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Matthew Botvinick

Amitai Shenhav, Sebastian Musslick, Falk Lieder, Wouter Kool, Thomas L Griffiths, Jonathan D Cohen, Matthew M Botvinick
In spite of its familiar phenomenology, the mechanistic basis for mental effort remains poorly understood. Although most researchers agree that mental effort is aversive and stems from limitations in our capacity to exercise cognitive control, it is unclear what gives rise to those limitations and why they result in an experience of control as costly. The presence of these control costs also raises further questions regarding how best to allocate mental effort to minimize those costs and maximize the attendant benefits...
March 31, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Anna C Schapiro, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Matthew M Botvinick, Kenneth A Norman
A growing literature suggests that the hippocampus is critical for the rapid extraction of regularities from the environment. Although this fits with the known role of the hippocampus in rapid learning, it seems at odds with the idea that the hippocampus specializes in memorizing individual episodes. In particular, the Complementary Learning Systems theory argues that there is a computational trade-off between learning the specifics of individual experiences and regularities that hold across those experiences...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Francisco Pereira, Samuel Gershman, Samuel Ritter, Matthew Botvinick
In this paper we carry out an extensive comparison of many off-the-shelf distributed semantic vectors representations of words, for the purpose of making predictions about behavioural results or human annotations of data. In doing this comparison we also provide a guide for how vector similarity computations can be used to make such predictions, and introduce many resources available both in terms of datasets and of vector representations. Finally, we discuss the shortcomings of this approach and future research directions that might address them...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Amitai Shenhav, Jonathan D Cohen, Matthew M Botvinick
Debates over the function(s) of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) have persisted for decades. So too have demonstrations of the region's association with cognitive control. Researchers have struggled to account for this association and, simultaneously, dACC's involvement in phenomena related to evaluation and motivation. We describe a recent integrative theory that achieves this goal. It proposes that dACC serves to specify the currently optimal allocation of control by determining the overall expected value of control (EVC), thereby licensing the associated cognitive effort...
September 27, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Amitai Shenhav, Mark A Straccia, Matthew M Botvinick, Jonathan D Cohen
Recent research has highlighted a distinction between sequential foraging choices and traditional economic choices between simultaneously presented options. This was partly motivated by observations in Kolling, Behrens, Mars, and Rushworth, Science, 336(6077), 95-98 (2012) (hereafter, KBMR) that these choice types are subserved by different circuits, with dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) preferentially involved in foraging and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) preferentially involved in economic choice...
December 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Adam J Culbreth, Andrew Westbrook, Nathaniel D Daw, Matthew Botvinick, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia have a diminished ability to use reward history to adaptively guide behavior. However, tasks traditionally used to assess such deficits often rely on multiple cognitive and neural processes, leaving etiology unresolved. In the current study, we adopted recent computational formalisms of reinforcement learning to distinguish between model-based and model-free decision-making in hopes of specifying mechanisms associated with reinforcement-learning dysfunction in schizophrenia. Under this framework, decision-making is model-free to the extent that it relies solely on prior reward history, and model-based if it relies on prospective information such as motivational state, future consequences, and the likelihood of obtaining various outcomes...
2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Bastiaan Oud, Ian Krajbich, Kevin Miller, Jin Hyun Cheong, Matthew Botvinick, Ernst Fehr
Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate...
January 13, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Anna C Schapiro, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Kenneth A Norman, Matthew M Botvinick
The hippocampus is involved in the learning and representation of temporal statistics, but little is understood about the kinds of statistics it can uncover. Prior studies have tested various forms of structure that can be learned by tracking the strength of transition probabilities between adjacent items in a sequence. We test whether the hippocampus can learn higher-order structure using sequences that have no variance in transition probability and instead exhibit temporal community structure. We find that the hippocampus is indeed sensitive to this form of structure, as revealed by its representations, activity dynamics, and connectivity with other regions...
January 2016: Hippocampus
Alec Solway, Matthew M Botvinick
Research on the dynamics of reward-based, goal-directed decision making has largely focused on simple choice, where participants decide among a set of unitary, mutually exclusive options. Recent work suggests that the deliberation process underlying simple choice can be understood in terms of evidence integration: Noisy evidence in favor of each option accrues over time, until the evidence in favor of one option is significantly greater than the rest. However, real-life decisions often involve not one, but several steps of action, requiring a consideration of cumulative rewards and a sensitivity to recursive decision structure...
September 15, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amitai Shenhav, Matthew Botvinick
Research on human anterior cingulate cortex has long indicated a role in detecting conflict. However, efforts to find parallel effects in non-human primates were surprisingly unsuccessful. Here, Ebitz and Platt (2015) break the resulting impasse by uncovering what appear to be conflict-related signals in monkey cingulate cortex.
February 4, 2015: Neuron
Matthew Botvinick, Ari Weinstein
Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or 'model-based' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings...
