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pattern separation

Gauri Joshi, Chetan Chauhan, Sandip Das
The availability of a large number of whole-genome sequences allows comparative genomic analysis to reveal and understand evolution of regulatory regions and elements. The role played by events such as whole-genome and segmental duplications followed by genome fractionation in shaping genomic landscape and in expansion of gene families is crucial toward developing insights into evolutionary trends and consequences such as sequence and functional diversification. Members of Brassicaceae are known to have experienced several rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) that have been termed as paleopolyploidy, mesopolyploidy, and neopolyploidy...
September 21, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Yuki Okafuji, Callum David Mole, Natasha Merat, Takanori Fukao, Yasuyoshi Yokokohji, Hiroshi Inou, Richard McGilchrist Wilkie
Successful driving involves steering corrections that respond to immediate positional errors while also anticipating upcoming changes to the road layout ahead. In popular steering models these tasks are often treated as separate functions using two points: the near region for correcting current errors, and the far region for anticipating future steering requirements. Whereas two-point control models can capture many aspects of driver behavior, the nature of perceptual inputs to these two "points" remains unclear...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Joshua C Peterson, Mary Chughtai, Lambertus J Wisse, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Qingping Feng, Marie-José T H Goumans, J Conny VanMunsteren, Monique R M Jongbloed, Marco C DeRuiter
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a valve with two instead of three aortic leaflets, belongs to the most prevalent congenital heart diseases in the world occurring in 0.5-2% of the general population. We aimed to understand how changes in early cellular contributions result in BAV and impact cardiovascular outflow tract development.Detailed 3D reconstructions, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics determined that during valvulogenesis the non-coronary leaflet separates from the parietal outflow tract cushion instead of originating from an intercalated cushion...
September 20, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Cezar M Tigaret, Sophie E L Chamberlain, Joseph H L P Sadowski, Michael C Ashby, Jack R Mellor
Hebbian synaptic plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses is tightly regulated by postsynaptic SK channels that restrict NMDA receptor activity. SK channels are themselves modulated by G-protein-coupled signalling pathways, but it is not clear under what conditions these are activated to enable synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) and type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signalling pathways, which are known to inhibit SK channels and thereby disinhibit NMDA receptors, converge to facilitate spine calcium transients during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses onto CA1 pyramidal neurons of male rats...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Whitney Barnett, Sarah Halligan, Jon Heron, Abigail Fraser, Nastassja Koen, Heather J Zar, Kirsty A Donald, Dan J Stein
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global problem, prevalent in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). IPV is particularly problematic during the perinatal and early postnatal period, where it is linked with negative maternal and child health outcomes. There has been little examination of profiles of IPV and early life adversity in LMIC contexts. We aimed to characterize longitudinal IPV and to investigate maternal maltreatment in childhood as a predictor of IPV exposure during pregnancy and postnatally in a low resource setting...
September 18, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Erin E Flynn-Evans, Lucia Arsintescu, Kevin Gregory, Jeffrey Mulligan, Jessica Nowinski, Michael Feary
INTRODUCTION: It is established that shiftwork causes sleep loss and circadian misalignment. Individuals who work non-traditional day shifts that encroach into typical sleep times, such as those in the service and transportation sectors, may also experience sleep and circadian disruption. We aimed to determine how neurobehavioral performance and sleep would be affected by work start time among individuals working a non-traditional daytime shift pattern. METHODS: We collected sleep diaries, wrist-worn actigraphy (CamNtech, Cambridge UK), and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) from 44 pilots (4F) who worked a shift rotation consisting of a five-day baseline block starting in the mid-morning (baseline), five early shifts (early), five high workload midday shifts (midday), and five days of late shifts (late), each separated by 3-4 days off...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Thomas Joseph Wukitsch, Emily Kae Reinhardt, Stephen W Kiefer, Mary Eileen Cain
Little is known about the influence of rearing environments concurrent with voluntary intermittent access to ethanol on subsequent adult ethanol-related behaviors. Previous research has shown that adult rats reared in post-weaning, social isolation conditions (IC) respond more for operant ethanol compared to laboratory standard conditions (SC). Ethanol exposed adolescents tend to consume more ethanol in adulthood than rats exposed as adults. The current study examined voluntary ethanol consumption during adolescence between IC and SC rats, subsequent operant responding for ethanol, and extinction of responding in the same rats as adults...
