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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322747/quantitation-of-the-rates-of-hepatic-and-intestinal-cholesterol-synthesis-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mice-before-and-during-treatment-with-ezetimibe
#1
Jen-Chieh Chuang, Adam M Lopez, Stephen D Turley
Esterified cholesterol (EC) and triglycerides, contained within lipoproteins taken up by cells, are hydrolysed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in the late endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartment. The resulting unesterified cholesterol (UC) is transported via Niemann-Pick type C2 and C1 into the cytosolic compartment where it enters a putative pool of metabolically active cholesterol that is utilized in accordance with cellular needs. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene encoding LAL, result in dramatic increases in tissue concentrations of EC, a hallmark feature of Wolman Disease and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD)...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314904/the-arabidopsis-orange-ator-gene-promotes-carotenoid-accumulation-in-transgenic-corn-hybrids-derived-from-parental-lines-with-limited-carotenoid-pools
#2
Judit Berman, Uxue Zorrilla-López, Vicente Medina, Gemma Farré, Gerhard Sandmann, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
The AtOR gene enhances carotenoid levels in corn by promoting the formation of plastoglobuli when the carotenoid pool is limited, but has no further effect when carotenoids are already abundant. The cauliflower orange (or) gene mutation influences carotenoid accumulation in plants by promoting the transition of proplastids into chromoplasts, thus creating intracellular storage compartments that act as metabolic sink. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis OR gene under the control of the endosperm-specific wheat LMW glutenin promoter in a white corn variety that normally accumulates only trace amounts of carotenoids...
March 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268199/role-of-leishmanial-acidocalcisomal-pyrophosphatase-in-the-camp-homeostasis-in-phagolysosome-conditions-required-for-intra-macrophage-survival
#3
Arunima Biswas, Arijit Bhattacharya, Amit Vij, Pijush K Das
Exposure of Leishmania donovani to macrophage phagolysosome conditions (PC) (37°C and pH 5.5) led to increased intracellular cAMP and cAMP-mediated responses, which help in intra-macrophage survival pre-requisite for infectivity. In the absence of typical orthologs for G-proteins and G-protein coupled receptors, we sought to study the precise mechanisms for positive modulation of cAMP production during exposure to PC. Amongst two promastigote-stage specific membrane bound receptor adenylate cyclases (LdRAC-A and LdRAC-B), LdRAC-A appeared to function as a major cAMP generator following PC exposure...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263176/enhancing-uniformity-and-overall-quality-of-red-cell-concentrate-with-anaerobic-storage
#4
Tatsuro Yoshida, Abbejane Blair, Angelo D'alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Michael Dioguardi, Christopher C Silliman, Andrew Dunham
BACKGROUND: Recent research focused on understanding stored red blood cell (RBC) quality has demonstrated high variability in measures of RBC function and health across units. Studies have historically linked this high variability to variations in processing, storage method, and age. More recently, a large number of studies have focused on differences in donor demographics, donor iron sufficiency, and genetic predisposition of the donor to poor storage, particularly through mechanisms of accelerated oxidative damage...
March 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263175/the-purified-vepoloxamer-prevents-haemolysis-in-42-day-stored-dehp-pvc-free-red-blood-cell-units
#5
Jose A Cancelas, Neeta Rugg, Shawnagay Nestheide, Sarah E Hill, R Martin Emanuele, Douglas S Mckenzie
BACKGROUND: Use of the plasticiser di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood bags poses a potential dilemma. The presence of DEHP in blood bags has been shown to be beneficial to red blood cells during storage by diminishing haemolysis. However, DEHP use in PVC may be carcinogenic or estrogenising. Vepoloxamer is a poloxamer with rheological and cytoprotective rheological properties and a favourable toxicity profile in clinical trials. We hypothesised that vepoloxamer may be sufficient to replace the plasticiser DEHP to prevent elevated haemolysis while conserving the biochemical and redox potential++ in RBCs stored for up to 42 days...
March 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259707/clinical-and-molecular-phenotyping-of-a-child-with-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome-7-an-uncommon-genetic-type-of-hps
#6
Melanie M Bryan, Nathanial J Tolman, Karen L Simon, Marjan Huizing, Robert B Hufnagel, Brian P Brooks, Vladislav Speransky, James C Mullikin, William A Gahl, May Christine V Malicdan, Bernadette R Gochuico
PURPOSE: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare inherited disorder with ten reported genetic types; each type has defects in subunits of either Adaptor Protein-3 complex or Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex (BLOC)-1, -2, or -3. Very few patients with BLOC-1 deficiency (HPS-7, -8, and -9 types) have been diagnosed. We report results of comprehensive clinical testing and molecular analyses of primary fibroblasts from a new case of HPS-7. RESULTS: A 6-year old Paraguayan male presented with hypopigmentation, ocular albinism, nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, and easy bruising...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249764/dgat1-and-dgat2-regulate-enterocyte-triacylglycerol-distribution-and-alter-proteins-associated-with-cytoplasmic-lipid-droplets-in-response-to-dietary-fat
#7
Yu-Han Hung, Alicia L Carreiro, Kimberly K Buhman
Enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the small intestine, mediate efficient absorption of dietary fat (triacylglycerol, TAG). The digestive products of dietary fat are taken up by enterocytes, re-esterified into TAG, and packaged on chylomicrons (CMs) for secretion into blood or temporarily stored within cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). Altered enterocyte TAG distribution impacts susceptibility to high fat diet associated diseases, but molecular mechanisms directing TAG toward these fates are unclear. Two enzymes, acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) and Dgat2, catalyze the final, committed step of TAG synthesis within enterocytes...
