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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574306/bold-and-its-connection-to-dopamine-release-in-human-striatum-a-cross-cohort-comparison
#1
Terry Lohrenz, Kenneth T Kishida, P Read Montague
Activity in midbrain dopamine neurons modulates the release of dopamine in terminal structures including the striatum, and controls reward-dependent valuation and choice. This fluctuating release of dopamine is thought to encode reward prediction error (RPE) signals and other value-related information crucial to decision-making, and such models have been used to track prediction error signals in the striatum as encoded by BOLD signals. However, until recently there have been no comparisons of BOLD responses and dopamine responses except for one clear correlation of these two signals in rodents...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468271/belief-about-nicotine-modulates-subjective-craving-and-insula-activity-in-deprived-smokers
#2
Xiaosi Gu, Terry Lohrenz, Ramiro Salas, Philip R Baldwin, Alireza Soltani, Ulrich Kirk, Paul M Cinciripini, P Read Montague
Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told "nicotine" vs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454677/cocaine-dependent-adults-and-recreational-cocaine-users-are-more-likely-than-controls-to-choose-immediate-unsafe-sex-over-delayed-safer-sex
#3
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Matthew W Johnson, Daisy G Y Thompson-Lake, Michael J Wesley, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague, Warren K Bickel
Cocaine users have a higher incidence of risky sexual behavior and HIV infection than nonusers. Our aim was to measure whether safer sex discount rates-a measure of the likelihood of having immediate unprotected sex versus waiting to have safer sex-differed between controls and cocaine users of varying severity. Of the 162 individuals included in the primary data analyses, 69 met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for cocaine dependence, 29 were recreational cocaine users who did not meet the dependence criteria, and 64 were controls...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354739/neural-differences-in-self-perception-during-illness-and-after-weight-recovery-in-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Carrie J McAdams, Haekyung Jeon-Slaughter, Siobahn Evans, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague, Daniel C Krawczyk
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness characterized by problems with self-perception. Whole-brain neural activations in healthy women, women with AN and women in long-term weight recovery following AN were compared using two functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks probing different aspects of self-perception. The Social Identity-V2 task involved consideration about oneself and others using socially descriptive adjectives. Both the ill and weight-recovered women with AN engaged medial prefrontal cortex less than healthy women for self-relevant cognitions, a potential biological trait difference...
November 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266443/mindfulness-training-increases-cooperative-decision-making-in-economic-exchanges-evidence-from-fmri
#5
Ulrich Kirk, Xiaosi Gu, Carla Sharp, Andreas Hula, Peter Fonagy, P Read Montague
Emotions have been shown to exert influences on decision making during economic exchanges. Here we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of a training regimen which is hypothesized to promote emotional awareness, specifically mindfulness training (MT). We test the hypothesis that MT increases cooperative economic decision making using fMRI in a randomized longitudinal design involving 8weeks of either MT or active control training (CT). We find that MT results in an increased willingness to cooperate indexed by higher acceptance rates to unfair monetary offers in the Ultimatum Game...
September 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038008/asymmetry-in-functional-connectivity-of-the-human-habenula-revealed-by-high-resolution-cardiac-gated-resting-state-imaging
#6
Sébastien Hétu, Yi Luo, Ignacio Saez, Kimberlee D'Ardenne, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The habenula is a hub for cognitive and emotional signals that are relayed to the aminergic centers in the midbrain and, thus, plays an important role in goal-oriented behaviors. Although it is well described in rodents and non-human primates, the habenula functional network remains relatively uncharacterized in humans, partly because of the methodological challenges associated with the functional magnetic resonance imaging of small structures in the brain. Using high-resolution cardiac-gated resting state imaging in healthy humans and precisely identifying each participants' habenula, we show that the habenula is functionally coupled with the insula, parahippocampus, thalamus, periaqueductal grey, pons, striatum and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex...
