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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933256/explaining-bioenergy-representations-of-jatropha-in-kenya-before-and-after-disappointing-results
#1
Carol Hunsberger
Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to multiply quickly throughout the global South. However, many jatropha initiatives failed to thrive and ultimately collapsed. This paper investigates how actors involved with jatropha in Kenya explained their visions of bioenergy at two points in time. In 2009, when many activities were beginning, I interviewed small-scale farmers, NGO staff, researchers, donors, government officials and members of the private sector about their expectations of jatropha as an energy crop...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933046/phylogenetic-signals-of-salinity-and-season-in-bacterial-community-composition-across-the-salinity-gradient-of-the-baltic-sea
#2
Daniel P R Herlemann, Daniel Lundin, Anders F Andersson, Matthias Labrenz, Klaus Jürgens
Understanding the key processes that control bacterial community composition has enabled predictions of bacterial distribution and function within ecosystems. In this study, we used the Baltic Sea as a model system to quantify the phylogenetic signal of salinity and season with respect to bacterioplankton community composition. The abundances of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reads were analyzed from samples obtained from similar geographic locations in July and February along a brackish to marine salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932998/gene-expression-dynamics-in-major-endocrine-regulatory-pathways-along-the-transition-from-solitary-to-social-life-in-a-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris
#3
Pavel Jedlička, Ulrich R Ernst, Alena Votavová, Robert Hanus, Irena Valterová
Understanding the social evolution leading to insect eusociality requires, among other, a detailed insight into endocrine regulatory mechanisms that have been co-opted from solitary ancestors to play new roles in the complex life histories of eusocial species. Bumblebees represent well-suited models of a relatively primitive social organization standing on the mid-way to highly advanced eusociality and their queens undergo both, a solitary and a social phase, separated by winter diapause. In the present paper, we characterize the gene expression levels of major endocrine regulatory pathways across tissues, sexes, and life-stages of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, with special emphasis on critical stages of the queen's transition from solitary to social life...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932572/a-mechanism-for-acetylcholine-receptor-gating-based-on-structure-coupling-phi-and-flip
#4
Shaweta Gupta, Srirupa Chakraborty, Ridhima Vij, Anthony Auerbach
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are allosteric proteins that generate membrane currents by isomerizing ("gating") between resting and active conformations under the influence of neurotransmitters. Here, to explore the mechanisms that link the transmitter-binding sites (TBSs) with the distant gate, we use mutant cycle analyses to measure coupling between residue pairs, phi value analyses to sequence domain rearrangements, and current simulations to reproduce a microsecond shut component ("flip") apparent in single-channel recordings...
December 8, 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932205/cold-induced-sympathetic-tone-modifies-the-impact-of-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-the-finger-pulp
#5
Tone Kristin Bergersen, Maria Skytioti, Maja Elstad
OBJECTIVE: In thermoneutral and cold subjects, the sympathetic nervous system regulates skin blood flow by adjusting frequency of the tonic vasoconstrictor impulses. However, the way these thermoregulatory impulses influence the vascular endothelium is not well known. We studied how the sympathetic nervous system influences endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) caused by shear stress in skin containing arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) and arterioles in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirteen healthy subjects were exposed to thermoneutral (29°C) and cold (22°C) ambient temperatures on separate days...
November 30, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931240/skeletal-muscle-characteristics-are-preserved-in-htert-cdk4-human-myogenic-cell-lines
#6
Matthew Thorley, Stéphanie Duguez, Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza, Sara Valsoni, Anne Bigot, Kamel Mamchaoui, Brennan Harmon, Thomas Voit, Vincent Mouly, William Duddy
BACKGROUND: hTERT/cdk4 immortalized myogenic human cell lines represent an important tool for skeletal muscle research, being used as therapeutically pertinent models of various neuromuscular disorders and in numerous fundamental studies of muscle cell function. However, the cell cycle is linked to other cellular processes such as integrin regulation, the PI3K/Akt pathway, and microtubule stability, raising the question as to whether genetic modification related to the cell cycle results in secondary effects that could undermine the validity of these cell models...