February 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249701/effect-of-season-on-scrotal-circumference-semen-characteristics-seminal-plasma-composition-and-spermatozoa-motility-during-liquid-storage-in-inra180-rams
#8
Anass Benmoula, Abdelmoughit Badi, Moussa El Fadili, Kaoutar El Khalil, Larbi Allai, Abderaouf El Hilali, Bouchra El Amiri
The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of seasons on scrotal circumference, semen characteristics, seminal plasma composition, and sperm motility during liquid storage of INRA180 rams. The semen was collected from five mature INRA180 rams (2-3 years of age) during one year (from April 2014 to March 2015). Scrotal circumferences, semen characteristics, some biochemical parameters of seminal plasma were evaluated. Immediately after collection and evaluation, the semen was pooled and extended in skim milk (SM) at 15°C to reach 0...
February 22, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240817/liver-ex-vivo-machine-perfusion-preservation-a-review-of-the-methodology-and-results-of-large-animal-studies-and-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Hazel Marecki, Adel Bozorgzadeh, Robert Porte, Henri Leuvenink, Korkut Uygun, Paulo Martins
Ex-vivo machine perfusion is a promising way to better preserve livers prior to transplantation. Currently, no methodology has verified benefit over simple cold storage. Before becoming clinically feasible, machine perfusion requires validation in models that reliably predict human performance. Such a model has been found in porcine liver, who's physiological, anatomical, and immunological characteristics closely resemble the human liver. Since the 1930s, researchers have explored machine perfusion as preservation, but only recently have clinical trials been performed...
February 27, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237864/transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-induced-genes-in-the-response-of-harmonia-axyridis-to-cold-hardiness
#10
Bin Tang, Xiao-Jun Liu, Zuo-Kun Shi, Qi-Da Shen, Yan-Xia Xu, Su Wang, Fan Zhang, Shi-Gui Wang
Harmonia axyridis is an important predatory lady beetle that is a natural enemy of agricultural and forestry pests. In this research, the cold hardiness induced genes and their expression changes in H. axyridis were screened and detected by the way of the transcriptome and qualitative real-time PCR under normal and low temperatures, using high-throughput transcriptome and digital gene-expression-tag technologies. We obtained a 10Gb transcriptome and an 8Mb gene expression tag pool using Illumina deep sequencing technology and RNA-Seq analysis (accession number SRX540102)...
February 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231409/lip-and-tooth-injuries-at-public-swimming-pools-in-austria
#11
Katharina Lechner, Thomas Connert, Sebastian Kühl, Andreas Filippi
BACKGROUND/AIM: There is an increased risk of orofacial injuries in swimming pool facilities. Nevertheless, only a few studies have addressed this issue. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria. A further aim was to examine which gender and age groups were affected, where and why these injuries occurred, and whether pool attendants had sufficient knowledge of dental first aid measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 764 pool attendants in Austria were contacted by telephone and 689 participated in the study (90...
February 23, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220494/mortality-outcomes-in-patients-transfused-with-fresher-versus-older-red-blood-cells-a-meta-analysis
#12
C Chai-Adisaksopha, P E Alexander, G Guyatt, M A Crowther, N M Heddle, P J Devereaux, M Ellis, D Roxby, D I Sessler, J W Eikelboom
BACKGROUND: Among transfused patients, the effect of the duration of red blood cell storage on mortality remains unclear. This study aims to compare the mortality of patients who were transfused with fresher versus older red blood cells. METHODS: We performed an updated systematic search in the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases, from January 2015 to October 2016. RCTs of hospitalized patients of any age comparing transfusion of fresher versus older red blood cells were eligible...
February 20, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216105/increasing-the-carbohydrate-storage-capacity-of-plants-by-engineering-a-glycogen-like-polymer-pool-in-the-cytosol
#13
Simona Eicke, David Seung, Barbara Egli, Emanuel A Devers, Sebastian Streb
Global demand for higher crop yields and for more efficient utilization of agricultural products will grow over the next decades. Here, we present a new concept for boosting the carbohydrate content of plants, by channeling photosynthetically fixed carbon into a newly engineered glucose polymer pool. We transiently expressed the starch/glycogen synthases from either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Cyanidioschyzon merolae, together with the starch branching enzyme from C. merolae, in the cytosol of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves...
