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Anatomy variation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902864/comparative-skull-anatomy-of-terrestrial-and-crevice-dwelling-trachylepis-skinks-squamata-scincidae-with-a-survey-of-resources-in-scincid-cranial-osteology
#1
Daniel J Paluh, Aaron M Bauer
Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901951/real-time-non-rigid-target-tracking-for-ultrasound-guided-clinical-interventions
#2
Cornel Zachiu, Mario G Ries, Pascal Ramaekers, Jean-Luc Guey, Chrit T W Moonen, Baudouin Denis de Senneville
Biological motion is a problem for non- or mini-invasive interventions when conducted in mobile/deformable organs due to the targeted pathology moving/deforming with the organ. This may lead to high miss rates and/or incomplete treatment of the pathology. Therefore, real-time tracking of the target anatomy during the intervention would be beneficial for such applications. Since the aforementioned interventions are often conducted under B-mode ultrasound (US) guidance, target tracking can be achieved via image registration, by comparing the acquired US images to a separate image established as positional reference...
September 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901615/model-based-dose-reconstruction-for-ct-dose-estimation
#3
Mingye Wu, Zhye Yin, Bruno De Man
PURPOSE: Our goal is to develop a model-based approach for CT dose estimation. We previously presented a CT dose estimation method that offered good accuracy in soft tissue regions but lower accuracy in bone regions. In this work, we propose an improved physic-based approach to achieve high accuracy for any materials and realistic clinical anatomies. METHODS: Like Monte Carlo techniques, we start from a model or image of the patient and we model all relevant x-ray interaction processes...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898423/iterative-volume-of-interest-based-4d-cone-beam-ct
#4
Rachael Martin, Moiz Ahmad, Geoffrey Hugo, Tinsu Pan
PURPOSE: 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) has potential applications in soft tissue alignment and tumor motion verification at the time of radiation treatment. However, prominent streak artifacts with conventional image reconstructions have limited its clinical use and alternative reconstructions are generally too computationally expensive for the time available. We propose an iterative volume of interest based (I4D VOI) reconstruction technique, where 4D reconstruction is only performed within a VOI, to limit streak artifacts with limited added computation time...
September 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893395/morphologic-variability-of-the-mitral-valve-leaflets
#5
Agata Krawczyk-Ożóg, Mateusz K Hołda, Danuta Sorysz, Mateusz Koziej, Zbigniew Siudak, Dariusz Dudek, Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska
OBJECTIVES: The rapid development of surgical and less-invasive percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures has increased interest in mitral valve anatomy. We characterize the morphologic variability of the mitral valve leaflets and provide the size of their particular parts. METHODS: We studied 200 autopsied human hearts from white individuals without any valvar diseases. We measured the intercommissural and aorto-mural diameters of the mitral annulus and identified the leaflets and their scallops...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893051/permanent-maxillary-central-incisor-with-dilacerated-crown-and-root-and-c-shaped-root-canal
#6
Vikas Allwani, Mansing Pawar, Ajinkya Pawar, Sayed Abrar, Sangeeta Ambhore
Dilaceration is a rare disturbance in traumatised permanent teeth, which constitutes about 3% of the injuries to developing teeth. It usually occurs as a result of trauma to the deciduous predecessors and results in non axial displacement of the already formed hard tissue portion of the developing crown. Endodontic treatment of such teeth presents a challenge to clinicians, and careful management is required to successfully address the root canal anatomy and other possible variations. The C-shaped canal configuration is most frequently seen in mandibular second molars, but this variation may also occur in mandibular first molars, mandibular third molars, maxillary molars, mandibular first premolars, and even in maxillary lateral incisors, with rare reports of such variations occurring in the maxillary central incisors...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891898/vascular-anomalies-of-posterior-fossa-and-their-implications
#7
Rajani Singh, Raj Kumar, Arushi Kumar
Posterior fossa houses very vital and sensitive structures namely midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. These structures are irrigated by vertebral, posterior inferior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, and superior cerebellar arteries. Parts of brain located in posterior fossa control important parts of body so any variation pertaining to stenosis, atresia, hypoplasia, fenestration, agenesis, and duplication in the arteries supplying these parts alter the irrigation pattern culminating into various morbid and mortal neurologic disorders...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890416/bayesian-population-receptive-field-modelling
#8
REVIEW
Peter Zeidman, Edward Harry Silson, Dietrich Samuel Schwarzkopf, Chris Ian Baker, Will Penny
We introduce a probabilistic (Bayesian) framework and associated software toolbox for mapping population receptive fields (pRFs) based on fMRI data. This generic approach is intended to work with stimuli of any dimension and is demonstrated and validated in the context of 2D retinotopic mapping. The framework enables the experimenter to specify generative (encoding) models of fMRI timeseries, in which experimental stimuli enter a pRF model of neural activity, which in turns drives a nonlinear model of neurovascular coupling and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) response...
