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pattern separation

Xianchun Zeng, Shengqiang Xu, Changyong Cao, Jian Wang, Chunqi Qian
To demonstrate the capability of a wireless amplified NMR detector (WAND) to improve the visibility of lesion heterogeneity without the use of exogenous contrast agents, a cylindrically symmetric WAND was constructed to sensitively detect and simultaneously amplify MR signals emitted from adjacent tissues. Based on a two-leg high-pass birdcage coil design, this WAND could be activated by a pumping field aligned along the main field (B0 ), without perturbing MR signal reception. Compared with an equivalent pair of external detectors, the WAND could achieve more than 10-fold gain for immediately adjacent regions...
July 16, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Ahmet Yavuz Balci, Murat Sargin, Serdar Akansel, Sennur Ünal Dayi, Hüseyin Kuplay, Müge Evren Mete, Gökçen Orhan, Serap Aykut Aka
OBJECTIVES: Although coronary angiography (CAG) is generally performed to rule out coexisting coronary artery disease in patients with cardiac myxoma, its necessity to evaluate vascular supply of the myxoma is debatable. The aim of this article is to evaluate clinical experience and CAG findings in our patient group. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was performed in 46 patients (17 men, mean age 57.7 ± 8.6 years), who underwent surgery with an indication for cardiac myxoma between 2004 and 2016 with a CAG performed preoperatively...
July 12, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Ngai Sze Wong, Sing Lee, Shui Shan Lee
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the influenza vaccination pattern between clinical and long term care facilities (LTCF) nurses. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2018 an annual online survey was administered on nurses after onset of Winter influenza season in Hong Kong. Factors associated with vaccination were examined separately for clinical and LTCF nurses in univariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of 4675 responses collected in the 5-year period, 18% came from nurses of LTCF...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
N Ganot, E Y Tshuva
Advanced anticancer phenolato titanium(iv) complexes were combined with known chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs applied in the clinic and were analyzed in vitro on cell lines most sensitive to the Ti(iv) complex and relevant to the clinical application of the known drugs. Combination of the Ti(iv) complex with cisplatin on ovarian cells showed mostly an additive behavior, also on a line resistant to cisplatin. Combination of the Ti(iv) complex with fluorouracil on colon cells gave near additive behavior, and that with oxaliplatin gave a synergistic behavior at a wide range of Ti : Pt ratios, but only when the drugs were administered together...
February 5, 2018: RSC Advances
Danilo Cimadomo, Gemma Fabozzi, Alberto Vaiarelli, Nicolò Ubaldi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Laura Rienzi
The overall success of human reproduction, either spontaneously or after IVF, is highly dependent upon maternal age. The main reasons for age-related infertility include reduced ovarian reserve and decreased oocyte/embryo competence due to aging insults, especially concerning an increased incidence of aneuploidies and possibly decreased mitochondrial activity. Age-related chromosomal abnormalities mainly arise because of meiotic impairments during oogenesis, following flawed chromosome segregation patterns such as non-disjunction, premature separation of sister chromatids, or the recent reverse segregation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jonathan M Hailwood, Christopher J Heath, Trevor W Robbins, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
RATIONALE: Across species, effort-related motivation can be assessed by testing behaviour under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. However, to date, PR tasks for rodents have been available using traditional operant response systems only. OBJECTIVES: Touchscreen operant response systems allow the assessment of behaviour in laboratory rodents, using tasks that share high face validity with the computerised assessments used in humans. Here, we sought to optimise a rat touchscreen variant of PR and validate it by assessing the effects of a number of manipulations known to affect PR performance in non-touchscreen paradigms...
July 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
C Cuman, C E Beyer, D Brodie, T Fullston, J I Lin, E Willats, D Zander-Fox, J Mullen
STUDY QUESTION: Is next generation sequencing (NGS) capable of detecting smaller sub-chromosomal rearrangements in human embryos than the manufacturer's quoted resolution suggests? SUMMARY ANSWER: NGS was able to detect unbalanced chromosome segments smaller than the manufacturer's resolution. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) has been the gold standard platform used for PGD of chromosome rearrangements...
