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Anatomy variation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635614/advanced-treatment-planning-using-direct-4d-optimisation-for-pencil-beam-scanned-particle-therapy
#1
Kinga Bernatowicz, Ye Zhang, Rosalind Lucy Perrin, Damien Charles Weber, Antony John Lomax
We report on development of a new four-dimensional (4D) optimisation approach for scanned proton beams, which incorporates both irregular motion patterns and the delivery dynamics of the treatment machine into the plan optimiser. Furthermore, we assess the effectiveness of this technique to reduce dose to critical structures in proximity to moving targets, while maintaining effective target dose homogeneity and coverage. The proposed approach has been tested using both a simulated phantom and a clinical liver cancer case, and allows for realistic 4D calculations and optimisation using irregular breathing patterns extracted from e...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635100/a-new-system-for-classifying-accessory-canal-morphology
#2
REVIEW
H M A Ahmed, P Neelakantan, P M H Dummer
Thorough knowledge of the anatomical complexities of the root canal system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of canal preparation and filling, and is an essential prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. A wide range of complex variations in root canal anatomy exists, including root canal configuration type, developmental anomalies and more minor canal morphology such as accessory canals and apical deltas. Accessory canals and apical deltas have been associated with pulp disease, primary canal infection, canal reinfection and post-treatment disease...
June 21, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631297/an-augmented-reality-tool-for-learning-spatial-anatomy-on-mobile-devices
#3
Nishant Jain, Patricia Youngblood, Matthew Hasel, Sakti Srivastava
INTRODUCTION: Augmented Realty (AR) offers a novel method of blending virtual and real anatomy for intuitive spatial learning. Our first aim in the study was to create a prototype AR tool for mobile devices. Our second aim was to complete a technical evaluation of our prototype AR tool focused on measuring the system's ability to accurately render digital content in the real world. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We imported Computed Tomography (CT) data derived virtual surface models into a 3D Unity engine environment and implemented an AR algorithm to display these on mobile devices...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631052/anatomic-variations-of-the-spleen-current-state-of-terminology-classification-and-embryological-background
#4
REVIEW
Ivan Varga, Jozef Babala, David Kachlik
A thorough understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and development of the spleen is essential for determining the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning splenic diseases and congenital variations. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize current knowledge regarding the normal development of the spleen, and to provide an overview of clinically relevant congenital splenic variations. These include such variations as asplenia, polysplenia, hyposplenia, lobulation of spleen, accessory spleens, accessory splenic nodules, wandering spleen, splenogonadal and splenopancreatic fusion, splenic cysts, and cavernous haemangioma of the spleen...
June 19, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624916/interethnic-variation-in-pelvic-floor-morphology-in-women-with-symptomatic-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#5
Zeelha Abdool, Hans Peter Dietz, Barend Gerhardus Lindeque
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: There is a lack of epidemiological studies evaluating female pelvic organ prolapse in developing countries. Current studies have largely focused on women of white ethnicity. This study was designed to determine interethnic variation in pelvic floor functional anatomy, namely, levator hiatal distensibility and pelvic organ descent, in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in a multi-ethnic South African population. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 258 consecutive women referred for pelvic organ prolapse assessment and management at a tertiary urogynaecological clinic...