September 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885316/evaluation-of-single-tooth-loss-to-maxillary-sinus-and-surrounding-bone-anatomy-with-cone-beam-computed-tomography-a-multicenter-study
#9
Huseyin Gencay Keceli, Erhan Dursun, Anil Dolgun, Miguel Velasco-Torres, Suzan Karaoglulari, Reihaneh Ghoreishi, Khaled Sinjab, Rachel A Sheridan, Marius Kubilius, Melek D Tözüm, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, Hasan Guney Yilmaz, Hom-Lay Wang, Gintaras Juodzbalys, Tolga F Tözüm
BACKGROUND: Posterior maxillary tooth loss may complicate the implant treatment due to the alterations in alveolar anatomy and maxillary sinus pneumatization. This study aimed to comprehensively examine the anatomical structure of this region from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The posterior maxilla regions with single tooth loss were analyzed by dividing the variables into 3 subgroups from images of 597 patients chosen from 1160 CBCTs...
September 6, 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881023/double-outlet-left-ventricle-with-a-bicuspid-pulmonary-valve-and-aortic-coarctation
#10
Feifei Sun, Miao Fan, Liping Huang, Weidong Ren, Dongyu Li
A double-outlet left ventricle (DOLV) is a rare congenital cardiac malformation. Here, we describe a case of DOLV with bicuspid pulmonary valve, aortic coarctation, and a subpulmonary ventricular septal defect in which both ventricles were well developed. The anatomic features were observed with echocardiography, and the diagnosis was confirmed at surgery. Many variations of DOLV have been described. The features of our case expand the spectrum of this entity and may provide new insight into its complex anatomy...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878577/echocardiographic-classification-and-surgical-approaches-to-double-outlet-right-ventricle-for-great-arteries-arising-almost-exclusively-from-the-right-ventricle
#11
Kun-Jing Pang, Hong Meng, Sheng-Shou Hu, Hao Wang, David Hsi, Zhong-Dong Hua, Xiang-Bin Pan, Shou-Jun Li
Selecting an appropriate surgical approach for double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), a complex congenital cardiac malformation with many anatomic variations, is difficult. Therefore, we determined the feasibility of using an echocardiographic classification system, which describes the anatomic variations in more precise terms than the current system does, to determine whether it could help direct surgical plans. Our system includes 8 DORV subtypes, categorized according to 3 factors: the relative positions of the great arteries (normal or abnormal), the relationship between the great arteries and the ventricular septal defect (committed or noncommitted), and the presence or absence of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO)...
August 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875294/a-median-sacral-artery-anterior-to-the-iliocaval-junction-a-case-report-anatomical-considerations-and-clinical-relevance-for-spine-surgery
#12
Louis Chenin, Sharmila Tandabany, Pascal Foulon, Eric Havet, Johann Peltier
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: The median sacral artery (MSA) is a relatively small vessel that always arises from the posterior, terminal part of the infrarenal aorta. In most cases, the MSA runs behind the iliocaval junction. Here, we describe a very rare case of an MSA running in front of this junction. CASE REPORT: During a human cadaveric dissection of the retroperitoneal area, we unexpectedly observed that the MSA passed in front of the left common iliac vein...