July 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Mengfei Lin, Ruihu Jia, Juncheng Li, Mengjie Zhang, Hanbin Chen, Deng Zhang, Junjie Zhang, Xiaoyang Chen
Moringa oleifera TPSs were genome-wide identified for the first time, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed to investigate evolutionary divergence. The qRT-PCR data show that MoTPS genes response to different stress treatments. The trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) family is involved in a wide range of stress-resistance processes in plants. Its direct product, trehalose-6-phosphate, acts as a specific signal of sucrose status and a regulator to modulate carbon metabolism within the plant. In this study, eight TPS genes were identified and cloned based on the M...
July 13, 2018: Planta
Valeria C Caruso, Jeff T Mohl, Christopher Glynn, Jungah Lee, Shawn M Willett, Azeem Zaman, Akinori F Ebihara, Rolando Estrada, Winrich A Freiwald, Surya T Tokdar, Jennifer M Groh
How the brain preserves information about multiple simultaneous items is poorly understood. We report that single neurons can represent multiple stimuli by interleaving signals across time. We record single units in an auditory region, the inferior colliculus, while monkeys localize 1 or 2 simultaneous sounds. During dual-sound trials, we find that some neurons fluctuate between firing rates observed for each single sound, either on a whole-trial or on a sub-trial timescale. These fluctuations are correlated in pairs of neurons, can be predicted by the state of local field potentials prior to sound onset, and, in one monkey, can predict which sound will be reported first...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Hyung-Bae Jeon, Dong-Young Kim, Yoon Jeong Lee, Han-Gyu Bae, Ho Young Suk
Separated river systems could create confluences via two geological processes, estuary coalescence in response to decreasing sea levels and headwater capture, allowing primary freshwater species to disperse across rivers. Squalidus multimaculatus, is an endemic and primary freshwater species restricted to the southeast coast of the Korean Peninsula. The distribution of this species is unique, given that other congeneric species, including its closely related S. gracilis majimae, as well as other cyprind species are observed throughout the peninsula except for the east coast...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lynn J Lohnas, Katherine Duncan, Werner K Doyle, Thomas Thesen, Orrin Devinsky, Lila Davachi
Mnemonic decision-making has long been hypothesized to rely on hippocampal dynamics that bias memory processing toward the formation of new memories or the retrieval of old ones. Successful memory encoding may be best optimized by pattern separation, whereby two highly similar experiences can be represented by underlying neural populations in an orthogonal manner. By contrast, successful memory retrieval is thought to be supported by a recovery of the same neural pattern laid down during encoding. Here we examined how hippocampal pattern completion and separation emerge over time during memory decisions...
July 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pablo R Grassi, Natalia Zaretskaya, Andreas Bartels
Our visual system's ability to group visual elements into meaningful entities and to separate them from others is referred to as scene segmentation. Visual motion often provides a powerful cue for this process as parallax or coherence can inform the visual system about scene or object structure. Here we tested the hypothesis that scene segmentation by motion cues relies on a common neural substrate in the parietal cortex. We used fMRI and a set of three entirely distinct motion stimuli to examine scene segmentation in the human brain...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastian, Anneli Ivarsson, Per E Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease seem to widen or endure in Sweden. However, research on inequalities in antecedent cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), and particularly what underpins them, is scarce. The present study aimed 1) to estimate income-related inequalities in eight biological cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish middle-aged women and men; and 2) to examine the contribution of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and psychosocial determinants to the observed inequalities...
July 13, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Juan J Calvete
Venoms are integrated phenotypes used by a wide range of organisms for predatory and defensive purposes. The study of venoms is of great interest in diverse fields, such as evolutionary ecology and biotechnology. Omics technologies have contributed to understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that molded snake venoms to their present-day structural and functional variability lanscape. Areas covered: This review article reflects on two recent implementations in venomics: absolute quantification of intact proteins by elemental mass spectrometry, and top-down molecular mass spectrometry...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Whanhee Lee, Yoonhee Kim, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim
Many previous literatures suggested that high temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are prominent risk factors to increase risk of mortality. However, the role of effect modification of temperature on the DTR-related mortality is unclear. We examined whether temperature was an effect modifier on the DTR-mortality association and how the modification patterns differed by cause of deaths and different regional climates using a nationwide 47 prefecture data in Japan (1972-2015). We used a two-stage analysis...
