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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935361/shading-and-simulated-grazing-increase-the-sulphide-pool-and-methane-emission-in-a-tropical-seagrass-meadow
#1
Liberatus D Lyimo, Martin Gullström, Thomas J Lyimo, Diana Deyanova, Martin Dahl, Mariam I Hamisi, Mats Björk
Though seagrass meadows are among the most productive habitats in the world, contributing substantially to long-term carbon storage, studies of the effects of critical disturbances on the fate of carbon sequestered in the sediment and biomass of these meadows are scarce. In a manipulative in situ experiment, we studied the effects of successive loss of seagrass biomass as a result of shading and simulated grazing at two intensity levels on sulphide (H2S) content and methane (CH4) emission in a tropical seagrass meadow in Zanzibar (Tanzania)...
September 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934229/above-and-below-ground-carbohydrate-allocation-differs-between-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-and-beech-fagus-sylvatica-l
#2
Ronny Thoms, Michael Köhler, Arthur Gessler, Gerd Gleixner
We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922751/inositol-hexakis-phosphate-is-the-seasonal-phosphorus-reservoir-in-the-deciduous-woody-plant-populus-alba-l
#3
Yuko Kurita, Kei'ichi Baba, Miwa Ohnishi, Ryosuke Matsubara, Keiko Kosuge, Aya Anegawa, Chizuko Shichijo, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Yasuko Kaneko, Masahiko Hayashi, Toshinobu Suzaki, Hidehiro Fukaki, Tetsuro Mimura
Seasonal recycling of nutrients is an important strategy for deciduous perennials. Deciduous perennials maintain and expand their nutrient pools by the autumn nutrient remobilization and the subsequent winter storage throughout their long life. Phosphorus (P), one of the most important elements in living organisms, is remobilized from senescing leaves during autumn in deciduous trees. However, it remains unknown how phosphate is stored over winter. Here we show that in poplar trees (Populus alba L.), organic phosphates are accumulated in twigs from late summer to winter, and that IP6 (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis phosphate: phytic acid) is the primary storage form...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916566/perspective-essential-study-quality-descriptors-for-data-from-nutritional-epidemiologic-research
#4
Chen Yang, Mariona Pinart, Patrick Kolsteren, John Van Camp, Nathalie De Cock, Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon, Eamon Laird, Giuditta Perozzi, Raffaella Canali, Axelle Hoge, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Lars Ove Dragsted, Stéphanie Maria Palombi, Irina Dobre, Jildau Bouwman, Peter Clarys, Fabio Minervini, Maria De Angelis, Marco Gobbetti, Jean Tafforeau, Oscar Coltell, Dolores Corella, Hendrik De Ruyck, Janette Walton, Laura Kehoe, Christophe Matthys, Bernard De Baets, Guy De Tré, Antoon Bronselaer, Angela Rivellese, Rosalba Giacco, Rosario Lombardo, Sofian De Clercq, Niels Hulstaert, Carl Lachat
Pooled analysis of secondary data increases the power of research and enables scientific discovery in nutritional epidemiology. Information on study characteristics that determine data quality is needed to enable correct reuse and interpretation of data. This study aims to define essential quality characteristics for data from observational studies in nutrition. First, a literature review was performed to get an insight on existing instruments that assess the quality of cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies and dietary measurement...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911234/mucopolysaccharidosis-iiib-sanfilippo-syndrome-b-in-a-commercial-emu-dromaius-novaehollandiae-flock
#5
Seiche C Genger, Keijiro Mizukami, Michael P Martin, Jeffrey R Applegate, H John Barnes, Urs Giger
Clinicopathological diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB; Sanfilippo syndrome B), an inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, as a cause of losses in a commercial emu flock and screening breeders using a mutation specific DNA test are described. Between 2012 and 2015, ∼5-10 juvenile emus from a few weeks to several months of age developed progressive neurological signs and died while others in the flock remained healthy. Necropsy of two affected siblings revealed multiple sites of haemorrhage, cytoplasmic periodic acid-Schiff and Luxol fast blue positive inclusions in neurons, and aggregates of foamy macrophages in visceral organs...
