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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092118/incorporation-of-ct-based-measurements-of-trunk-anatomy-into-subject-specific-musculoskeletal-models-of-the-spine-influences-vertebral-loading-predictions
#1
Alexander G Bruno, Hossein Mokhtarzadeh, Brett T Allaire, Kelsey R Velie, M Clara De Paolis Kaluza, Dennis E Anderson, Mary L Bouxsein
We created subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the thoracolumbar spine by incorporating spine curvature and muscle morphology measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans to determine the degree to which vertebral compressive and shear loading estimates are sensitive to variations in trunk anatomy. We measured spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology using spine CT scans of 125 men, and then created four different thoracolumbar spine models for each person: 1) height and weight adjusted (Ht/Wt models); 2) height, weight and spine curvature adjusted (+C models); 3) height, weight and muscle morphology adjusted (+M models); and 4) height, weight, spine curvature, and muscle morphology adjusted (+CM models)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091426/mri-based-detailed-evaluation-of-the-anatomy-of-the-human-coccyx-among-turkish-adults
#2
H Tetiker, M I Koşar, N Çullu, U Canbek, I Otağ, Y Taştemur
AIM: The human coccyx varies considerably in shape and size. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphology and morphometry of the coccyx on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic individuals among Turkish adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted retrospectively on the pelvic magnetic resonance images of 456 adult patients without a history of trauma in the coccyx region. The coccygeal vertebrae count, number of bone segments, and intercoccygeal and sacrococcygeal joint fusions were determined from the sagittal plane images...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090506/cystic-duct-variation-detected-by-near-infrared-fluorescent-cholangiography-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#3
Nam Seok Kim, Hyeong Yong Jin, Eun Young Kim, Tae Ho Hong
Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) is an emerging technique for easy intraoperative recognition of biliary anatomy. We present a case of cystic duct variation detected by NIRFC which had a potential risk for biliary injury if not detected. A 32-year-old female was admitted to the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital for surgery for an incidental gallbladder polyp. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with NIRFC. In fluorescence mode, a long cystic duct and an accessory short hepatic duct joining to the cystic duct were found and the operation was completed safely...
January 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078171/could-revision-of-the-embryology-influence-our-cesarean-delivery-technique-towards-an-optimized-cesarean-delivery-for-universal-use
#4
Michael Stark, Ospan Mynbaev, Yuri Vassilevski, Patrick Rozenberg
Until today, there is no standardized Cesarean Section method and many variations exist. The main variations concern the type of abdominal incision, usage of abdominal packs, suturing the uterus in one or two layers, and suturing the peritoneal layers or leaving them open. One of the questions is the optimal location of opening the uterus. Recently, omission of the bladder flap was recommended. The anatomy and histology as results from the embryological knowledge might help to solve this question. The working thesis is that the higher the incision is done, the more damage to muscle tissue can take place contrary to incision in the lower segment, where fibrous tissue prevails...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076015/us-and-mr-imaging-of-pectoralis-major-injuries
#5
Yauk K Lee, Matt R Skalski, Eric A White, Anderanik Tomasian, Diane D Phan, Dakshesh B Patel, George R Matcuk, Aaron J Schein
During the past 2 decades, the frequency of pectoralis major muscle injuries has increased in association with the increased popularity of bench press exercises. Injury of the pectoralis major can occur at the muscle origin, muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, intratendinous region, and/or humeral insertion-with or without bone avulsion. The extent of the tendon injury ranges from partial to complete tears. Treatment may be surgical or conservative, depending on the clinical scenario and anatomic characteristics of the injury...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075206/hydrogel-rectum-prostate-spacers-mitigate-the-uncertainties-in-proton-relative-biological-effectiveness-associated-with-anterior-oblique-beams
#6
Tracy S A Underwood, Justin C Voog, Maryam Moteabbed, Shikui Tang, Edward Soffen, Oren Cahlon, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Anthony L Zietman, Jason A Efstathiou, Harald Paganetti
AIM: Anterior-oblique (AO) proton beams can form an attractive option for prostate patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as they avoid the femoral heads. For a cohort with hydrogel prostate-rectum spacers, we asked whether it was possible to generate AO proton plans robust to end-of-range elevations in linear energy transfer (LET) and modeled relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Additionally we considered how rectal spacers influenced planned dose distributions for AO and standard bilateral (SB) proton beams versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
January 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069836/optimization-of-catheter-tissue-contact-during-pulmonary-vein-isolation-the-impact-of-atrial-rhythm
#7
Roberto De Ponti, Raffaella Marazzi, Lorenzo A Doni, Jacopo Marazzato, Claudia Baratto, Jorge A Salerno-Uriarte
AIMS: During pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), even if operators are aware of the contact force (CF), its values may greatly vary and the impact of cardiac rhythm has not been thoroughly investigated yet. This study aims at assessing the actual values of CF, the applications with suboptimal CF, and the impact of cardiac rhythm on CF during PVI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty patients undergoing point-by-point PVI with a CF-sensing catheter were considered. CF target was between 6 and 40 g...