June 17, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624053/radiologic-evaluation-of-vasculobiliary-anatomy-in-the-umbilical-fissure
#6
Gu-Wei Ji, Fei-Peng Zhu, Ke Wang, Yong-Xiang Xia, Chen-Yu Jiao, Zi-Cheng Shao, Xiang-Cheng Li
BACKGROUND: Preoperative evaluation of vasculobiliary anatomy in the umbilical fissure (U-point) is pivotal for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PCCA) applied to right-sided hepatectomy. The purpose of our study was to review the vasculobiliary anatomy in the U-point using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique, to investigate the diagnostic ability of 2D scans to evaluate anatomic variations, and to discuss its surgical implications. METHODS: A retrospective study of 159 patients with Bismuth type I, II, and IIIa PCCA, who received surgery at our institution from November 2012 to September 2016, was conducted...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622924/functional-associations-between-support-use-and-forelimb-shape-in-strepsirrhines-and-their-relevance-to-inferring-locomotor-behavior-in-early-primates
#7
Anne-Claire Fabre, Judit Marigó, Michael C Granatosky, Daniel Schmitt
The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to movement on specific substrates, but few explicit tests of this relationship in an evolutionary context have been conducted. Without direct tests of form-function relationships in living primates it is impossible to reliably infer behavior in fossil taxa...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621286/endodontic-management-of-dilacerated-maxillary-central-incisor-fused-to-a-supernumerary-tooth-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography-an-unusual-clinical-presentation
#8
Thilla S Vinothkumar, Deivanayagam Kandaswamy, Ganesh Arathi, Sathishkumar Ramkumar, Gnanasekaran Felsypremila
AIM: The purpose of this report is to present a case of endodontic management of a dilacerated maxillary central incisor fused to supernumerary tooth unusually appearing as a labial tubercle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic aid. BACKGROUND: Anterior teeth are commonly encountered with aberrant anatomical variations in the crown, number of roots, and root canals. Fusion is an infrequent developmental abnormality in shape of the tooth caused by the union of two adjacent tooth germs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618337/biomechanical-study-of-different-fixation-techniques-for-the-treatment-of-sacroiliac-joint-injuries-using-finite-element-analyses-and-biomechanical-tests
#9
Chian-Her Lee, Ching-Chi Hsu, Po-Yuang Huang
The pelvis is one of the most stressed areas of the human musculoskeletal system due to the transfer of truncal loads to the lower extremities. Sacroiliac joint injury may lead to abnormal joint mechanics and an unstable pelvis. Various fixation techniques have been evaluated and discussed. However, it may be difficult to investigate each technique due to variations in bone quality, bone anatomy, fracture pattern, and fixation location. Additionally, the finite element method is one useful technology that avoids these variations...
June 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616681/frequency-and-anatomical-features-of-the-mandibular-lingual-foramina-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Sara Bernardi, Serena Bianchi, Maria Adelaide Continenza, Guido Macchiarelli
Lingual mandibular foramina are peculiar anatomical variations often present on the bone surface of the inferior jaw. These structures host vascular and nervous anastomosis deriving from the branches of the submental artery, lingual artery, and the mylohyoid nerve. Reports pointed out intra-operative massive bleeding accidents during implant interventions occurred in this area. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize quantitatively the features of the lingual foramina on the midline of the inferior jaw...
June 14, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603573/extra-articular-tenosynovial-chondromatosis-of-the-finger-a-case-series-study-of-three-cases-one-including-excessive-osseous-invasion
#11
Akio Sakamoto, Takahiko Naka, Eisuke Shiba, Masanori Hisaoka, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Synovial chondromatosis is characterized by cartilaginous metaplasia in synovial tissues. Extra-articular tenosynovial chondromatosis is considered to be an anatomical counterpart of articular synovial chondromatosis. Extra-articular tenosynovial chondromatosis occurs preferentially in the hand, although its frequency is low. RESULTS: We report three cases of extra-articular tenosynovial chondromatosis. A 65-year-old female presented with a history of symptoms over 40 years related to the dorsum of her index finger (Case 1), A 46-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of symptoms at the volar surface of her middle finger (Case 2), and a 66-year-old male presented with a 3-month history of symptoms in a dorsal ring finger...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601303/device-specific-evaluation-of-intraventricular-left-ventricular-assist-device-position-by-quantitative-coaxiality-analysis
#12
Amedeo Anselmi, Sophie Collin, Pascal Haigron, Jean-Philippe Verhoye, Erwan Flecher
BACKGROUND: Patient-specific anatomy may influence the final intraventricular positioning of inflow cannula in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients. An association exists between such positioning and clinical outcomes (specifically, orientation toward the interventricular septum has negative prognostic implications). Alternative commercially available LVADs are characterized by markedly different design, with potential consequences on intrathoracic fitting among individual patients...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589055/lingual-foramina-and-canals-of-the-mandible-anatomic-variations-in-a-lebanese-population
#13
Georges Aoun, Ibrahim Nasseh, Sayde Sokhn, Mohamad Rifai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular lingual foramina (LF) and canals and their anatomic variations using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology in a Lebanese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we analyzed CBCT images of 90 adult Lebanese patients (41 males and 49 females). We assessed the number and location of the LF. In additional, we measured: (a) The distance from both the alveolar crest and the inferior border of the mandible to the LF and (b) the length of the lingual canals (LCs)...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588345/neuroanatomic-variations-in-graves-dysthyroid-ophthalmopathy-as-studied-with-mri
#14
Rona Z Silkiss, Alex R Wade
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Graves' dysthyroid ophthalmopathy (GDO) have changes in brain anatomy that can be assessed by neuroimaging as compared to age-matched controls. METHODS: We examined 10 female, euthyroid patients with GDO and 14 age and gender matched controls using high-resolution structural MRI scanning. An automatic cortical segmentation algorithm was used to estimate the thickness of each subject's gray matter across the brain. The resulting cortical thickness measurements were transferred to a standard reference space via a template-based warping procedure...