December 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930469/frontal-sinus-pneumatization-affects-height-of-the-lateral-lamella-and-position-of-anterior-ethmoidal-artery
#7
Şenol Çomoğlu, Bayram Şahin, Said Sönmez, Kemal Değer
Preoperative evaluation of the frontal sinus (FS) and associated anatomical structures may reduce the risk of intraoperative complications and facilitate the management of potential complications. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate relationship between FS pneumatization and critical anatomical structures. Paranasal sinus computerized tomography scans of 350 sides of 175 patients were evaluated. The pneumatization pattern of the FS, FS dimensions (on the axial, coronal, and sagittal slices), anterior ethmoidal artery, and depth of the of olfactory fossa were evaluated for every patient on both sides...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929327/the-development-of-automaticity-in-short-term-memory-search-item-response-learning-and-category-learning
#8
Rui Cao, Robert M Nosofsky, Richard M Shiffrin
In short-term-memory (STM)-search tasks, observers judge whether a test probe was present in a short list of study items. Here we investigated the long-term learning mechanisms that lead to the highly efficient STM-search performance observed under conditions of consistent-mapping (CM) training, in which targets and foils never switch roles across trials. In item-response learning, subjects learn long-term mappings between individual items and target versus foil responses. In category learning, subjects learn high-level codes corresponding to separate sets of items and learn to attach old versus new responses to these category codes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929300/development-of-an-abbreviated-career-indecision-profile-65-using-item-response-theory-the-cip-short
#9
Hui Xu, Terence J G Tracey
The current study developed an abbreviated version of the Career Indecision Profile-65 (CIP-65; Hacker, Carr, Abrams, & Brown, 2013) by using item response theory. In order to improve the efficiency of the CIP-65 in measuring career indecision, the individual item performance of the CIP-65 was examined with respect to the ordering of response occurrence and gender differential item functioning. The best 5 items of each scale of the CIP-65 (i.e., neuroticism/negative affectivity, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts) were retained in the CIP-Short using a sample of 588 college students...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929106/channel-morphology-effect-on-water-transport-through-graphene-bilayers
#10
Bo Liu, Renbing Wu, Adrian Wing-Keung Law, Xi-Qiao Feng, Lichun Bai, Kun Zhou
The application of few-layered graphene-derived functional thin films for molecular filtration and separation has recently attracted intensive interests. In practice, the morphology of the nanochannel formed by the graphene (GE) layers is not ideally flat and can be affected by various factors. This work investigates the effect of channel morphology on the water transport behaviors through the GE bilayers via molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that the water flow velocity and transport resistance highly depend on the curvature of the graphene layers, particularly when they are curved in non-synergic patterns...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927887/surface-sensitive-microwear-texture-analysis-of-attrition-and-erosion
#11
S Ranjitkar, A Turan, C Mann, G A Gully, M Marsman, S Edwards, J A Kaidonis, C Hall, D Lekkas, P Wetselaar, A H Brook, F Lobbezoo, G C Townsend
Scale-sensitive fractal analysis of high-resolution 3-dimensional surface reconstructions of wear patterns has advanced our knowledge in evolutionary biology, and has opened up opportunities for translatory applications in clinical practice. To elucidate the microwear characteristics of attrition and erosion in worn natural teeth, we scanned 50 extracted human teeth using a confocal profiler at a high optical resolution (X-Y, 0.17 µm; Z < 3 nm). Our hypothesis was that microwear complexity would be greater in erosion and that anisotropy would be greater in attrition...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927274/characterization-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-prevalence-in-humans-and-poultry-in-huai-an-china-molecular-epidemiology-phylogenetic-and-dynamics-analyses
#12
Peng Fei Yang, Qing Li Yan, Chun Cheng Liu, Ya Dong Xing, Min Hui Zhang, Qiang Gao, Hao Yu, Hai Bo Yao, Nan Jiang He
OBJECTIVE: To trace the source of human H7N9 cases in Huai'an and elucidate the genetic characterization of Huai'an strains associated with both humans and birds in live poultry market. METHODS: An enhanced surveillance was implemented when the first human H7N9 case was confirmed in Huai'an. Clinical specimens, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples were collected and screened by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for H7N9 virus. The positive samples were subjected to further RT-PCR and genome sequencing...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925716/incorporating-noise-quantitatively-in-the-phase-field-crystal-model-via-capillary-fluctuation-theory
#13
Gabriel Kocher, Nana Ofori-Opoku, Nikolas Provatas
A tacit assumption underlying most phase field models of nonequilibrium phase transformations is that of scale separation. Stochastic order parameter field theories utilize noise to separate atomic-scale fluctuations from the slowly varying fields that describe microstructure patterns. The mesoscale distribution of such stochastic variables is generally assumed to follow Gaussian statistics, with their magnitude following fluctuation-dissipation relations. However, there is still much debate about how atomic-scale fluctuations map onto the mesoscale upon coarse graining of microscopic theories...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925167/size-matters-for-lice-on-birds-coevolutionary-allometry-of-host-and-parasite-body-size
