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gait initiation

Christopher J Hasson, Sarah E Goodman
This work aims to understand the sensorimotor processes used by humans when learning how to manipulate a virtual model of locomotor dynamics. Prior research shows that when interacting with novel dynamics, humans develop internal models that map neural commands to limb motion, and vice-versa. Whether this can be extrapolated to locomotor rehabilitation, a continuous and rhythmic activity that involves dynamically complex interactions is unknown. In this case, humans could default to model-free strategies. These competing hypotheses were tested with a novel interactive locomotor simulator that reproduced the dynamics of hemiparetic gait...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
S Telfer, J J Bigham
BACKGROUND: The measurement of plantar pressure distributions during gait can provide insights into the effects of musculoskeletal disease on foot function. A range of hardware, software, and protocols are available for the collection of this type of data, with sometimes disparate and conflicting results reported between individual studies. In this systematic review and meta-regression analysis of dynamic regional peak pressures, we aimed to test if 1) the system used to obtain the pressure measurements and 2) the characteristics of the study populations had a significant effect on the results...
October 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Thierry Gélat, Laure Coudrat, Carole Ferrel-Chapus, Sylvie Vernazza-Martin
Previous studies have reported that anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) associated with gait initiation are affected by emotion-eliciting images. This study examined the effect of the duration of exposure to emotional images on the APAs along the progression axis. From a standing posture, 39 young adults had to reach a table by walking (several steps) toward pleasant or unpleasant images, under two sets of conditions. In the short condition, the word "go" appeared on the image 500 ms after image onset and participants were instructed to initiate gait as soon as possible after the word go appeared...
November 1, 2018: Brain Sciences
Ulisses T Taddei, Alessandra B Matias, Fernanda I A Ribeiro, Rafael S Inoue, Sicco A Bus, Isabel C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: The goal was to examine the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effect of a therapeutic foot-ankle training program to prevent injury in long-distance runners. First, we evaluated (i) the access to participants and recruitment success; (ii) participants' satisfaction and adherence to the program; (iii) the effect of the training program to improve foot muscle strength and change foot biomechanics; and, second, we used the collected data for a post hoc sample size calculation...
October 24, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Dario Martelli, Boxi Xia, Antonio Prado, Sunil K Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) has been used to study locomotor adaptability during balance-demanding tasks by exploring how humans react and adapt to the virtual environment (VE) and discordant sensorimotor stimulations. Previous research primarily focused on treadmill walking and little is known regarding the propensity for gait adaptations during overground walking and over time. RESEARCH QUESTION: To what extent healthy young adults modify and adapt gait during overground walking in a VE and with continuous multidirectional perturbations of the visual field while wearing a VR headset? METHODS: Twelve healthy young adults walked for 6 min on an instrumented walkway in four different conditions: RE, VE, and VE with antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) pseudo-random oscillations of the visual field...
October 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Ashley Y Disantis, Sara R Piva, James J Irrgang
Background: The physical function subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC-PF) is widely used and endorsed by professional organizations for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Its use post total knee replacement (TKR) has been challenged as it may not represent the high level of functional performance that is expected by patients who undergo contemporary TKR with more advanced techniques and care pathways. Objective: To assess whether the items of the WOMAC-PF reflect the activity limitations identified by patients following TKR...
2018: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics
Supriyo Choudhury, Sayan Chatterjee, Koustav Chatterjee, Rebecca Banerjee, Jonathan Humby, Banashree Mondal, Sidharth S Anand, Shantanu Shubham, Hrishikesh Kumar Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12) is a rare form of an autosomal-dominant ataxic disorder associated with an expansion of CAG repeat length. Here, we present a large case series of patients with SCA12 and describe a wide range of typical and rare symptoms. Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with genetically proven SCA12 underwent detailed neurological examination...
January 2018: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Martina Betschart, Bradford J McFayden, Sylvie Nadeau
The main goal was to investigate changes in muscle activity and joint moments related to step length (SL) symmetry improvements in individuals poststroke following repeated split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Twelve individuals with a first unilateral cerebral stroke presenting initial SL asymmetry (ratio = 1.10-2.05), and mean time post stroke 23 (SD 24.7 months) were included. Participants were trained during six sessions of SBT walking using an error-augmentation protocol. The training resulted in a reduction in SL asymmetry during walking over ground retained over 1-month post-training (p = 0...
October 25, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Eric Anson, Elizabeth Thompson, Samuel C Karpen, Brian L Odle, Edith Seier, John Jeka, Peter C Panus
OBJECTIVE: Drugs increase fall risk and decrease performance on balance and mobility tests. Conversely, whether biofeedback training to reduce fall risk also decreases scores on a published drug-based fall risk index has not been documented. Forty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent either treadmill gait training plus visual feedback (+VFB), or walked on a treadmill without feedback. The Quantitative Drug Index (QDI) was derived from each participant's drug list and is based upon all cause drug-associated fall risk...
October 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Katherine R Schoepp, Jonathon S Schofield, David Home, Michael R Dawson, Edmond Lou, McNiel Keri, Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert
Prosthetic elevated vacuum is a suspension method used to reduce daily volume changes of the residual limb. Evaluation of the effectiveness of these systems is limited due to a lack of correlation to actual socket air pressure, particularly during unconstrained movements. This may explain some of the variability in functional outcomes reported in the literature. Our objective was to develop a light-weight portable socket measurement system to quantify internal socket air pressure, temperature, and acceleration; and to present preliminary results from implementation with three transtibial prosthesis users with mechanical elevated vacuum pumps...
