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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447153/a-model-of-risk-and-mental-state-shifts-during-social-interaction
#1
Andreas Hula, Iris Vilares, Terry Lohrenz, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
Cooperation and competition between human players in repeated microeconomic games offer a window onto social phenomena such as the establishment, breakdown and repair of trust. However, although a suitable starting point for the quantitative analysis of such games exists, namely the Interactive Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (I-POMDP), computational considerations and structural limitations have limited its application, and left unmodelled critical features of behavior in a canonical trust task...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297512/the-protective-action-encoding-of-serotonin-transients-in-the-human-brain
#2
Rosalyn J Moran, Kenneth T Kishida, Terry Lohrenz, Ignacio Saez, Adrian W Laxton, Mark R Witcher, Stephen B Tatter, Thomas L Ellis, Paul Em Phillips, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
The role of serotonin in human brain function remains elusive due, at least in part, to our inability to measure rapidly the local concentration of this neurotransmitter. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to infer serotonergic signaling from the striatum of fourteen brains of human patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we report these novel measurements and show that they correlate with outcomes and decisions in a sequential investment game. We find that serotonergic concentrations transiently increase as a whole following negative reward prediction errors, while reversing when counterfactual losses predominate...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163095/the-functional-architecture-of-the-brain-underlies-strategic-deception-in-impression-management
#3
Qiang Luo, Yina Ma, Meghana A Bhatt, P Read Montague, Jianfeng Feng
Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN), which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110816/forgetting-to-be-addicted-reconsolidation-and-the-disconnection-of-things-past
#4
Alec Solway, Xiaosi Gu, P Read Montague
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289225/predicting-the-knowledge-recklessness-distinction-in-the-human-brain
#5
Iris Vilares, Michael J Wesley, Woo-Young Ahn, Richard J Bonnie, Morris Hoffman, Owen D Jones, Stephen J Morse, Gideon Yaffe, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
Criminal convictions require proof that a prohibited act was performed in a statutorily specified mental state. Different legal consequences, including greater punishments, are mandated for those who act in a state of knowledge, compared with a state of recklessness. Existing research, however, suggests people have trouble classifying defendants as knowing, rather than reckless, even when instructed on the relevant legal criteria. We used a machine-learning technique on brain imaging data to predict, with high accuracy, which mental state our participants were in...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225034/simulating-future-value-in-intertemporal-choice
#6
Alec Solway, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191489/an-efficiency-framework-for-valence-processing-systems-inspired-by-soft-cross-wiring
#7
P Read Montague, Kenneth T Kishida, Rosalyn J Moran, Terry M Lohrenz
Recent experiments suggest that subsecond dopamine delivery to human striatum encodes a combination of reward prediction errors and counterfactual errors thus composing the actual with the possible into one neurochemical signal. Here, we present a model where the counterfactual part of these striatal dopamine fluctuations originates in another valuation system that shadows the dopamine system by acting as its near-antipode in terms of spike-rate encoding yet co-releases dopamine alongside its own native neurotransmitter...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574306/bold-and-its-connection-to-dopamine-release-in-human-striatum-a-cross-cohort-comparison
#8
Terry Lohrenz, Kenneth T Kishida, P Read Montague
Activity in midbrain dopamine neurons modulates the release of dopamine in terminal structures including the striatum, and controls reward-dependent valuation and choice. This fluctuating release of dopamine is thought to encode reward prediction error (RPE) signals and other value-related information crucial to decision-making, and such models have been used to track prediction error signals in the striatum as encoded by BOLD signals. However, until recently there have been no comparisons of BOLD responses and dopamine responses except for one clear correlation of these two signals in rodents...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468271/belief-about-nicotine-modulates-subjective-craving-and-insula-activity-in-deprived-smokers
#9
Xiaosi Gu, Terry Lohrenz, Ramiro Salas, Philip R Baldwin, Alireza Soltani, Ulrich Kirk, Paul M Cinciripini, P Read Montague
Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told "nicotine" vs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454677/cocaine-dependent-adults-and-recreational-cocaine-users-are-more-likely-than-controls-to-choose-immediate-unsafe-sex-over-delayed-safer-sex
#10
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Matthew W Johnson, Daisy G Y Thompson-Lake, Michael J Wesley, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague, Warren K Bickel
Cocaine users have a higher incidence of risky sexual behavior and HIV infection than nonusers. Our aim was to measure whether safer sex discount rates-a measure of the likelihood of having immediate unprotected sex versus waiting to have safer sex-differed between controls and cocaine users of varying severity. Of the 162 individuals included in the primary data analyses, 69 met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for cocaine dependence, 29 were recreational cocaine users who did not meet the dependence criteria, and 64 were controls...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354739/neural-differences-in-self-perception-during-illness-and-after-weight-recovery-in-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Carrie J McAdams, Haekyung Jeon-Slaughter, Siobahn Evans, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague, Daniel C Krawczyk
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness characterized by problems with self-perception. Whole-brain neural activations in healthy women, women with AN and women in long-term weight recovery following AN were compared using two functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks probing different aspects of self-perception. The Social Identity-V2 task involved consideration about oneself and others using socially descriptive adjectives. Both the ill and weight-recovered women with AN engaged medial prefrontal cortex less than healthy women for self-relevant cognitions, a potential biological trait difference...