August 2016: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584749/accessory-flexor-carpi-ulnaris-and-bilaterally-variant-vascular-anatomy-of-upper-limb-an-unusual-presentation
#15
Sulochana Sakthivel, Suman Verma
We report a rare combination of variations in the upper limb of a human cadaver. Accessory flexor carpi ulnaris with absent palmaris longus was observed in the left forearm during routine dissection of a male cadaver. Variant vascular pattern was observed bilaterally. Brachial artery bifurcated at a higher level. Ulnar artery gave rise to persistent median artery (PMA) which pierced the median nerve and accompanied it deep into flexor retinaculum to terminate as two common palmar digital arteries. Superficial palmar arch was not formed as the PMA did not anastomose with either the radial or ulnar artery...
April 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580526/deformable-appearance-pyramids-for-anatomy-representation-landmark-detection-and-pathology-classification
#16
Qiang Zhang, Abhir Bhalerao, Charles Hutchinson
PURPOSE: Representation of anatomy appearance is one of the key problems in medical image analysis. An appearance model represents the anatomies with parametric forms, which are then vectorised for prior learning, segmentation and classification tasks. METHODS: We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as a deformable appearance pyramid (DAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale local feature pyramids extracted from an image pyramid. Each anatomy is represented by an appearance pyramid, with the variability within a population approximated by local translations of the multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations in the assembly of the parts...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579419/the-effect-of-catheter-displacement-and-anatomical-variations-on-the-dose-distribution-in-mri-guided-focal-hdr-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#17
Metha Maenhout, Jochem R N van der Voort van Zyp, Maxence Borot de Battisti, Max Peters, Marco van Vulpen, Maurice van den Bosch, Marinus A Moerland
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of catheter displacement and anatomical variations of prostate and organs at risk on dose distribution in MRI-guided 19 Gy single fraction focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of the prostate. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventeen patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a prospective trial investigating focal HDR-BT in a 1.5 T MRI-HDR-BT facility. The diagnostic MRI delineations were registered with intraoperative MR scan, and a single fraction of 19 Gy was applied to the visible tumor...
June 1, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579017/whole-breast-nodal-irradiation-using-supine-vmat-and-prone-3d-planning-a-case-study
#18
Ashley Coffey, Lisa Renucci, Ashley Hunzeker, Nishele Lenards
The purpose of this study was to compare the variations in doses to the ipsilateral lung and heart between the supine whole breast and nodal volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique and the prone 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) technique. In this study, 3 patients who were simulated in the prone and supine positions were planned using supine VMAT and prone 3DCRT techniques to compare planning target volume (PTV) coverage as well as dose to organs at risk (ORs), including the heart and ipsilateral lung...
May 31, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578308/an-unusual-position-of-retromandibular-vein-a-surgical-challenge-in-parotid-surgeries
#19
Prasanna Kumar Saravanam, Vinoth Manimaran
A 44-year-old man presented with swelling in the left parotid region. The swelling was firm and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology report proved pleomorphic adenoma. In the CT scan, the tumour was confined to the superficial lobe of parotid. So, left superficial parotidectomy was planned. Modified Wilson Blair's incision was used. On course of identifying the facial nerve, a large calibre vein was identified running vertically through the parotid substance. Assuming it as retromandibular vein, further dissection was carried out more meticulously...
June 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577534/a-novel-variation-of-the-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve
#20
Gaosong Wu, Kun Wang
BACKGROUND: Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve is one of the most severe complications of thyroid surgery. Several anatomic variations of the nerve increase the likelihood of iatrogenic damage. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old woman was presented to our department with a nodule in the right thyroid lobe, and she reported no voice changes. She had no history of surgery or radiation to the head or neck. Fine-needle aspiration was recorded as papillary thyroid carcinoma...
June 2, 2017: BMC Surgery
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