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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342280/epigenetic-differentiation-of-natural-populations-of-lilium-bosniacum-associated-with-contrasting-habitat-conditions
#1
V Zoldoš, I Biruš, E Muratovic, Z Šatovic, A Vojta, O Robin, F Pustahija, F Bogunic, V Vicic Bockor, S Siljak-Yakovlev
Epigenetic variation in natural populations with contrasting habitats might be an important element, in addition to the genetic variation, in plant adaptation to environmental stress. Here, we assessed genetic, epigenetic and cytogenetic structure of the three Lilium bosniacum populations growing on distinct habitats. One population was growing under habitual ecological conditions for this species and the other two were growing under stress associated with high altitude and serpentine soil. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses revealed that the three populations did not differentiate genetically, but were clearly separated in the three distinct clusters according to DNA methylation profiles...
January 12, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338790/morphometric-characterisation-of-human-tracheas-focus-on-cartilaginous-ring-variation
#2
Y Premakumar, M F Griffin, M Szarko
PURPOSE: Details regarding tracheal anatomy are currently lacking, with existing literature focussing mainly on the cricoid-tracheal region or the carina. External gross anatomy and internal morphology throughout the entire trachea is important for normal physiological functioning and various clinical applications such as designs for tracheal implants or endotracheal devices. OBJECTIVE: To determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of gross tracheal and individual tracheal ring anatomy...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336877/sin-quadratic-model-for-chest-tomosynthesis-respiratory-signal-analysis-and-its-application-in-four-dimensional-chest-tomosynthesis-reconstruction
#3
Xi Tao, Hua Zhang, Genggeng Qin, Jianhua Ma, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
Chest tomosynthesis (CTS) is a newly developed imaging technique which provides pseudo-3D volume anatomical information of thorax from limited-angle projections and contains much less of superimposed anatomy than the chest X-ray radiography. One of the relatively common problems in CTS is the patient respiratory motion during image acquisition, which negatively impacts the detectability. In this work, we propose a sin-quadratic model to analyze the respiratory motion during CTS scan, which is a real time method where the respiratory signal is generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm from projection radiographs...
January 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334421/a-survey-of-tooth-morphology-teaching-methods-employed-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland
#4
M Lone, J P McKenna, J F Cryan, E J Downer, A Toulouse
BACKGROUND: Tooth morphology is a central component of the dental curriculum and is applicable to all dental specialities. Traditional teaching methods are being supplemented with innovative strategies to tailor teaching and accommodate the learning styles of the recent generation of students. METHODS: An online survey was compiled and distributed to the staff involved in teaching tooth morphology in the United Kingdom and Ireland to assess the importance of tooth morphology in the dentistry curriculum and the methodologies employed in teaching...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332130/cerebrospinal-fluid-pressure-revisiting-factors-influencing-optic-nerve-head-biomechanics
#5
Yi Hua, Andrew P Voorhees, Ian A Sigal
Purpose: To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods: We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331210/to-roll-the-eyes-and-snap-a-bite-function-development-and-evolution-of-craniofacial-muscles
#6
REVIEW
Frank R Schubert, Arun J Singh, Oluwatomisin Afoyalan, Chrissa Kioussi, Susanne Dietrich
Craniofacial muscles, muscles that move the eyes, control facial expression and allow food uptake and speech, have long been regarded as a variation on the general body muscle scheme. However, evidence has accumulated that the function of head muscles, their developmental anatomy and the underlying regulatory cascades are distinct. This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330956/craniomandibular-variation-in-phalangeriform-marsupials-functional-comparisons-with-primates
#7
Elizabeth M St Clair, Nicholas Reback, Jonathan M G Perry
Phalangeriform marsupials have often been compared with primates because of similarity in the range of external morphology, ecological niches, and body size between the two radiations. We explore morphological convergence in the masticatory anatomy of strepsirrhine primates and phalangeriforms, through osteological measurements of the mandible and facial skeleton, and through dissection of the masticatory musculature, presenting new data on the arrangement and proportions of jaw adductors in phalangeriforms...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330950/comparative-anatomy-of-bat-jaw-musculature-via-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#8
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329954/comparative-myology-of-the-ankle-of-leopardus-wiedii-and-l-geoffroyi-carnivora-felidae-functional-consistency-with-osteology-locomotor-habits-and-hunting-in-captivity
#9
Miriam M Morales, S Rocío Moyano, Agustina M Ortiz, Marcos D Ercoli, Luis I Aguado, Sergio A Cardozo, Norberto P Giannini
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L...
