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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773683/adaptive-control-of-dynamic-balance-in-human-gait-on-a-split-belt-treadmill
#1
Tom J W Buurke, Claudine J C Lamoth, Danique Vervoort, Lucas H V van der Woude, Rob den Otter
Human bipedal gait is inherently unstable and staying upright requires adaptive control of dynamic balance. Little is known about adaptive control of dynamic balance in reaction to long-term, continuous perturbations. We examined how dynamic balance control adapts to a continuous perturbation in gait, by letting people walk faster with one leg than the other on a treadmill with two belts (i.e. split-belt walking). In addition, we assessed whether changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control coincide with changes in energy use during split-belt adaptation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769299/the-grazing-gait-and-implications-of-toppling-table-geometry-for-primate-footfall-sequences
#2
James R Usherwood, Benjamin J H Smith
Many medium and large herbivores locomote forwards very slowly and intermittently when grazing. While the footfall order during grazing is the same as for walking, the relative fore-hind timing-phasing-is quite different. Extended periods of static stability are clearly required during grazing; however, stability requirements are insufficient to account for the timing. Aspects of relatively rapid rolling and pitching-toppling due to the resistance of the back to bending and twisting-can be included in a simplifying geometric model to explain the observation that, in grazing livestock, a step forward with a forefoot is consistently and immediately followed by a step forward from the hind; but not vice versa...
May 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768471/performance-based-approach-for-movement-artifact-removal-from-electroencephalographic-data-recorded-during-locomotion
#3
Evyatar Arad, Ronny P Bartsch, Jan W Kantelhardt, Meir Plotnik
The appreciation for the need to record electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from humans while walking has been steadily growing in recent years, particularly in relation to understanding gait disturbances. Movement artefacts (MA) in EEG signals originate from mechanical forces applied to the scalp electrodes, inducing small electrode movements relative to the scalp which, in turn, cause the recorded voltage to change irrespectively of cortical activity. These mechanical forces, and thus MA, may have various sources (e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765892/botulinum-toxin-a-injection-in-the-treatment-of-spasticity-in-a-infantile-onset-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation-a-case-report
#4
Hwan Kwon Do, Geun Yeol Jo, Jun Koo Kwon, Woo Jin Kim
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by iron accumulation in the globus pallidus (GP) of the brain (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation [NBIA]), which is characterized by dystonia and spasticity resulting in postural difficulties. A 33-month-old boy was admitted with a pronounced gait disturbance. Marked hypertonicity in the patient's both calf muscles was noted, resulting in waddling with repeated slip-falls. NBIA was suspected by high T2 intensity in the GP on brain MRI, then it was confirmed by detecting PANK2 mutation...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764466/validity-of-shoe-type-inertial-measurement-units-for-parkinson-s-disease-patients-during-treadmill-walking
#5
Myeounggon Lee, Changhong Youm, Jeanhong Jeon, Sang-Myung Cheon, Hwayoung Park
BACKGROUND: When examining participants with pathologies, a shoe-type inertial measurement unit (IMU) system with sensors mounted on both the left and right outsoles may be more useful for analysis and provide better stability for the sensor positions than previous methods using a single IMU sensor or attached to the lower back and a foot. However, there have been few validity analyses of shoe-type IMU systems versus reference systems for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) walking continuously with a steady-state gait in a single direction...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753876/electromyographic-study-of-hip-muscles-involved-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-surprising-results-using-the-direct-anterior-minimally-invasive-approach
#6
Jules Bernard, Fredson Razanabola, Julien Beldame, Stéphane Van Driessche, Helena Brunel, Thomas Poirier, Jean Matsoukis, Fabien Billuart
BACKGROUND: The functional and clinical benefit of minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is well-known, but the literature reports impaired gait and posture parameters as compared to the general population, especially following use of the anterior minimally invasive approach, which has more severe impact on posture than the posterior approach. The reasons for this impairment, however, remain unexplained. We therefore conducted a surface electromyography (sEMG) study of the hip muscles liable to be affected by arthroplasty surgery: gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S)...