July 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26722624/single-stimulus-fmri-produces-a-neural-individual-difference-measure-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
James Lu, Ken Kishida, Josepheen De Asis Cruz, Terry Lohrenz, Diane Treadwell Deering, Michael Beauchamp, P Read Montague
Functional magnetic resonance imaging typically makes inferences about neural substrates of cognitive phenomena at the group level. We report the use of a single-stimulus BOLD response in the cingulate cortex that differentiates individual children with autism spectrum disorder from matched typically developing control children with sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 73.7% respectively. The approach consists of passive viewing of 'self' and 'other' faces from which an individual difference measure is derived from the BOLD response to the first 'self' image only; the method, penalized logistic regression, requires no averaging over stimulus presentations or individuals...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598677/subsecond-dopamine-fluctuations-in-human-striatum-encode-superposed-error-signals-about-actual-and-counterfactual-reward
#8
Kenneth T Kishida, Ignacio Saez, Terry Lohrenz, Mark R Witcher, Adrian W Laxton, Stephen B Tatter, Jason P White, Thomas L Ellis, Paul E M Phillips, P Read Montague
In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making...
January 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573970/charting-the-landscape-of-priority-problems-in-psychiatry-part-1-classification-and-diagnosis
#9
REVIEW
Klaas E Stephan, Dominik R Bach, Paul C Fletcher, Jonathan Flint, Michael J Frank, Karl J Friston, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, Michael J Owen, Elisabeth B Binder, Peter Dayan, Eve C Johnstone, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, P Read Montague, Ulrich Schnyder, Xiao-Jing Wang, Michael Breakspear
Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders...
January 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573969/charting-the-landscape-of-priority-problems-in-psychiatry-part-2-pathogenesis-and-aetiology
#10
REVIEW
Klaas E Stephan, Elisabeth B Binder, Michael Breakspear, Peter Dayan, Eve C Johnstone, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Ulrich Schnyder, Xiao-Jing Wang, Dominik R Bach, Paul C Fletcher, Jonathan Flint, Michael J Frank, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, P Read Montague, Michael J Owen, Karl J Friston
This is the second of two companion papers proposing priority problems for research on mental disorders. Whereas the first paper focuses on questions of nosology and diagnosis, this Personal View concerns pathogenesis and aetiology of psychiatric diseases. We hope that this (non-exhaustive and subjective) list of problems, nominated by scientists and clinicians from different fields and institutions, provides guidance and perspectives for choosing future directions in psychiatric science.
January 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416161/neural-responses-to-kindness-and-malevolence-differ-in-illness-and-recovery-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Carrie J McAdams, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26360579/computational-psychiatry-the-brain-as-a-phantastic-organ
#12
REVIEW
Karl J Friston, Klaas Enno Stephan, Read Montague, Raymond J Dolan
In this Review, we discuss advances in computational neuroscience that relate to psychiatry. We review computational psychiatry in terms of the ambitions of investigators, emerging domains of application, and future work. Our focus is on theoretical formulations of brain function that put subjective beliefs and behaviour within formal (computational) frameworks-frameworks that can be grounded in neurophysiology down to the level of synaptic mechanisms. Understanding the principles that underlie the brain's functional architecture might be essential for an informed phenotyping of psychopathology in terms of its pathophysiological underpinnings...
July 2014: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26053429/monte-carlo-planning-method-estimates-planning-horizons-during-interactive-social-exchange
#13
Andreas Hula, P Read Montague, Peter Dayan
Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future...
June 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25729372/mindfulness-meditation-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-in-a-passive-conditioning-task
#14
Ulrich Kirk, P Read Montague
Reinforcement learning models have demonstrated that phasic activity of dopamine neurons during reward expectation encodes information about the predictability of reward and cues that predict reward. Self-control strategies such as those practiced in mindfulness-based approaches is claimed to reduce negative and positive reactions to stimuli suggesting the hypothesis that such training may influence basic reward processing. Using a passive conditioning task and fMRI in a group of experienced mindfulness meditators and age-matched controls, we tested the hypothesis that mindfulness meditation influence reward and reward prediction error (PE) signals...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25605923/belief-about-nicotine-selectively-modulates-value-and-reward-prediction-error-signals-in-smokers
#15
Xiaosi Gu, Terry Lohrenz, Ramiro Salas, Philip R Baldwin, Alireza Soltani, Ulrich Kirk, Paul M Cinciripini, P Read Montague
Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems...