September 15, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905284/effect-of-cadmium-bioavailability-in-food-on-its-compartmentalisation-in-carabids
#6
Agnieszka J Bednarska, Zuzanna M Świątek, Karolina Paciorek, Natalia Kubińska
Metals assimilated by organisms are sequestered in various compartments and some forms are more stable than others. Sequestration mechanisms used by invertebrates to detoxify metals and prevent interaction with important biomolecules include metal binding to proteins and other ligands, and storage in inorganic granules. The rate and extent at which metal concentrations in different compartments respond to metal concentrations in food and food characteristics has not received much attention, despite being of great relevance...
September 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#7
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888187/effect-of-tank-diameter-on-thermal-behavior-of-gasoline-and-diesel-storage-tanks-fires
#8
Ricardo Machado Leite, Felipe Roman Centeno
Studies on fire behavior are extremely important as they contribute in a firefighting situation or even to avoid such hazard. Experimental studies of fire in real scale are unfeasible, implying that reduced-scale experiments must be performed, and results extrapolated to the range of interest. This research aims to experimentally study the fire behavior in tanks of 0.04m, 0.20m, 0.40m, 0.80m and 4.28m diameter, burning regular gasoline or diesel oil S-500. The following parameters were here obtained: burning rates, burning velocities, heat release rates, flame heights, and temperature distributions adjacent to the tank...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873091/helicobacter-pylori-infection-perturbs-iron-homeostasis-in-gastric-epithelial-cells
#9
Sebastian E Flores, Alan Aitchison, Andrew S Day, Jacqueline I Keenan
The iron deficiency anaemia that often accompanies infection with Helicobacter pylori may reflect increased uptake of iron into gastric epithelial cells. Here we show an infection-associated increase in total intracellular iron levels was associated with the redistribution of the transferrin receptor from the cell cytosol to the cell surface, and with increased levels of ferritin, an intracellular iron storage protein that corresponded with a significant increase in lysosomal stores of labile iron. In contrast, the pool of cytosolic labile iron was significantly decreased in infected cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870676/hypothermic-oxygenated-perfusion-hope-for-fatty-liver-grafts-in-rats-and-humans
#10
P Kron, A Schlegel, L Mancina, P-A Clavien, P Dutkowski
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment of marginal organs by perfusion is a promising opportunity to consider more organs for transplantation. Protection of human DCD (donation after cardiac death) livers by a novel machine perfusion technique, hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE), was recently established. Here we tested in a rodent transplant model, whether HOPE is also useful for fatty liver grafts. METHODS: Rats were fed over 3 weeks with a special Methionine-Choline-Deficient-Diet (MCDD) to induce severe hepatic macrosteatosis (≥60%)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840060/mitochondrial-ferritin-protects-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-neuronal-cell-damage
#11
Guofen Gao, Nan Zhang, Yue-Qi Wang, Qiong Wu, Peng Yu, Zhen-Hua Shi, Xiang-Lin Duan, Bao-Lu Zhao, Wen-Shuang Wu, Yan-Zhong Chang
Oxidative stress and iron accumulation are tightly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is identified as an iron-storage protein located in the mitochondria, and its role in regulation of iron hemeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases has been reported. However, the role of FtMt in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and iron accumulation in neuronal cells has not been studied. Here, we overexpressed FtMt in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and induced oxidative stress by treating with extracellular H2O2...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827118/assessing-individual-performance-and-maintaining-breath-sample-integrity-in-biomedical-detection-dogs
#12
Catherine Reeve, Peter Wentzell, Bjorn Wielens, Cortney Jones, Kim Stehouwer, Simon Gadbois
In empirical tests of biomedical detection dogs, exhaled breath samples are often used because breath contains volatile organic compounds that can signal metabolic states, infection, or disease. However, in studies that present dogs with breath samples, results show a notable degree of variability both between and within studies. Differing protocols for the collection and storage of exhaled breath samples may contribute to this observed variability. The goal of the current study was therefore to test whether there was a difference in the detectability of breath samples collected using silicone-coated versus uncoated cotton balls...
August 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826760/evidence-based-red-blood-cell-transfusion-practices-in-cardiac-surgery
#13
REVIEW
Nishith N Patel, Gavin J Murphy
Cardiac surgical patients are among the highest consumers of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) due to the prevalence of anemia and bleeding. Up until recently, there was a paucity of high-quality evidence informing transfusion decisions in this patient group which led to wide variability in transfusion decision making. The article reviews and critically analyzes the available evidence for RBC transfusion in cardiac surgery, focusing on trials of transfusion triggers and age of blood, and provides suggestions for future research...