May 10, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750399/single-agent-bevacizumab-in-the-treatment-of-recurrent-or-refractory-pediatric-low-grade-glioma-a-single-institutional-experience
#7
Hamza S Gorsi, Paritosh C Khanna, Mark Tumblin, Lanipua Yeh-Nayre, Mehrzad Milburn, Jennifer D Elster, John R Crawford
INTRODUCTION: Bevacizumab-based therapy has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of refractory or recurrent pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG); however its efficacy as a single agent is less understood. METHODS: We report our experience with single-agent bevacizumab for the treatment of recurrent or refractory LGG treated with either standard 2 week dosing (10 mg/kg/dose every 2 weeks) or with a standard 2 week dosing followed by an increased interval dosing (10 mg/kg/dose every 4 weeks)...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747067/more-symmetrical-gait-after-split-belt-treadmill-walking-does-not-modify-dynamic-and-postural-balance-in-individuals-post-stroke
#8
Carole Miéville, Séléna Lauzière, Martina Betschart, Sylvie Nadeau, Cyril Duclos
Spontaneous gait is often asymmetrical in individuals post-stroke, despite their ability to walk more symmetrically on demand. Given the sensorimotor deficits in the paretic limb, this asymmetrical gait may facilitate balance maintenance. We used a split-belt walking protocol to alter gait asymmetry and determine the effects on dynamic and postural balance. Twenty individuals post-stroke walked on a split-belt treadmill. In two separate periods, the effects of walking with the non-paretic leg, and then the paretic one, on the faster belt on spatio-temporal symmetry and balance were compared before and after these perturbation periods...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746520/local-dynamic-stability-during-gait-for-predicting-falls-in-elderly-people-a-one-year-prospective-study
#9
Lucia Bizovska, Zdenek Svoboda, Miroslav Janura, Maria Cristina Bisi, Nicolas Vuillerme
Computing the local dynamic stability using accelerometer data from inertial sensors has recently been proposed as a gait measure which may be able to identify elderly people at fall risk. However, the assumptions supporting this potential were concluded as most studies implement a retrospective fall history observation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of local dynamic stability for fall risk prediction in a cohort of subjects over the age of 60 years using a prospective fall occurrence observation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729209/gaze-stability-dynamic-balance-and-participation-deficits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-at-fall-risk
#10
Hina Garg, Leland E Dibble, Michael C Schubert, Jim Sibthorp, K Bo Foreman, Eduard Gappmaier
Despite the common complaints of dizziness and demyelination of afferent or efferent pathways to and from the vestibular nuclei which may adversely affect the angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) and vestibulo-spinal function in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), few studies have examined gaze and dynamic balance function in PwMS. OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the differences in gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation measures between PwMS and controls, 2) Examine the relationships between gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722862/honeybees-prefer-to-steer-on-a-smooth-wall-with-tetrapod-gaits
#11
Jieliang Zhao, Fei Zhu, Shaoze Yan
Insects are well equipped in walking on complex three-dimensional terrain, allowing them to overcome obstacles or catch prey. However, the gait transition for insects steering on a wall remains unexplored. Here, we find that honeybees adopted a tetrapod gait to change direction when climbing a wall. On the contrary to the common tripod gait, honeybees propel their body forward by synchronously stepping with both middle legs and then both front legs. This process ensures the angle of the central axis of the honeybee to be consistent with the crawling direction...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717946/immediate-effects-of-talus-stabilizing-taping-on-balance-and-gait-parameters-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Donghwan Park, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Woo Kang, Heon-Seock Cynn
BACKGROUND: Talus-stabilizing taping (TST) may improve ankle range of motion and gait performance by providing a posterior-inferior talar glide in a closed-chain dorsiflexion position. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of TST on balance and gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Twenty post-stroke patients participated in this study. Each participant performed tests under three conditions (TST, barefoot, and conventional ankle-foot orthosis [AFO]), in random order...
May 2, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706993/instrumental-or-physical-exercise-rehabilitation-of-balance-improves-both-balance-and-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Marica Giardini, Antonio Nardone, Marco Godi, Simone Guglielmetti, Ilaria Arcolin, Fabrizio Pisano, Marco Schieppati
We hypothesised that rehabilitation specifically addressing balance in Parkinson's disease patients might improve not only balance but locomotion as well. Two balance-training protocols (standing on a moving platform and traditional balance exercises) were assessed by assigning patients to two groups (Platform, n = 15, and Exercises, n = 17). The platform moved periodically in the anteroposterior, laterolateral, and oblique direction, with and without vision in different trials. Balance exercises were based on the Otago Exercise Program...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706697/prediction-of-falling-risk-after-discharge-in-ambulatory-stroke-or-history-of-fracture-patients-using-balance-evaluation-systems-test-bestest
#14
Kazuhiro Miyata, Yoichi Kaizu, Shigeru Usuda
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between falls and sections of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in patients with stroke or those with a history of fracture. [Subjects and Methods] This longitudinal study included 51 self-ambulatory inpatients. Balance was assessed 1 week prior to discharge using the BESTest, and the incidence of falls within 6 months after discharge was investigated. Relationships between falling and balance components were analyzed using the t - test or the Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis...