February 24, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25589742/necessary-yet-dissociable-contributions-of-the-insular-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortices-to-norm-adaptation-computational-and-lesion-evidence-in-humans
#16
Xiaosi Gu, Xingchao Wang, Andreas Hula, Shiwei Wang, Shuai Xu, Terry M Lohrenz, Robert T Knight, Zhixian Gao, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
Social norms and their enforcement are fundamental to human societies. The ability to detect deviations from norms and to adapt to norms in a changing environment is therefore important to individuals' normal social functioning. Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the involvement of the insular and ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortices in representing norms. However, the necessity and dissociability of their involvement remain unclear. Using model-based computational modeling and neuropsychological lesion approaches, we examined the contributions of the insula and vmPFC to norm adaptation in seven human patients with focal insula lesions and six patients with focal vmPFC lesions, in comparison with forty neurologically intact controls and six brain-damaged controls...
January 14, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25447997/nonpolitical-images-evoke-neural-predictors-of-political-ideology
#17
Woo-Young Ahn, Kenneth T Kishida, Xiaosi Gu, Terry Lohrenz, Ann Harvey, John R Alford, Kevin B Smith, Gideon Yaffe, John R Hibbing, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
Political ideologies summarize dimensions of life that define how a person organizes their public and private behavior, including their attitudes associated with sex, family, education, and personal autonomy. Despite the abstract nature of such sensibilities, fundamental features of political ideology have been found to be deeply connected to basic biological mechanisms that may serve to defend against environmental challenges like contamination and physical threat. These results invite the provocative claim that neural responses to nonpolitical stimuli (like contaminated food or physical threats) should be highly predictive of abstract political opinions (like attitudes toward gun control and abortion)...
November 17, 2014: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25197609/choosing-money-over-drugs-the-neural-underpinnings-of-difficult-choice-in-chronic-cocaine-users
#18
Michael J Wesley, Terry Lohrenz, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Samuel M McClure, Richard De La Garza, Ramiro Salas, Daisy G Y Thompson-Lake, Thomas F Newton, Warren K Bickel, P Read Montague
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed...
2014: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25002476/irrational-exuberance-and-neural-crash-warning-signals-during-endogenous-experimental-market-bubbles
#19
Alec Smith, Terry Lohrenz, Justin King, P Read Montague, Colin F Camerer
Groups of humans routinely misassign value to complex future events, especially in settings involving the exchange of resources. If properly structured, experimental markets can act as excellent probes of human group-level valuation mechanisms during pathological overvaluations--price bubbles. The connection between the behavioral and neural underpinnings of such phenomena has been absent, in part due to a lack of enabling technology. We used a multisubject functional MRI paradigm to measure neural activity in human subjects participating in experimental asset markets in which endogenous price bubbles formed and crashed...
July 22, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24956066/mindfulness-training-modulates-value-signals-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-through-input-from-insular-cortex
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ulrich Kirk, Xiaosi Gu, Ann H Harvey, Peter Fonagy, P Read Montague
Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) encodes value signals that can be modulated by top-down cognitive input such as semantic knowledge, price incentives, and monetary favors suggesting that such biases may have an identified biological basis. It has been hypothesized that mindfulness training (MT) provides one path for gaining control over such top-down influences; yet, there have been no direct tests of this hypothesis. Here, we probe the behavioral and neural effects of MT on value signals in vmPFC in a randomized longitudinal design of 8 weeks of MT on an initially naïve subject cohort...
October 15, 2014: NeuroImage
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