September 5, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874626/anatomical-variations-of-cervical-vein-drainage-in-candidates-for-neck-surgery
#13
Raoul Borioni, Federico Maspes, Virgilio Baldassarre, Mariano Garofalo
The knowledge of both normal and abnormal anatomy of the veins of the neck may be important for surgeons performing neck surgery, to avoid inadvertent injury to vascular structures. In a 75-year-old man candidated to carotid endarterectomy preoperative CT-scan showed a rare anomaly of the venous drainage in the area of the anterior jugular vein (AJV), that usually begins in the suprahyoid region via the confluence of several superficial veins, to open into the ipsilateral external jugular vein. A large left sided venous trunk, originating from an anomalous proximal confluence with the internal jugular vein, descended in the AJV anatomical position, to cross over the sternum draining into the right subclavian vein...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874269/locomotion-and-basicranial-anatomy-in-primates-and-marsupials
#14
Catalina I Villamil
There is ongoing debate in paleoanthropology about whether and how the anatomy of the cranium, and especially the cranial base, is evolving in response to locomotor and postural changes. However, the majority of studies focus on two-dimensional data, which fails to capture the complexity of cranial anatomy. This study tests whether three-dimensional cranial base anatomy is linked to locomotion or to other factors in primates (n = 473) and marsupials (n = 231). Results indicate that although there is a small effect of locomotion on cranial base anatomy in primates, this is not the case in marsupials...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872096/clinical-reappraisal-of-vasculobiliary-anatomy-relevant-to-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#15
Kuldip Singh, Ranbir Singh, Manjot Kaur
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has many advantages as compared to open cholecystectomy. However, vasculobiliary injuries still continue to be a matter of concern despite advances in laparoscopic techniques. Misidentification and misperception of vasculobiliary structures is considered to be a pivotal factor leading to injuries. Although many studies since time immemorial have stressed on the importance of anatomy, an insight into laparoscopic anatomy is what essentially constitutes the need of the hour...
October 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871465/the-crossing-duct-sign
#16
REVIEW
Yan-Lin Li, Man-Leung Yu, Kam-Ho Lee
Pancreas divisum is a common variation in pancreatic ductal anatomy present in up to 10% of the population with variable clinical importance. The crossing duct sign refers to the appearance of dominant dorsal duct crossing the intrapancreatic common bile duct to empty into the minor papilla, best illustrated on maximum intensity projection images from MRCP.
September 4, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871074/acoustics-of-snoring-and-automatic-snore-sound-detection-in-children
#17
Mustafa Cavusoglu, Christian Poets, Michael Urschitz
Acoustic analyses of snoring sounds have been efficiently used to objectively assess snoring and to apply in various clinical problems for adult patients. Such studies require highly automatized tools to analyze the whole night sleep sound recordings to extract clinically relevant snore related statistics. The existing techniques and software for adults are not efficiently applicable to snoring sounds in pediatric patients basically because of different acoustic signal properties. In this paper, we present a broad range of acoustic characterization of snoring sounds in children (N=38) in comparison to adult (N=30) patients...
September 5, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868226/recurrent-gastric-ulcer-and-cholangitis-caused-by-ectopic-drainage-of-the-bile-duct-into-the-stomach
#18
Katrin Bauer, Christof Keller
We report a case of recurrent gastritis with pyloric stenosis and cholangitis due to a rare variation in bile duct anatomy. A 72-year-old female patient showed recurrent gastral ulcers and biliary colic with cholangitis caused by gallstones in the main bile duct with an ectopic orifice in the prepyloric region and concurrent inflammatory pyloric stenosis. After temporarily successful endoscopic treatment with stenting and pyloric dilatation, the patient suffered from recurrent cholangitis. Finally, the abnormal biliary anatomy required surgical treatment with biliodigestive anastomosis...
2017: GMS Interdisciplinary Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery DGPW
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865185/developmental-morphology-and-topography-of-the-components-of-the-cervical-sympathetic-trunk-in-sheep-ovis-aries-during-the-fetal-period
#19
Jamal Nourinezhad, Saleh Bamohabat, Yazdan Mazaheri
The objective of this study was to clarify the typical architecture and morphological variations of cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) in sheep during fetal period. Components of CST were examined on both sides of 40 male and female sheep fetuses aged from 60-140 days under a stereomicroscope. Skeletotopy and frequency of presence of cranial cervical ganglion (CCG), syntopy of cervical ganglia, and composition and topography of vagosympathetic trunk were consistent among specimens whereas the shape of cervical ganglia, the skeletotopy and number of three middle cervical ganglia (MG), and the frequency of communicating branches of CCG to the first cervical spinal nerve exhibited differences during fetal period...
September 2, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859846/the-influence-of-the-hips-position-on-measurements-of-posterior-tilt-in-a-valgus-impacted-femoral-neck-fracture
#20
Sigurd Erik Hoelsbrekken, Filip C Dolatowski
INTRODUCTION: Lateral radiographs are important for the evaluation of Garden I and II femoral neck fractures. These fractures appear undisplaced in the anteroposterior view, but posterior tilt of the femoral head may still be present in the lateral view. The influence of posterior tilt is, however, debated, which could be caused by the use of non-standardized cross-table radiographs in the conflicting reports. The aim of this bone-model study was therefore to evaluate the influence of the hips position on measurements of posterior tilt...
August 26, 2017: Injury
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