January 8, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066735/arthroscopic-approach-and-anatomy-of-the-hip
#8
Alessandro Aprato, Matteo Giachino, Alessandro Masse
BACKGROUND: Hip arthroscopy has gained popularity among the orthopedic community and a precise assessment of indications, techniques and results is constantly brought on. METHODS: In this chapter the principal standard entry portals for central and peripheral compartment are discussed. The description starts from the superficial landmarks for portals placement and continues with the deep layers. For each entry point an illustration of the main structures encountered is provided and the principal structures at risk for different portals are accurately examined...
July 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062590/shared-characteristics-underpinning-c4-leaf-maturation-derived-from-analysis-of-multiple-c3-and-c4-species-of-flaveria
#9
Britta M C Kümpers, Steven J Burgess, Ivan Reyna-Llorens, Richard Smith-Unna, Chris Boursnell, Julian M Hibberd
Most terrestrial plants use C3 photosynthesis to fix carbon. In multiple plant lineages a modified system known as C4 photosynthesis has evolved. To better understand the molecular patterns associated with induction of C4 photosynthesis, the genus Flaveria that contains C3 and C4 species was used. A base to tip maturation gradient of leaf anatomy was defined, and RNA sequencing was undertaken along this gradient for two C3 and two C4 Flaveria species. Key C4 traits including vein density, mesophyll and bundle sheath cross-sectional area, chloroplast ultrastructure, and abundance of transcripts encoding proteins of C4 photosynthesis were quantified...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056801/polyploidy-and-the-relationship-between-leaf-structure-and-function-implications-for-correlated-evolution-of-anatomy-morphology-and-physiology-in-brassica
#10
Robert L Baker, Yulia Yarkhunova, Katherine Vidal, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055827/joint-mr-pet-reconstruction-using-a-multi-channel-image-regularizer
#11
Florian Knoll, Martin Holler, Thomas Koesters, Ricardo Otazo, Kristian Bredies, Daniel K Sodickson
While current state of the art MR-PET scanners enable simultaneous MR and PET measurements, the acquired data sets are still usually reconstructed separately. We propose a new multi-modality reconstruction framework using second order Total Generalized Variation (TGV) as a dedicated multi-channel regularization functional that jointly reconstructs images from both modalities. In this way, information about the underlying anatomy is shared during the image reconstruction process while unique differences are preserved...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054384/computational-anatomy-of-the-dens-axis-evaluated-by-quantitative-computed-tomography-implications-for-anterior-screw-fixation
#12
Dominic Gehweiler, Dirk Wähnert, Norbert Meier, Maarten Spruit, Michael Johannes Raschke, Robert Geoff Richards, Hansrudi Noser, Lukas Kamer
The surgical fracture fixation of the odontoid process (dens) of the second cervical vertebra (C2/axis) is a challenging procedure, particularly in elderly patients affected by bone loss, and includes screw positioning close to vital structures. The aim of this study was to provide an extended anatomical knowledge of C2, the bone mass distribution and bone loss, and to understand the implications for anterior screw fixation. 120 standard clinical quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans of the intact cervical spine from 60 female and 60 male European patients, aged 18-90 years, were used to compute a three-dimensional statistical model and an averaged bone mass model of C2...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052833/cadaveric-study-of-insertional-anatomy-of-distal-biceps-tendon-and-its-relationship-to-the-dynamic-proximal-radioulnar-space
#13
Deepak N Bhatia, Vikram Kandhari, Bibhas DasGupta
PURPOSE: To quantify and assess the relationship between the insertional dimensions of the distal biceps tendon (DBT) and radioulnar space (RUS) in 3 rotational positions. We hypothesized that in all positions RUS would be adequate for the DBT and would remain adequate even after an incremental increase (1 to 3 mm) in tendon thickness. METHODS: Eleven fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows were dissected; DBT dimensions and bicipital tuberosity measurements were performed and insertional footprints were quantified using a distal biceps footprint index...