September 18, 2018: Alcohol
Manuel Stehr, Quentin Sciascia, Cornelia C Metges, Matthias Gauly, Gürbüz Daş
Worm expulsion is known to occur in mammalian hosts exposed to mono-species helminth infections, whilst this phenomenon is poorly described in avian hosts. Mono-species infections, however, are rather rare under natural circumstances. Therefore, we quantified the extent and duration of worm expulsion by chickens experimentally infected with both Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and investigated the accompanying humoral and cell-mediated host immune responses in association with population dynamics of the worms...
September 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Laura A Libby, Zachariah M Reagh, Nichole R Bouffard, J Daniel Ragland, Charan Ranganath
Episodic memory is known to rely on the hippocampus, but how the hippocampus organizes different episodes to permit their subsequent retrieval remains controversial. One major area of debate hinges on a discrepancy between two hypothesized roles of the hippocampus: differentiating between similar events to reduce interference and assigning similar representations to events that share overlapping items and contextual information. Here, we used multivariate analyses of activity patterns measured with fMRI to characterize how the hippocampus distinguishes between memories based on similarity at the level of items and/or context...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Pablo Orcid- Turjanski, Diego Ulises Ferreiro
All known terrestrial proteins are coded as continuous strings of ~20 amino acids. The patterns formed by the repetitions of elements in groups of finite sequences describes the natural architectures of protein families. We present a method to search for patterns and groupings of patterns in protein sequences using a mathematically precise definition for 'repetition', an efficient algorithmic implementation and a robust scoring system with no adjustable parameters. We show that the sequence patterns can be well-separated into disjoint classes according to their recurrence in nested structures...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Qi-Zhi Zhong, Shuaijun Pan, Md Arifur Rahim, Gyeongwon Yun, Jianhua Li, Yi Ju, Zhixing Lin, Yiyuan Han, Yutian Ma, Joseph J Richardson, Frank Caruso
Hybrid conformal coatings, such as metal-phenolic networks (MPNs) that are constructed from the coordination-driven assembly of natural phenolic ligands, are of interest in areas including biomedicine, separations, and energy. To date, most MPN coatings have been prepared by immersing substrates in solutions containing the phenolic ligands and metal ions, which is a suitable method for coating small or flexible objects. In contrast, more industrially relevant methods for coating and patterning large substrates, such as spray assembly, have been explored to a lesser extent toward the fabrication of MPNs, particularly regarding the effect of process variables on MPN growth...
September 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Adrian Yeoh, Stephen Bell, Chip Farmer, Peter Carne, Stewart Skinner, Martin Chin, Satish Warrier
BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is dysplasia in the epithelium of the anus and is a pre-malignant condition associated with a low rate of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The natural history of progression for AIN to anal SCC is poorly defined. This study aims to review our experience with AIN and investigate the natural history of progression. METHODS: Data on all patients with AIN from January 2005 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 21, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Ivana Crnovčić, Manuel Lang, Ingo Ortel, Roderich D Süssmuth, Ullrich Keller
Actinomycin peptide synthetase genes constitute two oppositely oriented transcriptional units, acmADR, and acmBC, separated by a non-coding intergenic region. Gene constructs of the intergenic region together with its adjoining gene acmA or acmB from the actinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus were transferred into Streptomyces lividans TK64. Each construct expressed the respective synthetase indicating divergent promoters. Primer extension revealed for both directions -10 and -35 boxes similar to σ70 -dependent promoters from Streptomyces and E...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Kritika Krishnamurthy, Siba El Hussein, Yumna Omarzai
Small intestinal volvulus (SBV) is the abnormal twisting of bowel around the axis of its mesentery, leading to obstruction and vascular compromise, resulting in bowel ischemia and necrosis which are life-threatening. Risk factors include malformation, malrotation, and adhesions. Its rare incidence and vague clinical presentation make it a difficult diagnosis, more so in a nonverbal patient who cannot express his pain, which is the first and most prominent symptom. Studies suggest an increased frequency of intestinal obstruction in cerebral palsy patients...