April 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705520/developmental-changes-in-spatial-margin-of-stability-in-typically-developing-children-relate-to-the-mechanics-of-gait
#15
Ann Hallemans, Evi Verbecque, Raphael Dumas, Laurence Cheze, Angèle Van Hamme, Thomas Robert
BACKGROUND: Immature balance control is considered an important rate limiter for maturation of gait. The spatial margin of stability (MoS) is a biomechanical measure of dynamic balance control that might provide insights into balance control strategies used by children during the developmental course of gait. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize there will be an age-dependent decrease in MoS in children with typical development. To understand the mechanics, relations between MoS and spatio-temporal parameters of gait are investigated...
April 18, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702370/dual-task-interference-during-gait-on-irregular-terrain-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Hang Xu, Andrew Merryweather, K Bo Foreman, Jie Zhao, MaryEllen Hunt
BACKGROUND: Gait impairments in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are accentuated in dual-task conditions. Most PD studies on dual-task gait have measured only straight line walking and treadmill gait. Gait alterations on irregular terrain are poorly understood. RESEARCH QUESTION: To what extent does walking on irregular terrain exacerbate dual-task interference in people with PD, compared to age-matched control participants? METHODS: Gait data were collected for nine participants with mild to moderate PD and nine healthy age-matched participants on regular and irregular terrains...
April 22, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701182/wearable-technology-reveals-gait-compensations-unstable-walking-patterns-and-fatigue-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Michael Psarakis, David Greene, Michael H Cole, Stephen R Lord, Phu Hoang, Matthew A D Brodie
People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) often experience a decline in gait performance, which can compromise their independence and increase falls. Ankle joint contractures in PwMS are common and often result in compensatory gait patterns to accommodate reduced ankle range of motion (ROM). Using advances in wearable technology, the aim of this study was to quantify head and pelvis movement patterns that occur in PwMS with disability and determine how these secondary gait compensations impact on gait stability...
April 27, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692699/a-control-scheme-that-uses-dynamic-postural-synergies-to-coordinate-a-hybrid-walking-neuroprosthesis-theory-and-experiments
#18
Naji A Alibeji, Vahidreza Molazadeh, Brad E Dicianno, Nitin Sharma
A hybrid walking neuroprosthesis that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton can be used to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. It provides therapeutic benefits of FES and torque reliability of the powered exoskeleton. Moreover, by harnessing metabolic power of muscles via FES, the hybrid combination has a potential to lower power consumption and reduce actuator size in the powered exoskeleton. Its control design, however, must overcome the challenges of actuator redundancy due to the combined use of FES and electric motor...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690496/dual-task-elderly-gait-of-prospective-fallers-and-non-fallers-a-wearable-sensor-based-analysis
#19
Jennifer Howcroft, Edward D Lemaire, Jonathan Kofman, William E McIlroy
Wearable sensors could facilitate point of care, clinically feasible assessments of dynamic stability and associated fall risk through an assessment of single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) walking. This study investigated gait changes between ST and DT walking and between older adult prospective fallers and non-fallers. The results were compared to a study based on retrospective fall occurrence. Seventy-five individuals (75.2 ± 6.6 years; 47 non-fallers, 28 fallers; 6 month prospective fall occurrence) walked 7...
April 21, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689764/a-speed-based-approach-to-vestibular-rehabilitation-for-peripheral-vestibular-hypofunction-a-retrospective-chart-review
#20
Robert Alan Roller, Courtney D Hall
BACKGROUND: Current vestibular rehabilitation for peripheral vestibular hypofunction is an exercise-based approach that improves symptoms and function in most, but not all patients, and includes gaze stabilization exercises focused on duration of head movement. One factor that may impact rehabilitation outcomes is the speed of head movement during gaze stability exercises. OBJECTIVE: Examine outcomes of modified VOR X1 exercises that emphasize a speed-based approach for gaze stabilization while omitting substitution and habituation exercises...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
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