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Anatomy variation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350489/redescription-and-molecular-assessment-of-relationships-among-three-species-of-echeneibothrium-rhinebothriidea-echeneibothriidae-parasitizing-the-yellownose-skate-dipturus-chilensis-in-chile
#1
Veronica M Bueno, Janine N Caira
Much progress has recently been made towards revising the taxonomic assignments of genera originally classified in the polyphyletic "Tetraphyllidea". Many of these genera, including Echeneibothrium van Beneden, 1850, were accommodated in the order Rhinebothriidea. However, beyond this larger taxonomic action, little work has been conducted on this genus over the last 50 yrs. As a consequence, the criteria employed for characterizing species of Echeneibothrium have lagged behind those typically employed in more modern descriptions of elasmobranch-hosted cestode taxa...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346291/round-and-oval-window-anatomic-variability-its-implication-for-the-vibroplasty-technique
#2
Marta Mancheño, Miguel Aristegui, Jose Ramon Sañudo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anatomical variability of round and oval window regions and its relationship with their closest structures, to determine its implication on the fitting and stabilization of the middle ear implant Vibrant Soundbridge. METHODS: Variations of the anatomy of round and oval window regions were assessed in a total of 85 human dissected temporal bones. Afterward, we evaluated the adaptation and subsequent stabilization of the floating mass transducer (FMT) of the Vibrant Soundbridge in 67 cases in round window (RW) and in 22 cases in oval window (OW), and the influence that the variability of the different anatomical features examined had on this stabilization...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346287/the-impact-of-laparoscopic-assisted-colorectal-surgery-using-3-dimensional-reconstruction-for-highly-obese-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#3
Ryoichi Miyamoto, Sosuke Tadano, Naoki Sano, Satoshi Inagawa, Masayoshi Yamamoto
OBJECTIVES: During laparoscopic-assisted colorectal surgery (LACS), precise recognition of the anatomic variations and relationships among tumor and vessels is required. However, in highly obese patients, it is more difficult to grasp the surgical anatomy due to the presence of dense mesenteric fat tissue. We utilized a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructed image for preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation for LACS. In this study, we examined the correlation between patient obesity and 3D-simulated perioperative outcomes...
March 24, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346140/em-connectomics-reveals-axonal-target-variation-in-a-sequence-generating-network
#4
Jörgen Kornfeld, Sam E Benezra, Rajeevan T Narayanan, Fabian Svara, Robert Egger, Marcel Oberlaender, Winfried Denk, Michael A Long
The sequential activation of neurons has been observed in various areas of the brain, but in no case is the underlying network structure well understood. Here we examined the circuit anatomy of zebra finch HVC, a cortical region that generates sequences underlying the temporal progression of the song. We combined serial block-face electron microscopy with light microscopy to determine the cell types targeted by HVC(RA) neurons, which control song timing. Close to their soma, axons almost exclusively targeted inhibitory interneurons, consistent with what had been found with electrical recordings from pairs of cells...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345764/the-tarsal-metatarsal-complex-of-caviomorph-rodents-anatomy-and-functional-adaptive-analysis
#5
Adriana M Candela, Nahuel A Muñoz, César M García-Esponda
Caviomorph rodents represent a major adaptive radiation of Neotropical mammals. They occupy a variety of ecological niches, which is also reflected in their wide array of locomotor behaviors. It is expected that this radiation would be mirrored by an equivalent disparity of tarsal-metatarsal morphology. Here, the tarsal-metatarsal complex of Erethizontidae, Cuniculidae, Dasyproctidae, Caviidae, Chinchillidae, Octodontidae, Ctenomyidae, and Echimyidae was examined, in order to evaluate its anatomical variation and functional-adaptive relevance in relation to locomotor behaviors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343872/orbital-decompression-for-thyroid-eye-disease
#6
Daniel B Rootman
The literature regarding orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease is vast, spanning multiple specialty areas including neurosurgery, head and neck, maxillofacial and ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although techniques have advanced considerably over the more than 100 years during which this procedure has been performed, the four major approaches remain: transorbital, transcranial, transantral and transnasal. The explosion in literature related to orbital decompression has mostly involved minor technical variations on broader surgical themes...
