these pathways we tested the hypotheses that online gait corrections would be less accurate in individuals with focal cerebellar damage than in neurologically intact controls and that this difference would be more pronounced for shorter available response times and for short step gait corrections...
September 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885115/a-9-week-jaques-dalcroze-eurhythmics-intervention-improves-single-and-dual-task-gait-speed-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#9
Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, Mandy Vang, Anthony S Wolfe, Kathy M Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health concern among older adults, and most occur while walking, especially under dualtask conditions. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics (JDE) is a music-based movement training program that emphasizes multitask coordinated movement. A previous 6-mo JDE study in older people demonstrated improved gait and balance; however, the effects of short-term JDE interventions on fall risk-related outcomes are largely unknown. We conducted a preliminary investigation on whether a 9-week JDE intervention improved gait and stability in a community-dwelling older cohort, hypothesizing that improvements would occur in all outcome measures...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881124/minimally-invasive-anterior-decompression-technique-without-instrumented-fusion-for-huge-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-the-thoracic-spine-technical-note-and-literature-review
#10
Jae Won Yu, Sang-O Yun, Chang-Sheng Hsieh, Sang-Ho Lee
OBJECTIVE: Several surgical methods have been reported for treatment of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the thoracic spine. Despite rapid innovation of instruments and techniques for spinal surgery, the postoperative outcomes are not always favorable. This article reports a minimally invasive anterior decompression technique without instrumented fusion, which was modified from the conventional procedure. The authors present 2 cases of huge beak-type OPLL...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873036/the-effect-of-action-observation-training-on-balance-and-sit-to-walk-in-chronic-stroke-a-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Jin-Cheol Kim, Hyun-Min Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an action observation training on balance and sit to walk in chronic stroke. Twenty-four chronic stroke patients participated in this study. Participants were randomly allocated to either the landscape imagery observation physical training group (LIOPT) or the action observation physical training group (AOPT). LIOPT observed a landscape picture for 2 min 30 s while the AOPT group observed related video recording. Both groups underwent a physical training session after the observation session for 12 min 30 s and the sessions were repeated twice a day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869902/acute-effects-of-anesthetic-lumbar-spine-injections-on-temporal-spatial-parameters-of-gait-in-individuals-with-chronic-low-back-pain-a-pilot-study
#12
Carl L Herndon, MaryBeth Horodyski, Heather K Vincent
This study examined whether epidural injection-induced anesthesia acutely and positively affected temporal spatial parameters of gait in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) due to lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty-five patients (61.7±13.6years) who were obtaining lumbar epidural injections for stenosis-related LBP participated. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-36) scores, 11-point Numerical pain rating (NRSpain) scores, and temporal spatial parameters of walking gait were obtained prior to, and 11-point Numerical pain rating (NRSpain) scores, and temporal spatial parameters of walking gait were obtained after the injection...
August 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869185/gait-variability-and-motor-control-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-as-measured-by-the-uncontrolled-manifold-technique
#13
Gwenllian Fflur Tawy, Philip Rowe, Leela Biant
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes pain, reduced muscular strength and stiffness of the affected joint. In response, the motor control mechanism is altered, potentially compromising stability during acts of daily living. Reduced walking stability can be quantified in terms of gait variability. This study therefore aimed to identify and quantify the effects of knee arthritis on gait variability. Fifty adults (25 males/25 females) with end-stage OA of the knee sufficiently symptomatic to require joint replacement, walked on a self-paced treadmill for 2min...
