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Demis Hassabis

Dharshan Kumaran, Andrea Banino, Charles Blundell, Demis Hassabis, Peter Dayan
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
Alex Graves, Greg Wayne, Malcolm Reynolds, Tim Harley, Ivo Danihelka, Agnieszka Grabska-Barwińska, Sergio Gómez Colmenarejo, Edward Grefenstette, Tiago Ramalho, John Agapiou, Adrià Puigdomènech Badia, Karl Moritz Hermann, Yori Zwols, Georg Ostrovski, Adam Cain, Helen King, Christopher Summerfield, Phil Blunsom, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis
Artificial neural networks are remarkably adept at sensory processing, sequence learning and reinforcement learning, but are limited in their ability to represent variables and data structures and to store data over long timescales, owing to the lack of an external memory. Here we introduce a machine learning model called a differentiable neural computer (DNC), which consists of a neural network that can read from and write to an external memory matrix, analogous to the random-access memory in a conventional computer...
October 27, 2016: Nature
Martin J Chadwick, Raeesa S Anjum, Dharshan Kumaran, Daniel L Schacter, Hugo J Spiers, Demis Hassabis
Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrea Banino, Raphael Koster, Demis Hassabis, Dharshan Kumaran
A fundamental theoretical tension exists between the role of the hippocampus in generalizing across a set of related episodes, and in supporting memory for individual episodes. Whilst the former requires an appreciation of the commonalities across episodes, the latter emphasizes the representation of the specifics of individual experiences. We developed a novel version of the hippocampal-dependent paired associate inference (PAI) paradigm, which afforded us the unique opportunity to investigate the relationship between episodic memory and generalization in parallel...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dharshan Kumaran, Demis Hassabis, James L McClelland
We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure...
July 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Jan Balaguer, Hugo Spiers, Demis Hassabis, Christopher Summerfield
Planning allows actions to be structured in pursuit of a future goal. However, in natural environments, planning over multiple possible future states incurs prohibitive computational costs. To represent plans efficiently, states can be clustered hierarchically into "contexts". For example, representing a journey through a subway network as a succession of individual states (stations) is more costly than encoding a sequence of contexts (lines) and context switches (line changes). Here, using functional brain imaging, we asked humans to perform a planning task in a virtual subway network...
May 18, 2016: Neuron
David Silver, Aja Huang, Chris J Maddison, Arthur Guez, Laurent Sifre, George van den Driessche, Julian Schrittwieser, Ioannis Antonoglou, Veda Panneershelvam, Marc Lanctot, Sander Dieleman, Dominik Grewe, John Nham, Nal Kalchbrenner, Ilya Sutskever, Timothy Lillicrap, Madeleine Leach, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Thore Graepel, Demis Hassabis
The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses 'value networks' to evaluate board positions and 'policy networks' to select moves. These deep neural networks are trained by a novel combination of supervised learning from human expert games, and reinforcement learning from games of self-play. Without any lookahead search, the neural networks play Go at the level of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tree search programs that simulate thousands of random games of self-play...
January 28, 2016: Nature
H Freyja Ólafsdóttir, Caswell Barry, Aman B Saleem, Demis Hassabis, Hugo J Spiers
Dominant theories of hippocampal function propose that place cell representations are formed during an animal's first encounter with a novel environment and are subsequently replayed during off-line states to support consolidation and future behaviour. Here we report that viewing the delivery of food to an unvisited portion of an environment leads to off-line pre-activation of place cells sequences corresponding to that space. Such 'preplay' was not observed for an unrewarded but otherwise similar portion of the environment...
June 26, 2015: ELife
Volodymyr Mnih, Koray Kavukcuoglu, David Silver, Andrei A Rusu, Joel Veness, Marc G Bellemare, Alex Graves, Martin Riedmiller, Andreas K Fidjeland, Georg Ostrovski, Stig Petersen, Charles Beattie, Amir Sadik, Ioannis Antonoglou, Helen King, Dharshan Kumaran, Daan Wierstra, Shane Legg, Demis Hassabis
The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations...
February 26, 2015: Nature
Martin J Chadwick, Amy E J Jolly, Doran P Amos, Demis Hassabis, Hugo J Spiers
Navigating to a safe place, such as a home or nest, is a fundamental behavior for all complex animals. Determining the direction to such goals is a crucial first step in navigation. Surprisingly, little is known about how or where in the brain this "goal direction signal" is represented. In mammals, "head-direction cells" are thought to support this process, but despite 30 years of research, no evidence for a goal direction representation has been reported. Here, we used fMRI to record neural activity while participants made goal direction judgments based on a previously learned virtual environment...
January 5, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Dean Mobbs, Demis Hassabis, Rongjun Yu, Carlton Chu, Matthew Rushworth, Erie Boorman, Tim Dalgleish
Input-matching is a key mechanism by which animals optimally distribute themselves across habitats to maximize net gains based on the changing input values of food supply rate and competition. To examine the neural systems that underlie this rule in humans, we created a continuous-input foraging task where subjects had to decide to stay or switch between two habitats presented on the left and right of the screen. The subject's decision to stay or switch was based on changing input values of reward-token supply rate and competition density...