January 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050473/evaluation-of-sinonasal-diseases-by-computed-tomography
#14
Rashmi Kandukuri, Suresh Phatak
INTRODUCTION: Computed Tomography (CT) plays an important diagnostic role in patients with sinonasal diseases and determines the treatment. The CT images clearly show fine structural architecture of bony anatomy thereby determining various anatomical variation, extent of disease and characterization of various inflammatory, benign and malignant sinonasal diseases. AIM: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of CT in diagnosis of sinonasal diseases and to characterise the benign and malignant lesions with the help of various CT parameters...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048870/su-f-j-81-evaluation-of-automated-deformable-registration-between-planning-computed-tomography-ct-and-daily-cone-beam-ct-images-over-the-course-of-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#15
J Matney, J Hammers, O Kaidar-Person, A Wang, R Chen, S Das, L Marks, P Mavroidis
PURPOSE: To compute daily dose delivered during radiotherapy, deformable registration needs to be relatively fast, automated, and accurate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of commercial deformable registration software for deforming between two modalities: planning computed tomography (pCT) images acquired for treatment planning and cone beam (CB) CT images acquired prior to each fraction of prostate cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: A workflow was designed using MIM Software™ that aligned and deformed pCT into daily CBCT images in two steps: (1) rigid shifts applied after daily CBCT imaging to align patient anatomy to the pCT and (2) normalized intensity-based deformable registration to account for interfractional anatomical variations...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048843/su-f-j-134-evaluation-of-deformation-field-accuracy-using-regional-rigid-registrations-with-variable-size
#16
E Ahunbay, X Li
PURPOSE: How to quickly assess the uncertainty in the Deformation Field (DF) generated from Deformable Image Registration (DIR) over the imaged anatomy is a major issue. Here we introduce a method to determine the DF uncertainty using local rigid registrations of varying box size. METHODS: A series of 6-degree rigid registrations are performed with a cubic ROI centered on the voxel of the interest. The size of the registration box is varied from a large value, e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048812/su-f-j-197-a-novel-intra-beam-range-detection-and-adaptation-strategy-for-particle-therapy
#17
M Chen, S Jiang, Y Shao, W Lu
PURPOSE: In-vivo range detection/verification is crucial in particle therapy for effective and safe delivery. The state-of-art techniques are not sufficient for in-vivo on-line range verification due to conflicts among patient dose, signal statistics and imaging time. We propose a novel intra-beam range detection and adaptation strategy for particle therapy. METHODS: This strategy uses the planned mid-range spots as probing beams without adding extra radiation to patients...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048756/su-f-j-66-anatomy-deformation-based-comparison-between-one-step-and-two-step-optimization-for-online-art
#18
Z Feng, G Yu, S Qin, C Ma, J Zhu, Y Yin, D Li
PURPOSE: This study investigated that how the quality of adapted plan was affected by inter-fractional anatomy deformation by using one-step and two-step optimization for on line adaptive radiotherapy (ART) procedure. METHODS: 10 lung carcinoma patients were chosen randomly to produce IMRT plan by one-step and two-step algorithms respectively, and the prescribed dose was set as 60 Gy on the planning target volume (PTV) for all patients. To simulate inter-fractional target deformation, four specific cases were created by systematic anatomy variation; including target superior shift 0...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048684/su-f-t-115-uncertainty-in-the-esophagus-dose-in-retrospective-epidemiological-study-of-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-patients
#19
E Mosher, S Kim, C Lee, C Pelletier, J Jung, E Jones, C Lee
PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risks in breast cancer radiotherapy patients often use generic patient anatomy to reconstruct normal tissue doses when CT images of patients are not available. To evaluate the uncertainty involved in the dosimetry approach, we evaluated the esophagus dose in five sample patients by simulating breast cancer treatments. METHODS: We obtained the diagnostic CT images of five anonymized adult female patients in different Body Mass Index (BMI) categories (16- 36kg/m2) from National Institutes of Health Clinical Center...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048682/su-f-t-188-a-robust-treatment-planning-technique-for-proton-pencil-beam-scanning-cranial-spinal-irradiation
#20
M Zhu, M Yam, M Mehta, S Badiyan, K Young, R Malyapa, W Regine, K Langen
PURPOSE: To propose a proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) treatment planning technique robust against patient roll, isocenter offset and proton range uncertainty. METHOD: Proton PBS plans were created (Eclipse V11) for three previously treated CSI patients to 36 Gy (1.8 Gy/fractions). The target volume was separated into three regions: brain, upper spine and lower spine. One posterior-anterior (PA) beam was used for each spine region, and two posterior-oblique beams (15° apart from PA direction, denoted as 2PO_15) for the brain region...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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