February 17, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213086/comparison-of-protocols-for-the-analysis-of-type-1-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-by-rt-pcr-using-oral-fluids
#14
Elisa Gibert, Gerard Martín-Valls, Enric Mateu
The detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OF) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is gaining increasing popularity. However, the different steps leading to a result have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on the performance of qRT-PCR with different sampling materials, conditions of storage of the OF, the need for centrifuging OF, as well as to compare RNA extraction methods and PCR mixes...
May 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198591/interpenetrating-conducting-hydrogel-materials-for-neural-interfacing-electrodes
#15
Josef Goding, Aaron Gilmour, Penny Martens, Laura Poole-Warren, Rylie Green
Conducting hydrogels (CHs) are an emerging technology in the field of medical electrodes and brain-machine interfaces. The greatest challenge to the fabrication of CH electrodes is the hybridization of dissimilar polymers (conductive polymer and hydrogel) to ensure the formation of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) required to achieve both soft and electroactive materials. A new hydrogel system is developed that enables tailored placement of covalently immobilized dopant groups within the hydrogel matrix...
February 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192948/c3n4-nanosheet-modified-microwell-array-with-enhanced-electrochemiluminescence-for-total-analysis-of-cholesterol-at-single-cells
#16
Jingjing Xu, Depeng Jiang, Yanling Qin, Juan Xia, Dechen Jiang, Hong-Yuan Chen
Here, a g-C3N4 nanosheet modified microwell array providing enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and better visible sensitivity was prepared to simultaneously analyze total (membrane and intracellular) cholesterol at single cells. The detection limit for ECL visualization of hydrogen peroxide at microwell array was improved to be 500 nM that guaranteed the detection of low concentration cholesterol at single cells in parallel. To achieve single cell cholesterol analysis, the individual cells cultured at the microwell array were exposed to cholesterol oxidase generating hydrogen peroxide for luminescence analysis of membrane cholesterol, and then treated with triton X-100, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide from intracellular cholesterol for luminescence determination...
February 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191979/nonlinear-effects-in-multicomponent-supramolecular-hydrogels
#17
Emily R Draper, Matthew Wallace, Ralf Schweins, Robert J Poole, Dave J Adams
Multicomponent low molecular weight gels are useful for a range of applications. However, when mixing two components, both of which can independently form a gel, there are many potential scenarios. There is a limited understanding as to how to control and direct the assembly. Here, we focus on a pH-triggered two-component system. At high pH, colloidal structures are formed, and there is a degree of mixing of the two gelators. As the pH is decreased, there is a complex situation, where one gelator directs the assembly in a "sergeants and soldiers" manner...
February 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166864/flow-cytometry-analysis-of-platelet-populations-usefulness-for-monitoring-the-storage-lesion-in-pooled-buffy-coat-platelet-concentrates
#18
Dušan Vučetić, Vesna Ilić, Danilo Vojvodić, Vesna Subota, Milena Todorović, Bela Balint
BACKGROUND: Early detection of the platelet storage lesion is still a challenge in transfusion practice. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the appearance of the storage lesion, based on the expression of platelet activation markers, in total platelets and platelet populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates were stored under standard conditions for 5 days. The expression of activation antigens CD42b, CD36, CD62p and phosphatidylserine on total platelets and populations of small, medium-sized and large platelets was analysed by flow cytometry on storage days 1, 3 and 5...
December 21, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160641/contribution-of-glomalin-to-dissolve-organic-carbon-under-different-land-uses-and-seasonality-in-dry-tropics
#19
Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Apurva Rai, Vivek Pandey, Nandita Singh
Glomalin related soil protein (GRSP) is a hydrophobic glycoprotein that is significant for soil organic carbon (SOC) persistence and sequestration, owing to its large contribution to SOC pool and long turnover time. However, the contribution of GRSP to dissolve OC (DOC) leach from soil is not yet comprehensively explored, though it could have implication in understanding SOC dynamics. We, therefore, aim to measure the contribution of GRSP to DOC, in a range of land uses and climatic seasons in the dry tropical ecosystem...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157285/boreal-forests-sequester-large-amounts-of-mercury-over-millennial-time-scales-in-the-absence-of-wildfire
#20
Reiner Giesler, Karina E Clemmensen, David A Wardle, Jonatan Klaminder, Richard Bindler
Alterations in fire activity due to climate change and fire suppression may have profound effects on the balance between storage and release of carbon (C) and associated volatile elements. Stored soil mercury (Hg) is known to volatilize due to wildfires and this could substantially affect the land-air exchange of Hg; conversely the absence of fires and human disturbance may increase the time period over which Hg is sequestered. Here we show for a wildfire chronosequence spanning over more than 5000 years in boreal forest in northern Sweden that belowground inventories of total Hg are strongly related to soil humus C accumulation (R(2) = 0...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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