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pattern separation

Gwylim S Blackburn, Bryan M T Brunet, Kevin Muirhead, Michel Cusson, Catherine Béliveau, Roger C Levesque, Lisa M Lumley, Felix A H Sperling
Populations are often exposed to multiple sources of gene flow, but accounts are lacking of the population genetic dynamics that result from these interactions or their effects on local evolution. Using a genomic clines framework applied to 1195 SNPs, we documented genome-wide, locus-specific patterns of introgression between Choristoneura occidentalis biennis spruce budworms and two ecologically divergent relatives, C. o. occidentalis and C. fumiferana, that it interacts with at alternate boundaries of its range...
October 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
S T Kessel, D W Hondorp, C M Holbrook, J C Boase, J A Chiotti, M V Thomas, T C Wills, E F Roseman, R Drouin, C C Krueger
1.Population structure, distribution, abundance, and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations is an important aspect of the ecology of highly-mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially- or temporally-distributed food and space resources. 2.This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Frances E Harkin, Richard J Large
BACKGROUND: Humeral shaft fractures can be managed conservatively or operatively. Fracture characteristics were analyzed to identify patients who would benefit from early operative fixation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 126 consecutive humeral shaft fractures (2008-2015). Fractures were classified according to fracture type, location, separation, and comminution. RESULTS: Of 126 patients, 96 were managed conservatively...
November 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Cícero Célio de Figueiredo, Alexsandra Duarte de Oliveira, Isis Lima Dos Santos, Eloisa Aparecida Belleza Ferreira, Juaci Vitoria Malaquias, Marcos Aurélio Carolino de Sá, Arminda Moreira de Carvalho, João de Deus Gomes Dos Santos
In the Brazilian Cerrado, despite the increasing adoption of no-till systems, there are still extended areas under conventional soil management systems that reduce soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and increase the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Conservation agroecosystems, such as no-till, have been proposed as a strategy to mitigate agriculture-induced climatic changes through reductions in N2O emissions. However, the relationship between organic matter and N2O emissions from soils under different agroecosystems is not yet clear...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mathura Ravishankar, Alexandra Morris, Ashley Burgess, Dalal Khatib, Jeffrey A Stanley, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
We studied modulation of undirected functional connectivity (uFC) in cortical-hippocampal sub-networks during associative learning. Nineteen healthy individuals were studied (fMRI acquired on a Siemens Verio 3T), and uFC was studied between nodes in a network of regions identified by standard activation models based on bivariate correlational analyses of time series data. The paradigm alternated between Memory Encoding, Rest and Retrieval. "Rest" intervals promoted covert consolidation. Over the task, performance was broadly separable into linear (Early) and asymptomatic (Late) regimes, with late performance reflecting successful memory consolidation...
October 18, 2017: Brain and Cognition
Monica N Toba, Raffaella Migliaccio, Bénédicte Batrancourt, Clémence Bourlon, Christophe Duret, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Bruno Dubois, Paolo Bartolomeo
Visual neglect is a heterogeneous, multi-component syndrome resulting from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients do not pay attention to events occurring on their left side, and have a poor functional outcome. The intra-hemispheric location of lesions producing neglect is debated, because studies using different methods reported different locations in the grey matter and in the white matter of the right hemisphere. These reported locations show various patterns of overlapping with the fronto-parietal attention networks demonstrated by functional neuroimaging...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
David C Perry, Jesse A Brown, Katherine L Possin, Samir Datta, Andrew Trujillo, Anneliese Radke, Anna Karydas, John Kornak, Ana C Sias, Gil D Rabinovici, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Adam L Boxer, Mary De May, Katherine P Rankin, Virginia E Sturm, Suzee E Lee, Brandy R Matthews, Aimee W Kao, Keith A Vossel, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Zachary A Miller, Sang Won Seo, Manu Sidhu, Stephanie E Gaus, Alissa L Nana, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Ji-Hye L Hwang, Rik Ossenkoppele, Alainna B Brown, Eric J Huang, Giovanni Coppola, Howard J Rosen, Daniel Geschwind, John Q Trojanowski, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
Accurately predicting the underlying neuropathological diagnosis in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) poses a daunting challenge for clinicians but will be critical for the success of disease-modifying therapies. We sought to improve pathological prediction by exploring clinicopathological correlations in a large bvFTD cohort. Among 438 patients in whom bvFTD was either the top or an alternative possible clinical diagnosis, 117 had available autopsy data, including 98 with a primary pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 15 with Alzheimer's disease, and four with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who lacked neurodegenerative disease-related pathology outside of the motor system...