July 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Rymantas J Kazys, Liudas Mazeika, Reimondas Sliteris, Justina Sestoke
Ultrasonic non-destructive testing techniques (NDT) based on the application of guided waves are already used for inspection of plate-type structures made of various materials, including composite materials. Air-coupled ultrasonic techniques are used to test such structures by means of guided waves. The objective of this research was development and investigation of air-coupled excitation of a slow A₀ Lamb wave mode in thin plastic films by a PMN-32%PT ultrasonic array. It is known that when the velocity of the A₀ mode in the film is less than the ultrasound velocity in air no leaky wave is observed in a surrounding air...
September 19, 2018: Sensors
Sofie Lindeberg, Belinda M Craig, Ottmar V Lipp
A happy face advantage has consistently been shown in emotion categorization tasks; happy faces are categorized as happy faster than angry faces as angry. Furthermore, social category cues, such as facial sex and race, moderate the happy face advantage in evaluatively congruent ways with a larger happy face advantage for more positively evaluated faces. We investigated whether attractiveness, a facial attribute unrelated to more defined social categories, would moderate the happy face advantage consistent with the evaluative congruence account...
September 20, 2018: Emotion
Matteo De Tommaso, Gisela Kaplan, Cinzia Chiandetti, Giorgio Vallortigara
Nonsongbirds can produce rhythmical sounds that, at times, have been shown to be meaningful in their communication. This raises the possibility that rhythm is a separate ability that might have evolved earlier than song. We asked whether nearly completely naïve domestic chicks perceive rhythm and respond in specific ways to different rhythmic patterns. To do so, specific constituent parameters of rhythmicity were used based on the sound of a natural mother hen's cluck. The sound samples created ranged from a continuous sound to articulated rhythmic patterns of alternating strong and weak events...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Antony J Durston
A two tier mechanism mediates Hox collinearity. Besides the familiar collinear chromatin modification within each Hox cluster (nanocollinearity), there is also a macrocollinearity tier. Individual Hox clusters and individual cells are coordinated and synchronized to generate multiscale (macro and nano) collinearity in the early vertebrate embryo. Macro-collinearity is mediated by three non-cell autonomous Hox-Hox interactions. These mediate temporal collinearity in early NOM (non-organizer mesoderm), time space translation where temporal collinearity is translated to spatial collinearity along the early embryo's main body axis and neural transformation, where Hox expression is copied monospecifically from NOM mesoderm to overlying neurectoderm in the late gastrula...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Andrew E Reineberg, Daniel E Gustavson, Chelsie Benca, Marie T Banich, Naomi P Friedman
The brain is organized into a number of large networks based on shared function, for example, high-level cognitive functions (frontoparietal network), attentional capabilities (dorsal and ventral attention networks), and internal mentation (default network). The correlations of these networks during resting-state fMRI scans varies across individuals and is an indicator of individual differences in ability. Prior work shows higher cognitive functioning (as measured by working memory and attention tasks) is associated with stronger negative correlations between frontoparietal/attention and default networks, suggesting that increased ability may depend upon the diverging activation of networks with contrasting function...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sergio De La Fuente, Jonathan P Lambert, Zuzana Nichtova, Celia Fernandez Sanz, John W Elrod, Shey-Shing Sheu, György Csordás
Mitochondrial Ca2+ elevations enhance ATP production, but uptake must be balanced by efflux to avoid overload. Uptake is mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter channel complex (MCUC), and extrusion is controlled largely by the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX), both driven electrogenically by the inner membrane potential (ΔΨm ). MCUC forms hotspots at the cardiac mitochondria-junctional SR (jSR) association to locally receive Ca2+ signals; however, the distribution of NCLX is unknown. Our fractionation-based assays reveal that extensively jSR-associated mitochondrial segments contain a minor portion of NCLX and lack Na+ -dependent Ca2+ extrusion...
September 18, 2018: Cell Reports
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