March 23, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337460/caudal-epidural-block-an-updated-review-of-anatomy-and-techniques
#7
REVIEW
Sheng-Chin Kao, Chia-Shiang Lin
Caudal epidural block is a commonly used technique for surgical anesthesia in children and chronic pain management in adults. It is performed by inserting a needle through the sacral hiatus to gain entrance into the sacral epidural space. Using conventional blind technique, the failure rate of caudal epidural block in adults is high even in experienced hands. This high failure rate could be attributed to anatomic variations that make locating sacral hiatus difficult. With the advent of fluoroscopy and ultrasound in guiding needle placement, the success rate of caudal epidural block has been markedly improved...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337006/challenges-in-x-ray-diagnosis-a-review-of-referrals-for-specialist-opinion
#8
M Dave, K Horner
The aim of this study was to determine the common reasons why a dental professional might request a second opinion on a dental radiograph from a Dental and Maxillofacial (DMF) radiologist. The study was a retrospective analysis of consecutive referrals for an opinion received by post or email by one DMF radiologist based in a UK dental hospital. The study period was from March 2009 to November 2015. Referrals came from a mixture of sources: mainly from general dental practitioners and specialists working in primary care, but with some referrals from hospital-based practitioners...
March 24, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328589/cervical-retrograde-spinal-cord-stimulation-lead-placement-to-treat-failed-back-surgery-syndrome-a-case-report
#9
Noud van Helmond, Caroline N Kardaszewski, Kenneth B Chapman
Spinal cord stimulation is an effective treatment modality for refractory neuropathic pain conditions, but the placement of leads can be challenging due to unforeseen anatomical variations. We used a retrograde C7-T1 approach to place a lead at the bottom of T8 in a patient suffering from failed back surgery syndrome. We were able to achieve adequate stimulation in her lower back and legs, which resulted in significant reduction in pain intensity during the spinal cord stimulation trial. Cervical retrograde placement of leads may represent an alternative method for successful placement of percutaneous leads in patients with abnormal anatomy due to thoracic postsurgical changes...
March 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321475/the-forgotten-joint-quantifying-the-anatomy-of-the-proximal-tibiofibular-joint
#10
Jack Anavian, Daniel Cole Marchetti, Gilbert Moatshe, Erik L Slette, Jorge Chahla, Alex W Brady, David M Civitarese, Robert F LaPrade
PURPOSE: Limited objective data exist detailing the quantitative anatomy of the individual bundles of the proximal tibiofibular joint and their relation to surgically pertinent osseous landmarks. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the ligamentous anatomy of the proximal tibiofibular joint and its relation to relevant bony landmarks. METHODS: Ten non-paired, fresh-frozen cadaveric knee specimens were dissected to identify the proximal tibiofibular joint ligament bundles...
March 20, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320428/a-topology-based-method-to-mitigate-the-dosimetric-uncertainty-caused-by-the-positional-variation-of-the-boost-volume-in-breast-conservative-radiotherapy
#11
Peng-Yi Lee, Chih-Yuan Lin, Shang-Wen Chen, Chun-Ru Chien, Chun-Nan Chu, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Ji-An Liang, Ying-Jun Lin, An-Cheng Shiau
BACKGROUND: To improve local control rate in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery, additional boost dose to the tumor bed could be delivered simultaneously via the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) modulated technique. However, the position of tumor bed kept changing during the treatment course as the treatment position was aligned to bony anatomy. This study aimed to analyze the positional uncertainties between bony anatomy and tumor bed, and a topology-based approach was derived to stratify patients with high variation in tumor bed localization...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317556/skull-5-from-dmanisi-descriptive-anatomy-comparative-studies-and-evolutionary-significance
#12
G Philip Rightmire, Marcia S Ponce de León, David Lordkipanidze, Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer
A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317283/radiological-and-microsurgical-anatomy-for-variation-of-the-mandible-comparative-study-of-human-and-macaca-fascicularis
#13
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Yoko Tabira, Eishi Hirasaki, Christian Fisahn, R Shane Tubbs, Jingo Kusukawa, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
Recent studies using cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) have added to our understanding of anatomical variation in the mandible of humans. However, the distribution of nerves cannot be revealed by CBCT. There have been investigations of the distribution of nerves relating to the mandible, but some proposed causes of these variations remain controversial. In this study, we observed a total of 10 sides from five mandibles of Macaca fascicularis of unknown age and sex using CBCT and dissection under stereomicroscopy...