July 9, 2018: Environment International
M Vilen, J M Kelly, A Kankainen, M Brodeur, A Aprahamian, L Canete, T Eronen, A Jokinen, T Kuta, I D Moore, M R Mumpower, D A Nesterenko, H Penttilä, I Pohjalainen, W S Porter, S Rinta-Antila, R Surman, A Voss, J Äystö
The rare-earth peak in the r-process abundance pattern depends sensitively on both the astrophysical conditions and subtle changes in nuclear structure in the region. This work takes an important step towards elucidating the nuclear structure and reducing the uncertainties in r-process calculations via precise atomic mass measurements at the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap. ^{158}Nd, ^{160}Pm, ^{162}Sm, and ^{164-166}Gd have been measured for the first time, and the precisions for ^{156}Nd, ^{158}Pm, ^{162,163}Eu, ^{163}Gd, and ^{164}Tb have been improved considerably...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Zaiyi Shen, Thomas M Fischer, Alexander Farutin, Petia M Vlahovska, Jens Harting, Chaouqi Misbah
Driven or active suspensions can display fascinating collective behavior, where coherent motions or structures arise on a scale much larger than that of the constituent particles. Here, we report numerical simulations and an analytical model revealing that deformable particles and, in particular, red blood cells (RBCs) assemble into regular patterns in a confined shear flow. The pattern wavelength concurs well with our experimental observations. The order is of a pure hydrodynamic and inertialess origin, and it emerges from a subtle interplay between (i) hydrodynamic repulsion by the bounding walls that drives deformable cells towards the channel midplane and (ii) intercellular hydrodynamic interactions that can be attractive or repulsive depending on cell-cell separation...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Heyou Zhang, Jasper Cadusch, Calum Kinnear, Timothy James, Ann Roberts, Paul Mulvaney
A major goal of nanotechnology is the assembly of nanoscale building blocks into functional optical, electrical or chemical devices. Many of these applications depend on an ability to optically or electrically address single nanoparticles. However, positioning large numbers of single nanocrystals with nanometre precision on a substrate for integration into solid-state devices, remains a fundamental roadblock. Here, we report fast, scalable assembly of thousands of single nanoparticles using electrophoretic deposition...
July 13, 2018: ACS Nano
Sarah J Parker, Aleksandr Stotland, Elena MacFarlane, Nicole Wilson, Amanda Orosco, Vidya Venkatraman, Kyle Madrid, Roberta A Gottlieb, Harry C Dietz, Jennifer E Van Eyk
OBJECTIVE: To (1) analyze the ascending aortic proteome within a mouse model of MFS (Fbn1C1041G/+ ) at early and late stages of aneurysm and subsequently to (2) test a novel hypothesis formulated based on this unbiased proteomic screen that links changes in integrin composition to TGFβ-dependent activation of the Rapamycin-Independent Component of TOR (Rictor) signaling pathway. Approach & Results. Ingenuity pathway analysis of over 1000 proteins quantified from in vivo MFS mouse aorta by data independent acquisition mass-spectrometry revealed a predicted upstream regulator, Rictor, that was selectively activated in aged MFS mice...
July 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jeong-Hwa Kwon, Hyoung Jung Kim, Do Hyun Park, Young-Joo Lee, Christopher M Heaphy, Günter Klöppel, Ralph H Hruban, Seung-Mo Hong
Pancreatic neuroendocrine microadenomas (NEMAs) are non-functioning neuroendocrine tumors < 0.5 cm with a low proliferation rate and are considered benign. We report on a pancreatic NEMA with lymph node metastasis. A male in his 70s had pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a distal bile duct carcinoma, which was a 2.1 cm well-differentiated-infiltrating adenocarcinoma with invasion limited to the bile duct wall. An incidental separate 0.4 cm well-differentiated NEMA was found in the pancreatic head with metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor in one peripancreatic lymph node...
July 12, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
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