#14
Andrea Harnos, Zsolt Lang, Dóra Petrás, Sarah E Bush, Krisztián Szabó, Lajos Rózsa
Body size is one of the most fundamental characteristics of all organisms. It influences physiology, morphology, behavior, and even interspecific interactions such as those between parasites and their hosts. Host body size influences the magnitude and variability of parasite size according to Harrison's Rule (HR: positive relationship between host and parasite body sizes) and Poulin's Increasing Variance Hypothesis (PIVH: positive relationship between host body size and the variability of parasite body size)...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924920/online-flow-cytometry-reveals-microbial-dynamics-influenced-by-concurrent-natural-and-operational-events-in-groundwater-used-for-drinking-water-treatment
#15
Michael D Besmer, Jannis Epting, Rebecca M Page, Jürg A Sigrist, Peter Huggenberger, Frederik Hammes
Detailed measurements of physical, chemical and biological dynamics in groundwater are key to understanding the important processes in place and their influence on water quality - particularly when used for drinking water. Measuring temporal bacterial dynamics at high frequency is challenging due to the limitations in automation of sampling and detection of the conventional, cultivation-based microbial methods. In this study, fully automated online flow cytometry was applied in a groundwater system for the first time in order to monitor microbial dynamics in a groundwater extraction well...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924811/insights-into-the-evolution-of-pathogenicity-of-escherichia-coli-from-genomic-analysis-of-intestinal-e-coli-of-marmota-himalayana-in-qinghai-tibet-plateau-of-china
#16
Shan Lu, Dong Jin, Shusheng Wu, Jing Yang, Ruiting Lan, Xiangning Bai, Sha Liu, Qiong Meng, Xuejiao Yuan, Juan Zhou, Ji Pu, Qiang Chen, Hang Dai, Yuanyuan Hu, Yanwen Xiong, Changyun Ye, Jianguo Xu
Escherichia coli is both of a widespread harmless gut commensal and a versatile pathogen of humans. Domestic animals are a well-known reservoir for pathogenic E. coli. However, studies of E. coli populations from wild animals that have been separated from human activities had been very limited. Here we obtained 580 isolates from intestinal contents of 116 wild Marmot Marmota himalayana from Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, with five isolates per animal. We selected 125 (hereinafter referred to as strains) from the 580 isolates for genome sequencing, based on unique pulse field gel electrophoresis patterns and at least one isolate per animal...
December 7, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924694/dimensions-of-activity-in-countertransference-and-therapist-reactions-therapist-reactions-during-sessions-with-depressed-patients
#17
Felicitas Datz, Karoline Parth, Christine Rohm, Simon Madanoglu, Charles Seidman, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
OBJECTIVES: This paper presents the interaction structure between the therapist's countertransference and the patient's affect based on identified dimensions of how therapists feel and react during sessions with depressed patients. METHODS: 639 sessions were audio-recorded and rated by trained raters. These recordings were obtained from the Munich Psychotherapy Study and analyzed with the PQS, the AREQ, and the TRQ/CTQ. RESULTS: Seven components with good to excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = ...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924154/early-diagnosis-of-brain-metastases-using-a-biofluids-metabolomics-approach-in-mice
#18
James R Larkin, Alex M Dickens, Timothy D W Claridge, Claire Bristow, Kleopatra Andreou, Daniel C Anthony, Nicola R Sibson
Over 20% of cancer patients will develop brain metastases. Prognosis is currently extremely poor, largely owing to late-stage diagnosis. We hypothesized that biofluid metabolomics could detect tumours at the micrometastatic stage, prior to the current clinical gold-standard of blood-brain barrier breakdown. Metastatic mammary carcinoma cells (4T1-GFP) were injected into BALB/c mice via intracerebral, intracardiac or intravenous routes to induce differing cerebral and systemic tumour burdens. B16F10 melanoma and MDA231BR-GFP human breast carcinoma cells were used for additional modelling...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923910/a-new-approach-to-chromosomal-evolution-in-the-giant-water-bug-heteroptera-belostomatidae
#19
Raquel Bozini Gallo, Rachel Colauto Milanezi Aguiar, Ana Paula Scaramal Ricietto, Laurival Vilas-Boas, Carlos Roberto Maximiano da Silva, José Ricardo Inacio Ribeiro, Renata Da Rosa
The genus Belostoma, known colloquially as 'giant water bugs', presents striking cytogenetic diversity and extensive chromosome variability. Notwithstanding, its karyotype evolution is not well understood. We analyzed eight species of Belostoma (77 samples). The meiotic analysis revealed 2n=14+XY for B. horvathi and B. candidulum; 2n=22+XY for B. cummings; 2n=26+X1X2Y for B. dentatum, B. elongatum, and B. discretum; and 2n=26+X1X2X3Y for B. testacopallidum and B. dilatatum. All species showed holokinetic chromosomes...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923878/neighbor-detection-induces-organ-specific-transcriptomes-revealing-patterns-underlying-hypocotyl-specific-growth
#20
Markus Kohnen, Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Martine Trevisan, Laure Allenbach Petrolati, Fabien Sénéchal, Patricia Müller-Moulé, Julin N Maloof, Ioannis Xenarios, Christian Fankhauser
In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 6, 2016: Plant Cell
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