August 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865708/computational-stability-of-human-knee-joint-at-early-stance-in-gait-effects-of-muscle-coactivity-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency
#14
M Sharifi, A Shirazi-Adl, H Marouane
As one of the most complex and vulnerable structures of body, the human knee joint should maintain dynamic equilibrium and stability in occupational and recreational activities. The evaluation of its stability and factors affecting it is vital in performance evaluation/enhancement, injury prevention and treatment managements. Knee stability often manifests itself by pain, hypermobility and giving-way sensations and is usually assessed by the passive joint laxity tests. Mechanical stability of both the human knee joint and the lower extremity at early stance periods of gait (0% and 5%) were quantified here for the first time using a hybrid musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854123/performance-of-faller-and-nonfaller-older-adults-on-a-motor-motor-interference-task
#15
Luciana Oliveira Dos Santos, Daniela Cristina Carvalho de Abreu, Renato Moraes
Typically, falls in older adults occur when 2 tasks are performed simultaneously, due to the increased motor demand required to maintain stability and attention to perform the other task. The authors' purpose was to investigate walking while grasping, transporting, and placing a dowel on a predetermined target while manipulating difficulty levels of the manual task. Faller and nonfaller older adults performed a walking block (manual tasks combined with gait) and a stationary block (upright stance combined with manual tasks)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837917/aging-effect-on-step-adjustments-and-stability-control-in-visually-perturbed-gait-initiation
#16
Ruopeng Sun, Chuyi Cui, John B Shea
Gait adaptability is essential for fall avoidance during locomotion. It requires the ability to rapidly inhibit original motor planning, select and execute alternative motor commands, while also maintaining the stability of locomotion. This study investigated the aging effect on gait adaptability and dynamic stability control during a visually perturbed gait initiation task. A novel approach was used such that the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation were used to trigger the unpredictable relocation of a foot-size stepping target...
August 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836316/maximum-permissible-load-for-kiso-horses-trotting-over-a-short-straight-course
#17
Akihiro Matsuura, Sota Inoue, Mami Irimajiri, Koichi Hodate
This study aimed to determine the load-bearing capacity of trotting Kiso horses using gait analysis. Ten Kiso horses with a height at withers of 128 cm were included. Their riders were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) recorded by two digital DVD cameras while trotting along a short, straight course. In total, eight tests were performed for each horse: the first with a 70 kg load; six with randomly loaded weights ranging 80-130 kg; and then a final test again with a 70 kg load...
August 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834891/interdisciplinary-rehabilitation-for-a-patient-with-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-and-multimorbidity-a-case-report
#18
Robert D Vining, Donna M Gosselin, Jeb Thurmond, Kimberlee Case, Frederick R Bruch
RATIONALE: This report describes interdisciplinary rehabilitation for a 51-year-old male recovering from incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple comorbidities following an automobile accident. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was admitted to a rehabilitation specialty hospital approximately 2 months post SCI and 2 separate surgical fusion procedures (C3-C6). DIAGNOSES: Clinical presentation at the rehabilitation hospital included moderate to severe motor strength loss in both upper and lower extremities, a percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube (PEG), dysphagia, bowel/bladder incontinence, dependence on a mechanical lift and tilting wheelchair due to severe orthostatic hypotension, and pre-existing shoulder pain from bilateral joint degeneration...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833500/primary-stability-of-a-cementless-acetabular-cup-in-a-cohort-of-patient-specific-finite-element-models
#19
Dermot O' Rourke, Rami Al-Dirini, Mark Taylor
The primary stability achieved during total hip arthroplasty determines the long-term success of cementless acetabular cups. Pre-clinical finite element testing of cups typically use a model of a single patient and assume the results can be extrapolated to the general population. This study explored the variability in predicted primary stability of a Pinnacle ® cementless acetabular cup in 103 patient-specific finite element models of the hemipelvis and examined the association between patient-related factors and the observed variability...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827207/effect-of-modified-otago-exercises-on-postural-balance-fear-of-falling-and-fall-risk-in-older-fallers-with-knee-osteoarthritis-and-impaired-gait-and-balance-a-secondary-analysis
#20
Sumaiyah Mat, Chin Teck Ng, Pey June Tan, Norlisah Ramli, Farhana Fadzli, Faizatul Izza Rozalli, Mazlina Mazlan, Keith D Hill, Maw Pin Tan
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered an established risk factor for falls. Published studies evaluating secondary falls prevention strategies among OA sufferers are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a personalized home-based exercise program to improve postural balance, fear of falling and falls risk in older fallers with knee OA and gait and balance problems. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial SETTING: University of Malaya Medical Centre PARTICIPANT: Fallers who had both radiological OA and a Timed Up and Go (TUG) score of over 13...
August 18, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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