March 20, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315152/bilateral-robotic-transabdominal-adrenalectomy-in-a-patient-with-intestinal-malrotation
#14
Zuliang Feng, Carmen C Solórzano
Bilateral adrenalectomy is the preferred surgical approach for patients with failed treatments for pituitary-based Cushing's syndrome. Intestinal malrotation (IM) is a rare congenital anatomic variant that rarely affects adults. The abnormal abdominal anatomy is concerning to surgeons planning elective procedures in such patients. Here, we describe a bilateral robotic transabdominal adrenalectomy (RTA) in a patient with IM. A 29-year-old female presented with refractory pituitary-based Cushing's syndrome and was found to have IM on preoperative CT scan...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314908/anatomy-and-aesthetics-of-the-labia-minora-the-ideal-vulva
#15
REVIEW
C Clerico, A Larry, A Mojallal, F Boucher
Female genital cosmetic surgery is becoming more and more widespread both in the field of plastic and gynaecological surgery. The increased demand for vulvar surgery is spurred by the belief that the vulva is abnormal in appearance. What is normal in terms of labial anatomy? Labia minora enlargement or hypertrophy remains a clinical diagnosis which is poorly defined as it could be considered a variation of the normal anatomy. Enlarged labia minora can cause functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In reality, given the wide variety of vulvar morphology among people, it is a very subjective issue to define the "normal" vulva...
March 10, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314818/allometric-analysis-detects-brain-size-independent-effects-of-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-on-human-cerebellar-organization
#16
Catherine Mankiw, Min Tae M Park, P K Reardon, Ari M Fish, Liv S Clasen, Deanna Greenstein, Jay N Giedd, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty, Armin Raznahan
The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex-biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences - including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation - lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (i) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (ii) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare X-/Y-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (iii) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach which considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302462/the-impact-of-mechanical-and-restricted-kinematic-alignment-on-knee-anatomy-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Abdulaziz M Almaawi, Jonathan R B Hutt, Vincent Masse, Martin Lavigne, Pascal-Andre Vendittoli
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA), aiming at neutral mechanical alignment (MA), inevitably modifies the patient's native knee anatomy. Another option is kinematic alignment (KA), which aims to restore the original anatomy of the knee. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations in lower limb anatomy of a patient population scheduled for TKA, and to assess the use of a restricted KA TKA protocol and compare the resulting anatomic modifications with the standard MA technique...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297312/anatomy-based-definition-of-point-a-utilizing-three-dimensional-volumetric-imaging-approach-for-high-dose-rate-hdr-intracavitary-brachytherapy-dose-prescription-when-treating-cervical-cancer-using-limited-resources
#18
Manish K Goyal, D V Rai, Than S Kehwar, Jayanand Manjhi, Bret H Heintz, Kathleen L Shide, Jerry L Barker
This study was designed to determine whether volumetric imaging could identify consistent alternative prescription methods to Manchester/point A when prescribing radiation dose in the treatment of cervical cancer using HDR intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). One hundred and twenty-five treatment plans of 25 patients treated for carcinoma of the cervix were reviewed retrospectively. Each patient received 5 fractions of HDR ICBT following initial cisplatin-based pelvic chemoradiation, and radiation dose was originally prescribed to point A (ICRU-38)...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297298/dosimetric-and-volumetric-changes-in-the-rectum-and-bladder-in-patients-receiving-cbct-guided-prostate-imrt-analysis-based-on-daily-cbct-dose-calculation
#19
David Pearson, Sukhdeep K Gill, Nina Campbell, Krishna Reddy
Delivered dose can be calculated by transferring the planned treatment beams onto the daily CBCT. Bladder and rectum volumetric doses were calculated and correlated to the daily bladder and rectum fullness. Patients for this study underwent hypofractionated prostate IMRT to 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Daily CBCT was utilized for image guidance. A clinically acceptable plan was created using a CTV-to-PTV uniform margin of 5 mm. Image fusion was performed to transfer the bladder and rectum contours onto each CBCT...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297184/the-human-pelvis-variation-in-structure-and-function-during-gait
#20
Cara L Lewis, Natalie M Laudicina, Anne Khuu, Kari L Loverro
The shift to habitual bipedalism 4-6 million years ago in the hominin lineage created a morphologically and functionally different human pelvis compared to our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees. Evolutionary changes to the shape of the pelvis were necessary for the transition to habitual bipedalism in humans. These changes in the bony anatomy resulted in an altered role of muscle function, influencing bipedal gait. Additionally, there are normal sex-specific variations in the pelvis as well as abnormal variations in the acetabulum...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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