October 6, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Eric R Pianka, Laurie J Vitt, Nicolás Pelegrin, Daniel B Fitzgerald, Kirk O Winemiller
Widespread niche convergence suggests that species can be organized according to functional trait combinations to create a framework analogous to a periodic table. We compiled ecological data for lizards to examine patterns of global and regional niche diversification, and we used multivariate statistical approaches to develop the beginnings for a periodic table of niches. Data (50+ variables) for five major niche dimensions (habitat, diet, life history, metabolism, defense) were compiled for 134 species of lizards representing 24 of the 38 extant families...
November 2017: American Naturalist
Q H Chen, J M Lu, L Liang, O Zheliuk, A Ali, P Sheng, J T Ye
By dual gating a few-layer MoS_{2} flake, we induce spatially separated electronic states showing superconductivity and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations. While the highly confined superconductivity forms at the K/K^{'} valleys of the topmost layer, the SdH oscillations are contributed by the electrons residing in the Q/Q^{'} valleys of the rest of the bottom layers, which is confirmed by the extracted Landau level degeneracy of 3, electron effective mass of 0.6m_{e}, and carrier density of 5×10^{12}  cm^{-2}...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Naila A Mugheirbi, Patrick J Marsac, Lynne S Taylor
For amorphous solid dispersions, understanding the phase behavior of a given drug-polymer blend and factors that influence miscibility is crucial to design an optimally performing formulation. However, it can be challenging to fully map the phase behavior of some systems, especially those produced using a co-solvent system. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of phase separation in itraconazole-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (ITZ-HPMC) blends fabricated using solvent evaporation processes, including spin coating and spray drying, has been carried out...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Lieven Van Meulebroek, Ellen De Paepe, Vicky Vercruysse, Beata Pomian, Simon Bos, Bruno Lapauw, Lynn Vanhaecke
As lipids are assigned a plethora of biological functions, it is evident that a dysregulated lipid metabolism signifies a key element in many pathological conditions. With this rationale, this study presents a validated lipidomics platform to map the fecal lipidome, which integrates unique information about the host-gut microbiome interactions, gastrointestinal functionality, and dietary pattern. This particular method accomplished coverage across all eight lipid categories; the fatty acyls, glycerolipids, phosphoglycerolipids, polyketides, prenols, saccharolipids, sphingolipids, and sterols...
October 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Yan Li, Linlin He, Xiaofang Zhang, Na Zhang, Dongliang Tian
External-field-responsive liquid transport has received extensive research interest owing to its important applications in microfluidic devices, biological medical, liquid printing, separation, and so forth. To realize different levels of liquid transport on surfaces, the balance of the dynamic competing processes of gradient wetting and dewetting should be controlled to achieve good directionality, confined range, and selectivity of liquid wetting. Here, the recent progress in external-field-induced gradient wetting is summarized for controllable liquid transport from movement on the surface to penetration into the surface, particularly for liquid motion on, patterned wetting into, and permeation through films on superwetting surfaces with external field cooperation (e...
October 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
Heiko Steinhauer, Joachim Holzschuh, Thomas Böhler
Background In Germany, few data are available on medical malpractice claims against pediatricians. On behalf of Statutory Health Insurance Companies their Medical Service (MDK) regularly offers expert testimony in case of allegations during pediatric treatment. Methods Analysis of 374 written pediatric testimonies, documented between September 1st, 2000 and August 31st, 2014. Results 193 allegations against pediatricians were analysed separately for each sector of care (35% concerning outpatients, 28% normal inpatients, and 37% patients treated in an intensive care unit, ICU)...