December 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325356/-the-role-and-significance-of-digital-reconstruction-technique-in-liver-segments-based-on-portal-vein-structure
#10
X J Zhou, Q Dong, C Z Zhu, X Chen, B Wei, Y H Duan, J Zhao, X W Hao, H Zhang, P Nie, B Hu, W J Xu, R W Shen, Z H Chen, K R Dong, Y Z Bai, Q Shu, W J Luo, F Gao, N Xia, Q Y Yu
Objective: To study the segment of liver according to the large amount of three-dimensional(3D) reconstructive images of normal human livers and the vascular system, and to recognize the basic functional liver unit based on the anatomic features of the intrahepatic portal veins. Methods: The enhanced CT primitive DICOM files of 1 260 normal human livers from different age groups who treated from October 2013 to February 2017 provided by 16 hospitals were analyzed using the computer-aided surgery system.The 3D liver and liver vascular system were reconstructed, and the digital liver 3D model was established...
January 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313896/great-ape-walking-kinematics-implications-for-hominoid-evolution
#11
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313372/optimization-of-three-dimensional-modeling-for-geometric-precision-and-efficiency-for-healthy-and-diseased-aortas
#12
Christopher P Cheng, Yufei D Zhu, Ga-Young Suh
The study purpose is to optimize modeling parameters, specifically segmentation spacing and centerline extraction, to efficiently construct accurate 3D aortic models. Models are constructed by centerline extraction and orthogonal 2D segmentations. We examine the effect of segmentation interval spacing (2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 cm) and orthogonal segmentation and centerline extraction iteration (one, two, three iterations) for constructing models of Healthy, Tortuous, Aneurysmal, and Dissected human thoracic aortas...
January 9, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312840/relationship-between-the-intersesamoid-ligament-and-sesamoid-bones-in-cadaveric-feet-with-hallux-valgus
#13
Regina C Fiacco, Garen M Ream, Charlotte Wilson, R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Piotr B Kozlowski, Anthony C DiLandro, Kevin T Jules, Anthony V D'Antoni
There is heterogeneity in the literature regarding the anatomy, exact location, and definition of the intersesamoid ligament (IL). Anatomic knowledge of the IL and its variations are important for surgeons who undertake corrective surgery for hallux abducto valgus (HAV). The IL was dissected in 16 feet from 32 formalin-fixed cadavers (12 females, four males; mean age at death, 76.6 years) to examine its morphology. The length, width, and thickness of its constituent bands were recorded with a digital caliper...
November 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302903/pelvi-ureteric-junction-obstruction-related-to-crossing-vessels-vascular-anatomic-variations-and-implication-for-surgical-approaches
#14
REVIEW
Frédéric Panthier, Fabien Lareyre, Marie Audouin, Juliette Raffort
Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction corresponds to an impairment of urinary transport that can lead to renal dysfunction if not treated. Several mechanisms can cause the obstruction of the ureter including intrinsic factors or extrinsic factors such as the presence of crossing vessels. The treatment of the disease relies on surgical approaches, pyeloplasty being the standard reference. The technique consists in removing the pathologic ureteric segment and renal pelvis and transposing associated crossing vessels if present...