June 5, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Demis Hassabis, R Nathan Spreng, Andrei A Rusu, Clifford A Robbins, Raymond A Mar, Daniel L Schacter
The behaviors of other people are often central to envisioning the future. The ability to accurately predict the thoughts and actions of others is essential for successful social interactions, with far-reaching consequences. Despite its importance, little is known about how the brain represents people in order to predict behavior. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, participants learned the unique personality of 4 protagonists and imagined how each would behave in different scenarios. The protagonists' personalities were composed of 2 traits: Agreeableness and Extraversion...
August 2014: Cerebral Cortex
Daniel L Schacter, Donna Rose Addis, Demis Hassabis, Victoria C Martin, R Nathan Spreng, Karl K Szpunar
During the past few years, there has been a dramatic increase in research examining the role of memory in imagination and future thinking. This work has revealed striking similarities between remembering the past and imagining or simulating the future, including the finding that a common brain network underlies both memory and imagination. Here, we discuss a number of key points that have emerged during recent years, focusing in particular on the importance of distinguishing between temporal and nontemporal factors in analyses of memory and imagination, the nature of differences between remembering the past and imagining the future, the identification of component processes that comprise the default network supporting memory-based simulations, and the finding that this network can couple flexibly with other networks to support complex goal-directed simulations...
November 21, 2012: Neuron
Heidi M Bonnici, Martin J Chadwick, Antoine Lutti, Demis Hassabis, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Eleanor A Maguire
How autobiographical memories are represented in the human brain and whether this changes with time are questions central to memory neuroscience. Two regions in particular have been consistently implicated, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the hippocampus, although their precise contributions are still contested. The key question in this debate, when reduced to its simplest form, concerns where information about specific autobiographical memories is located. Here, we availed ourselves of the opportunity afforded by multivoxel pattern analysis to provide an alternative to conventional neuropsychological and fMRI approaches, by detecting representations of individual autobiographical memories in patterns of fMRI activity...
November 21, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Heidi M Bonnici, Martin J Chadwick, Dharshan Kumaran, Demis Hassabis, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Eleanor A Maguire
A complete understanding of the hippocampus depends on elucidating the representations and computations that exist in its anatomically distinct subfields. High-resolution structural and functional MRI scanning is starting to permit insights into hippocampal subfields in humans. In parallel, such scanning has facilitated the use of multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to examine information present in the distributed pattern of activity across voxels. The aim of this study was to combine these two relatively new innovations and deploy MVPA in the hippocampal subfields...
2012: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sinéad L Mullally, Demis Hassabis, Eleanor A Maguire
In recent years, there has been substantial interest in how the human hippocampus not only supports recollection of past experiences, but also the construction of fictitious and future events, and the leverage this might offer for understanding the operating mechanisms of the hippocampus. Evidence that patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia cannot construct novel or future scenes/events has been influential in driving this line of research forward. There are, however, some patients with hippocampal damage and amnesia who retain the ability to construct novel scenes...
April 18, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rodney Brooks, Demis Hassabis, Dennis Bray, Amnon Shashua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2012: Nature
Martin J Chadwick, Demis Hassabis, Eleanor A Maguire
The hippocampus is proposed to process overlapping episodes as discrete memory traces, although direct evidence for this in human episodic memory is scarce. Using green-screen technology we created four highly overlapping movies of everyday events. Participants were scanned using high-resolution fMRI while recalling the movies. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that the hippocampus supported distinct representations of each memory, while neighboring regions did not, demonstrating that the human hippocampus maintains unique pattern-separated memory traces even when memories are highly overlapping...
December 2011: Learning & Memory
Heidi M Bonnici, Dharshan Kumaran, Martin J Chadwick, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Demis Hassabis, Eleanor A Maguire
Recent theoretical perspectives have suggested that the function of the human hippocampus, like its rodent counterpart, may be best characterized in terms of its information processing capacities. In this study, we use a combination of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, multivariate pattern analysis, and a simple decision making task, to test specific hypotheses concerning the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in scene processing. We observed that while information that enabled two highly similar scenes to be distinguished was widely distributed throughout the MTL, more distinct scene representations were present in the hippocampus, consistent with its role in performing pattern separation...
May 2012: Hippocampus
Eleanor A Maguire, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Demis Hassabis
Patients with bilateral hippocampal damage acquired in adulthood who are amnesic for past events have also been reported to be impaired at imagining fictitious and future experiences. One such patient, P01, however, was found to be unimpaired on these tasks despite dense amnesia and 50% volume loss in both hippocampi. P01 might be an atypical case, and in order to investigate this we identified another patient with a similar neuropsychological profile. Jon is a well-characterised patient with developmental amnesia and 50% volume loss in his hippocampi...
September 2010: Neuropsychologia
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