October 19, 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
C Ferrand, C Féart, G Martinent, C Albinet, N André, M Audiffren
The aim of the present study was to provide descriptive dietary patterns of home-living older adults, and to examine their association with sociodemographic and 'diet-related' variables, and health and psychological factors. Dietary patterns were analyzed using separately cluster analysis for men (N=151,Mage=72.72, SD=8.80, range=56-97) and women (N=251, Mage=76.74, SD=9.95, range=55-97) in 402 older adults aged 55 years and over. Cluster analyses showed four distinct dietary profiles for each gender. In older men, the four distinct dietary clusters were associated with any differences in sociodemographic and 'diet-related' variables, cognitive function, and health and psychological factors...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Minako Hijikata, Naoto Keicho, Le Van Duc, Shinji Maeda, Nguyen Thi Le Hang, Ikumi Matsushita, Seiya Kato
BACKGROUND: Spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), a widely used, classical genotyping method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), is a PCR-based dot-blot hybridization technique to detect the genetic diversity of the direct repeat (DR) region. Of the seven major MTBC lineages in the world, lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic) mostly corresponds to the East African-Indian (EAI) spoligotype family in East Africa and Southeast Asia. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the genomic features of Vietnamese lineage 1 strains, comparing spoligotype patterns using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data...
2017: PloS One
Mengjia Xu, Dimitrios P Papageorgiou, Sabia Z Abidi, Ming Dao, Hong Zhao, George Em Karniadakis
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hematological disorder leading to blood vessel occlusion accompanied by painful episodes and even death. Red blood cells (RBCs) of SCD patients have diverse shapes that reveal important biomechanical and bio-rheological characteristics, e.g. their density, fragility, adhesive properties, etc. Hence, having an objective and effective way of RBC shape quantification and classification will lead to better insights and eventual better prognosis of the disease. To this end, we have developed an automated, high-throughput, ex-vivo RBC shape classification framework that consists of three stages...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Lu-Lu Xu, Jing-Jing Xu, Kun-Rui Zhong, Zhan-Peng Shang, Fei Wang, Ru-Feng Wang, Le Zhang, Jia-Yu Zhang, Bin Liu
Menthae Haplocalycis herba, one kind of Chinese edible herbs, has been widely utilized for the clinical use in China for thousands of years. Over the last decades, studies on chemical constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis herba have been widely performed. However, less attention has been paid to non-volatile components which are also responsible for its medical efficacy than the volatile constituents. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method was developed for the comprehensive identification of the non-volatile constituents in Menthae Haplocalycis herba using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap)...
October 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ruizhi Cao, Tingting Yang, Yue Fang, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu
In this paper we proposed a new method that combines random pattern illumination, the pattern-estimation algorithm, and the Fourier ptychography (FP) algorithm to recover a super-resolution image. We shifted one multispot pattern to different positions to capture images, and estimated these illumination patterns using a gradient descent algorithm that shares the same root with blind structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Based on the captured images and estimated patterns, the FP algorithm is then applied to recover a super-resolution image...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Daniel J Heath, James A Grant-Jacob, Matthias Feinaeugle, Ben Mills, Robert W Eason
We present the use of digital micromirror devices as variable illumination masks for pitch-splitting multiple exposures to laser machine the surfaces of materials. Ultrafast laser pulses of length 150 fs and 800 nm central wavelength were used for the sequential machining of contiguous patterns on the surface of samples in order to build up complex structures with sub-diffraction limit features. Machined patterns of tens to hundreds of micrometers in lateral dimensions with feature separations as low as 270 nm were produced in electroless nickel on an optical setup diffraction limited to 727 nm, showing a reduction factor below the Abbe diffraction limit of ∼2...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Tongxin Li, Zhuanping Qin, Weiting Chen, Huijuan Zhao, Panpan Yan, Kuanxin Zhao, Feng Gao
We present a spatial-frequency domain (SFD) fluorescence tomography (FT) for acquiring three-dimensional fluorophore distribution in turbid media. The approach uses a composited epi-illumination of multi-frequency sinusoidal patterns on a sample of semi-infinite geometry and demodulates the measured data with a generalized phase shifting scheme to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) at each frequency. This method results in a significantly reduced number of the optical field measurements, as compared to those with separate illumination of single-frequency sinusoidal patterns, and, thereby, achieves a fast data acquisition that is desired for a dynamic imaging application...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
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