January 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291091/laryngeal-airway-reconstruction-indicates-that-rodent-ultrasonic-vocalizations-are-produced-by-an-edge-tone-mechanism
#15
Tobias Riede, Heather L Borgard, Bret Pasch
Some rodents produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) for social communication using an aerodynamic whistle, a unique vocal production mechanism not found in other animals. The functional anatomy and evolution of this sound production mechanism remains unclear. Using laryngeal airway reconstruction, we identified anatomical specializations critical for USV production. A robust laryngeal cartilaginous framework supports a narrow supraglottal airway. An intralaryngeal airsac-like cavity termed the ventral pouch was present in three muroid rodents (suborder Myomorpha), but was absent in a heteromyid rodent (suborder Castorimorpha) that produces a limited vocal repertoire and no documented USVs...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284978/successful-surgical-management-of-palatogingival-groove-using-platelet-rich-fibrin-and-guided-tissue-regeneration-a-novel-approach
#16
J V Karunakaran, Susan Mathew Fenn, N Jayaprakash, N Ragavendran
Palatogingival groove also known as radicularlingual groove is a developmental anomaly involving the lingual surface of the maxillary incisors. They are inconspicuous, funnel-shaped, extend for varying distances on root surface and occur due to infolding of the hertwigs epithelial root sheath. This encourages adherence of microorganisms and plaque to levels significant for pathological changes resulting in endodontic and periodontal lesions. The variations in anatomy of the tooth as a cause of pulp necrosis in teeth of anterior maxillary segment should be considered by the clinician when other etiological factors are ruled out...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279738/computed-tomography-based-occipital-condyle-morphometry-in-an-indian-population-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-condylar-screws-for-occipitocervical-fusion
#17
Abhishek Srivastava, Geetanjali Nanda, Rajat Mahajan, Ankur Nanda, Nirajana Mishra, Srinivasa Karmaran, Sahil Batra, Harvinder Singh Chhabra
Study Design: A retrospective computed tomography (CT)-based morphometric study of 82 occipital condyles in the Indian population, focusing on critical morphometric dimensions with relation to placing condylar screws. Purpose: This study focused on determining the feasibility of placing occipital condylar screws in an Indian population using CT anatomical morphometric data. Overview of Literature: The occipital condylar screw is a novel technique being explored as one of the options in occipitocervical stabilization...
December 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277300/innovations-in-preoperative-planning-insights-into-another-dimension-using-3d-printing-for-cardiac-disease
#18
REVIEW
Kanwal M Farooqi, Feroze Mahmood
Two-dimensional visualization of complex congenital heart disease has limitations in that there is variation in the interpretation by different individuals. Three-dimensional printing technology has been in use for decades but is currently becoming more commonly used in the medical field. Congenital heart disease serves as an ideal pathology to employ this technology because of the variation of anatomy between patients. In this review, the authors aim to discuss basics of applicability of three-dimensional printing, the process involved in creating a model, as well as challenges with establishing utility and quality...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275904/the-achilles-tendon-in-healthy-subjects-an-anthropometric-and-ultrasound-mapping-study
#19
Nick N Patel, Sameh A Labib
Ultrasonography is an inexpensive, fast, and reliable imaging technique widely used to assess the Achilles tendon. Although significant data exists regarding pathologic tendon changes, ultrasound data from healthy individuals are more limited. We aimed to better characterize ultrasound Achilles tendon measurements in healthy individuals and identify important correlating factors. The information collected included patient demographics, body habitus, activity level, foot dominance, and resting ankle angle. Ultrasound analysis was performed bilaterally on the Achilles tendons of 50 subjects using a high-frequency transducer to measure tendon width, thickness, cross-sectional area, and length...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273367/the-rat-groin-flap-model-redesigned-for-evaluating-treatment-effects-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Chung-En Hsu, Victor Bong-Hang Shyu, Chih-Jen Wen, Fu-Chan Wei, Xiao-Ting Huang, Hui-Yun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Although there is a wide application of the rat extended groin flap (epigastric skin flap) in studying different clinical issues, inconsistency arises between studies because many parameters of the extended groin flap have not been well defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The flap is based on the superficial inferior epigastric vessels, which give into a lateral and a medial branch distally. Herein, three steps were taken to redesign this model: First, the ventral vascular anatomy was visualized through an imaging study to determine the flap borders...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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