November 5, 2014: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Matthew Botvinick, James An
Research in animal learning and behavioral neuroscience has distinguished between two forms of action control: a habit-based form, which relies on stored actio n values, and a goal-dir ected form, which forecasts and compares action outcomes based on a model of the environment. While habit-based control has been the subject of extensive computational research, the computational principles underlying goal-directed control in animals have so far received less attention. In the present paper, we advance a computational framework for goal-directed control in animals and humans...
2009: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
Matthew Botvinick, Todd Braver
Research on cognitive control and executive function has long recognized the relevance of motivational factors. Recently, however, the topic has come increasingly to center stage, with a surge of new studies examining the interface of motivation and cognitive control. In the present article we survey research situated at this interface, considering work from cognitive and social psychology and behavioral economics, but with a particular focus on neuroscience research. We organize existing findings into three core areas, considering them in the light of currently vying theoretical perspectives...
January 3, 2015: Annual Review of Psychology
Alec Solway, Carlos Diuk, Natalia Córdova, Debbie Yee, Andrew G Barto, Yael Niv, Matthew M Botvinick
Human behavior has long been recognized to display hierarchical structure: actions fit together into subtasks, which cohere into extended goal-directed activities. Arranging actions hierarchically has well established benefits, allowing behaviors to be represented efficiently by the brain, and allowing solutions to new tasks to be discovered easily. However, these payoffs depend on the particular way in which actions are organized into a hierarchy, the specific way in which tasks are carved up into subtasks...
August 2014: PLoS Computational Biology
Matthew M Botvinick, Jonathan D Cohen
Cognitive control has long been one of the most active areas of computational modeling work in cognitive science. The focus on computational models as a medium for specifying and developing theory predates the PDP books, and cognitive control was not one of the areas on which they focused. However, the framework they provided has injected work on cognitive control with new energy and new ideas. On the occasion of the books' anniversary, we review computational modeling in the study of cognitive control, with a focus on the influence that the PDP approach has brought to bear in this area...
August 2014: Cognitive Science
Amitai Shenhav, Mark A Straccia, Jonathan D Cohen, Matthew M Botvinick
Previous theories predict that human dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) should respond to decision difficulty. An alternative theory has been recently advanced that proposes that dACC evolved to represent the value of 'non-default', foraging behavior, calling into question its role in choice difficulty. However, this new theory does not take into account that choosing whether or not to pursue foraging-like behavior can also be more difficult than simply resorting to a default. The results of two neuroimaging experiments show that dACC is only associated with foraging value when foraging value is confounded with choice difficulty; when the two are dissociated, dACC engagement is only explained by choice difficulty, and not the value of foraging...
September 2014: Nature Neuroscience
James M Gold, Wouter Kool, Matthew M Botvinick, Leeka Hubzin, Sharon August, James A Waltz
Many people with schizophrenia exhibit avolition, a difficulty initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior, considered to be a key negative symptom of the disorder. Recent evidence indicates that patients with higher levels of negative symptoms differ from healthy controls in showing an exaggerated cost of the physical effort needed to obtain a potential reward. We examined whether patients show an exaggerated avoidance of cognitive effort, using the demand selection task developed by Kool, McGuire, Rosen, and Botvinick (Journal of Experimental Psychology...
March 2015: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Todd S Braver, Marie K Krug, Kimberly S Chiew, Wouter Kool, J Andrew Westbrook, Nathan J Clement, R Alison Adcock, Deanna M Barch, Matthew M Botvinick, Charles S Carver, Roshan Cools, Ruud Custers, Anthony Dickinson, Carol S Dweck, Ayelet Fishbach, Peter M Gollwitzer, Thomas M Hess, Derek M Isaacowitz, Mara Mather, Kou Murayama, Luiz Pessoa, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Leah H Somerville
Recent years have seen a rejuvenation of interest in studies of motivation-cognition interactions arising from many different areas of psychology and neuroscience. The present issue of Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience provides a sampling of some of the latest research from a number of these different areas. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of the current state of the field, in terms of key research developments and candidate neural mechanisms receiving focused investigation as potential sources of motivation-cognition interaction...
June 2014: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Wouter Kool, Matthew Botvinick
Kurzban and colleagues carry forward an important contemporary movement in cognitive control research, tending away from resource-based models and toward a framework focusing on motivation or value. However, their specific proposal, centering on opportunity costs, appears problematic. We favor a simpler view, according to which the exertion of cognitive control carries intrinsic subjective costs.
December 2013: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Wouter Kool, Joseph T McGuire, Gary J Wang, Matthew M Botvinick
The capacity for self-control is critical to adaptive functioning, yet our knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms is presently only inchoate. Theoretical work in economics has suggested a model of self-control centering on two key assumptions: (1) a division within the decision-maker between two 'selves' with differing preferences; (2) the idea that self-control is intrinsically costly. Neuroscience has recently generated findings supporting the 'dual-self' assumption. The idea of self-control costs, in contrast, has remained speculative...
2013: PloS One
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