November 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266443/mindfulness-training-increases-cooperative-decision-making-in-economic-exchanges-evidence-from-fmri
#12
Ulrich Kirk, Xiaosi Gu, Carla Sharp, Andreas Hula, Peter Fonagy, P Read Montague
Emotions have been shown to exert influences on decision making during economic exchanges. Here we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of a training regimen which is hypothesized to promote emotional awareness, specifically mindfulness training (MT). We test the hypothesis that MT increases cooperative economic decision making using fMRI in a randomized longitudinal design involving 8weeks of either MT or active control training (CT). We find that MT results in an increased willingness to cooperate indexed by higher acceptance rates to unfair monetary offers in the Ultimatum Game...
September 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038008/asymmetry-in-functional-connectivity-of-the-human-habenula-revealed-by-high-resolution-cardiac-gated-resting-state-imaging
#13
Sébastien Hétu, Yi Luo, Ignacio Saez, Kimberlee D'Ardenne, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The habenula is a hub for cognitive and emotional signals that are relayed to the aminergic centers in the midbrain and, thus, plays an important role in goal-oriented behaviors. Although it is well described in rodents and non-human primates, the habenula functional network remains relatively uncharacterized in humans, partly because of the methodological challenges associated with the functional magnetic resonance imaging of small structures in the brain. Using high-resolution cardiac-gated resting state imaging in healthy humans and precisely identifying each participants' habenula, we show that the habenula is functionally coupled with the insula, parahippocampus, thalamus, periaqueductal grey, pons, striatum and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex...
July 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26722624/single-stimulus-fmri-produces-a-neural-individual-difference-measure-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
James Lu, Ken Kishida, Josepheen De Asis Cruz, Terry Lohrenz, Diane Treadwell Deering, Michael Beauchamp, P Read Montague
Functional magnetic resonance imaging typically makes inferences about neural substrates of cognitive phenomena at the group level. We report the use of a single-stimulus BOLD response in the cingulate cortex that differentiates individual children with autism spectrum disorder from matched typically developing control children with sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 73.7% respectively. The approach consists of passive viewing of 'self' and 'other' faces from which an individual difference measure is derived from the BOLD response to the first 'self' image only; the method, penalized logistic regression, requires no averaging over stimulus presentations or individuals...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598677/subsecond-dopamine-fluctuations-in-human-striatum-encode-superposed-error-signals-about-actual-and-counterfactual-reward
#15
Kenneth T Kishida, Ignacio Saez, Terry Lohrenz, Mark R Witcher, Adrian W Laxton, Stephen B Tatter, Jason P White, Thomas L Ellis, Paul E M Phillips, P Read Montague
In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making...
January 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573970/charting-the-landscape-of-priority-problems-in-psychiatry-part-1-classification-and-diagnosis
#16
REVIEW
Klaas E Stephan, Dominik R Bach, Paul C Fletcher, Jonathan Flint, Michael J Frank, Karl J Friston, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, Michael J Owen, Elisabeth B Binder, Peter Dayan, Eve C Johnstone, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, P Read Montague, Ulrich Schnyder, Xiao-Jing Wang, Michael Breakspear
Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders...
January 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573969/charting-the-landscape-of-priority-problems-in-psychiatry-part-2-pathogenesis-and-aetiology
#17
REVIEW
Klaas E Stephan, Elisabeth B Binder, Michael Breakspear, Peter Dayan, Eve C Johnstone, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Ulrich Schnyder, Xiao-Jing Wang, Dominik R Bach, Paul C Fletcher, Jonathan Flint, Michael J Frank, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, P Read Montague, Michael J Owen, Karl J Friston
This is the second of two companion papers proposing priority problems for research on mental disorders. Whereas the first paper focuses on questions of nosology and diagnosis, this Personal View concerns pathogenesis and aetiology of psychiatric diseases. We hope that this (non-exhaustive and subjective) list of problems, nominated by scientists and clinicians from different fields and institutions, provides guidance and perspectives for choosing future directions in psychiatric science.
January 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416161/neural-responses-to-kindness-and-malevolence-differ-in-illness-and-recovery-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Carrie J McAdams, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26360579/computational-psychiatry-the-brain-as-a-phantastic-organ
#19
REVIEW
Karl J Friston, Klaas Enno Stephan, Read Montague, Raymond J Dolan
In this Review, we discuss advances in computational neuroscience that relate to psychiatry. We review computational psychiatry in terms of the ambitions of investigators, emerging domains of application, and future work. Our focus is on theoretical formulations of brain function that put subjective beliefs and behaviour within formal (computational) frameworks-frameworks that can be grounded in neurophysiology down to the level of synaptic mechanisms. Understanding the principles that underlie the brain's functional architecture might be essential for an informed phenotyping of psychopathology in terms of its pathophysiological underpinnings...
July 2014: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26053429/monte-carlo-planning-method-estimates-planning-horizons-during-interactive-social-exchange
#20
Andreas Hula, P Read Montague, Peter Dayan
Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future...
June 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
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