June 21, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821768/real-time-monitoring-of-water-level-and-temperature-in-storage-fuel-pools-through-optical-fibre-sensors
#14
S Rizzolo, J Périsse, A Boukenter, Y Ouerdane, E Marin, J-R Macé, M Cannas, S Girard
We present an innovative architecture of a Rayleigh-based optical fibre sensor for the monitoring of water level and temperature inside storage nuclear fuel pools. This sensor, able to withstand the harsh constraints encountered under accidental conditions such as those pointed-out during the Fukushima-Daiichi event (temperature up to 100 °C and radiation dose level up to ~20 kGy), exploits the Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technique to remotely monitor a radiation resistant silica-based optical fibre i...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811819/adaptive-resource-utilization-prediction-system-for-infrastructure-as-a-service-cloud
#15
Qazi Zia Ullah, Shahzad Hassan, Gul Muhammad Khan
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud provides resources as a service from a pool of compute, network, and storage resources. Cloud providers can manage their resource usage by knowing future usage demand from the current and past usage patterns of resources. Resource usage prediction is of great importance for dynamic scaling of cloud resources to achieve efficiency in terms of cost and energy consumption while keeping quality of service. The purpose of this paper is to present a real-time resource usage prediction system...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811477/deep-carbon-storage-potential-of-buried-floodplain-soils
#16
Amanda H D'Elia, Garrett C Liles, Joshua H Viers, David R Smart
Soils account for the largest terrestrial pool of carbon and have the potential for even greater quantities of carbon sequestration. Typical soil carbon (C) stocks used in global carbon models only account for the upper 1 meter of soil. Previously unaccounted for deep carbon pools (>1 m) were generally considered to provide a negligible input to total C contents and represent less dynamic C pools. Here we assess deep soil C pools associated with an alluvial floodplain ecosystem transitioning from agricultural production to restoration of native vegetation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808294/te-based-chalcogenide-materials-for-selector-applications
#17
A Velea, K Opsomer, W Devulder, J Dumortier, J Fan, C Detavernier, M Jurczak, B Govoreanu
The implementation of dense, one-selector one-resistor (1S1R), resistive switching memory arrays, can be achieved with an appropriate selector for correct information storage and retrieval. Ovonic threshold switches (OTS) based on chalcogenide materials are a strong candidate, but their low thermal stability is one of the key factors that prevents rapid adoption by emerging resistive switching memory technologies. A previously developed map for phase change materials is expanded and improved for OTS materials...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802721/comparison-of-commercially-available-preservatives-for-maintaining-the-integrity-of-bacterial-dna-in-human-milk
#18
Kimberly A Lackey, Janet E Williams, William J Price, Janae M Carrothers, Sarah L Brooker, Bahman Shafii, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
BACKGROUND: Inhibiting changes to bacteria in human milk between sample collection and analysis is necessary for unbiased characterization of the milk microbiome. Although cold storage is considered optimal, alternative preservation is sometimes necessary. RESEARCH AIM/QUESTION: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of several commercially-available preservatives with regard to maintaining bacterial DNA in human milk for delayed microbiome analysis...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801973/cognitive-functioning-in-children-with-self-limited-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Steven Wickens, Stephen C Bowden, Wendyl D'Souza
OBJECTIVE: It is now well appreciated that benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS, or more recently, ECTS) is associated with a range of cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Despite our improved understanding of cognitive functioning in ECTS, there have been to date no efforts to quantitatively synthesize the available literature within a comprehensive cognitive framework. METHODS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines...
August 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797147/understanding-the-spatial-distribution-of-factors-controlling-topsoil-organic-carbon-content-in-european-soils
#20
M Rial, A Martínez Cortizas, L Rodríguez-Lado
Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The understanding of its dynamics and the environmental factors that influence its behaviour as sink or source of atmospheric CO2 is crucial to quantify the carbon budget at the global scale. At the European scale, most of the existing studies to account for SOC stocks are centred in the fitting of predictive model to ascertain the distribution of SOC. However, the development of methodologies for monitoring and identifying the environmental factors that control SOC storage in Europe remains a key research challenge...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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