2018: PloS One
Susanne G R Klotz, Corinna Petersen-Ewert, Gesche Ketels, Martin Scherer, Anne Barzel
BACKGROUND: Community ambulation is often affected after a stroke. However, no validated assessment in German to measure community ambulation on a participation level exists. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Functional Walking Categories (FWC) into German and to assess its validity and reliability in patients with stroke. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation guidelines were used for translation. Face and content validity were established with the aid of an expert committee...
October 22, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Heinz Lohrer, Nikolaos Malliaropoulos, Vasileios Korakakis, Nat Padhiar
The purpose of this review is to describe and critically evaluate current knowledge regarding diagnosis, assessment, and management of chronic overload leg injuries which are often non-specific and misleadingly referred to as 'shin splints'. We aimed to review clinical entities that come under the umbrella term 'Exercise-induced leg pain' (EILP) based on current literature and systematically searched the literature. Specifically, systematic reviews were included. Our analyses demonstrated that current knowledge on EILP is based on a low level of evidence...
October 22, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Nathan Daniel Neckel, Hai-Ning Dai, Mark P Burns
As rodent locomotion becomes a more popular behavioral assay, proper rodent gait analysis becomes more and more important. Gait measures such as stride length, cycle time, and duty factor are not independent of each other, making statistical comparisons between groups a tricky endeavor. Instead of identifying the mathematical relationships between a group of locomotor measures, we simply tracked the steps of rodents in x,y,t space. By plotting with respect to the reference limb, we are able to quantify locomotor changes in space, time, and coordination simultaneously...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Ben Sidaway, Aimee Aaroe, Monique Albert, Kristen LePage, Garrett Desrosiers, Megan Keith, Alexandra Laniewski, Jaime Perry, Caryce Morell, Jason Prada, Jessica Stuart, Rachel Voicechovski
BACKGROUND: An essential requirement for the guidance of action in cluttered environments is that people can accurately perceive what actions are afforded by particular surroundings given the person's action capabilities. Research has shown that healthy young individuals turn their shoulders when walking through a doorway when the aperture is less than a certain percentage of their shoulder width and that they are able to detect this critical width with visual inspection. These findings imply that movements are constrained by perception of the environment in body-scaled unit...
October 18, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Michael Marks, Trevor Kingsbury, Richard Bryant, John David Collins, Marilynn Wyatt
Accurately measuring a subject's abnormality using high dimensional data can empower better outcomes research. Utilizing applications in instrumented gait analysis, this article demonstrates how using data that is inherently non-independent to measure overall abnormality may bias results. A methodology is then introduced to address this bias and accurately measure abnormality in high dimensional spaces. While this methodology is in line with previous literature, it differs in two major ways. Advantageously, it can be applied to datasets in which the number of observations is less than the number of features/variables, and it can be abstracted to practically any number of domains or dimensions...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shigeki Kubota, Tetsuya Abe, Hideki Kadone, Yukiyo Shimizu, Toru Funayama, Hiroki Watanabe, Aiki Marushima, Masao Koda, Yasushi Hada, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: The hybrid assistive limb (HAL) is a wearable exoskeleton robot that assists walking and lower limb movements via real-time actuator control. Our aim was to clarify the safety and feasibility of using the HAL robotic suit for rehabilitation in patients with severe thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL). DESIGN: Uncontrolled case series; pre- and post-intervention measurement. SETTING: In-patient rehabilitation unit...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Romy Scholz, Johannes Lemcke, Ullrich Meier, Dirk Stengel
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a distinct form of dementia, characterized by gait ataxia, cognitive impairment and urinary incontinence. In contrast to all other causes of dementia (e.g., Alzheimer-type and others), ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery may offer a curative treatment option to patients. While being a rather low-risk type of surgery, it may cause significant over- or underdrainage complications (e.g., headaches, dizziness, vomiting, intracerebral bleeding, etc...
October 17, 2018: Trials
Albert H Vette, Joe M Watt, Justin Lewicke, Beth Watkins, Lee M Burkholder, John Andersen, Gian S Jhangri, Sukhdeep Dulai
Initial heel contact is an important attribute of gait, and failure to complete the heel rocker reduces gait stability. One common goal in treating toe-walking is to restore heel strike and prevent or reduce early heel rise. Foot floor angle (FFA) is a measure of toe-walking that is valuable for quantifying foot orientation at initial contact when using ankle dorsiflexion angle alone is misleading. However, no age-standardized FFA norms exist for clinical evaluation. Our objectives were to: (1) obtain normative FFA in typically developing children; and (2) examine its utility in the example of toe-walking secondary to unilateral cerebral palsy...
July 11, 2018: Foot
Yuri Russo, Marika Berchicci, Francesco Di Russo, Giuseppe Vannozzi
BACKGROUND: Movement-Related Cortical Potentials (MRCPs) are widely used in studying brain dynamics of motor control. However, limited information is available on complex tasks such as locomotion for which the appropriate identification of gait initiation trigger is still a technical challenge. Thus, it is conceivable that recorded brain activity may vary due to the instrument used to provide the temporal trigger. Therefore, a comparative assessment was performed to determine whether and how trigger identification techniques affect the MRCP in gait initiation...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lianne Zevenbergen, Colin R Smith, Sam Van Rossom, Darryl G Thelen, Nele Famaey, Jos Vander Sloten, Ilse Jonkers
OBJECTIVES: The current study quantified the influence of cartilage defect location on the tibiofemoral load distribution during gait. Furthermore, changes in local mechanical stiffness representative for matrix damage or bone ingrowth were investigated. This may provide insights in the mechanical factors contributing to cartilage degeneration in the presence of an articular cartilage defect. METHODS: The load distribution following cartilage defects was calculated using a musculoskeletal model that included tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints with 6 degrees-of-freedom...
2018: PloS One
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