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Yael Niv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684022/open-label-comparative-trial-of-mono-versus-dual-antibiotic-therapy-for-typhoid-fever-in-adults
#1
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Niv Zmora, Sudeep Shrestha, Ami Neuberger, Yael Paran, Rajendra Tamrakar, Ashish Shrestha, Surendra K Madhup, T R S Bedi, Rajendra Koju, Eli Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Emerging resistance to antibiotics renders therapy of Typhoid Fever (TF) increasingly challenging. The current single-drug regimens exhibit prolonged fever clearance time (FCT), imposing a great burden on both patients and health systems, and potentially contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance and the chronic carriage of the pathogens. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of combining third-generation cephalosporin therapy with azithromycin on the outcomes of TF in patients living in an endemic region...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553767/dissociable-effects-of-surprising-rewards-on-learning-and-memory
#2
Nina Rouhani, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
Reward-prediction errors track the extent to which rewards deviate from expectations, and aid in learning. How do such errors in prediction interact with memory for the rewarding episode? Existing findings point to both cooperative and competitive interactions between learning and memory mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether learning about rewards in a high-risk context, with frequent, large prediction errors, would give rise to higher fidelity memory traces for rewarding events than learning in a low-risk context...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335678/does-mental-context-drift-or-shift
#3
Sarah DuBrow, Nina Rouhani, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman
Theories of episodic memory have generally proposed that individual memory traces are linked together by a representation of context that drifts slowly over time. Recent data challenge the notion that contextual drift is always slow and passive. In particular, changes in one's external environment or internal model induce discontinuities in memory that are reflected in sudden changes in neural activity, suggesting that context can shift abruptly. Furthermore, context change effects are sensitive to top-down goals, suggesting that contextual drift may be an active process...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330521/rgs7-is-recurrently-mutated-in-melanoma-and-promotes-migration-and-invasion-of-human-cancer-cells
#4
Nouar Qutob, Ikuo Masuho, Michal Alon, Rafi Emmanuel, Isadora Cohen, Antonella Di Pizio, Jason Madore, Abdel Elkahloun, Tamar Ziv, Ronen Levy, Jared J Gartner, Victoria K Hill, Jimmy C Lin, Yael Hevroni, Polina Greenberg, Alexandra Brodezki, Steven A Rosenberg, Mickey Kosloff, Nicholas K Hayward, Arie Admon, Masha Y Niv, Richard A Scolyer, Kirill A Martemyanov, Yardena Samuels
Analysis of 501 melanoma exomes revealed RGS7, which encodes a GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP), to be a tumor-suppressor gene. RGS7 was mutated in 11% of melanomas and was found to harbor three recurrent mutations (p.R44C, p.E383K and p.R416Q). Structural modeling of the most common recurrent mutation of the three (p.R44C) predicted that it destabilizes the protein due to the loss of an H-bond and salt bridge network between the mutated position and the serine and aspartic acid residues at positions 58 as 61, respectively...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215635/mapping-the-small-rna-interactome-in-bacteria-using-ril-seq
#5
Sahar Melamed, Raya Faigenbaum-Romm, Asaf Peer, Niv Reiss, Omer Shechter, Amir Bar, Yael Altuvia, Liron Argaman, Hanah Margalit
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are major post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in bacteria. To enable transcriptome-wide mapping of bacterial sRNA-target pairs, we developed RIL-seq (RNA interaction by ligation and sequencing). RIL-seq is an experimental-computational methodology for capturing sRNA-target interactions in vivo that takes advantage of the mutual binding of the sRNA and target RNA molecules to the RNA chaperone protein Hfq. The experimental part of the protocol involves co-immunoprecipitation of Hfq and bound RNAs, ligation of RNAs, library preparation and sequencing...
January 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096115/model-based-predictions-for-dopamine
#6
REVIEW
Angela J Langdon, Melissa J Sharpe, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Yael Niv
Phasic dopamine responses are thought to encode a prediction-error signal consistent with model-free reinforcement learning theories. However, a number of recent findings highlight the influence of model-based computations on dopamine responses, and suggest that dopamine prediction errors reflect more dimensions of an expected outcome than scalar reward value. Here, we review a selection of these recent results and discuss the implications and complications of model-based predictions for computational theories of dopamine and learning...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745727/corrigendum-dopamine-transients-are-sufficient-and-necessary-for-acquisition-of-model-based-associations
#7
Melissa J Sharpe, Chun Yun Chang, Melissa A Liu, Hannah M Batchelor, Lauren E Mueller, Joshua L Jones, Yael Niv, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690111/lateral-hypothalamic-gabaergic-neurons-encode-reward-predictions-that-are-relayed-to-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-regulate-learning
#8
Melissa J Sharpe, Nathan J Marchant, Leslie R Whitaker, Christopher T Richie, Yajun J Zhang, Erin J Campbell, Pyry P Koivula, Julie C Necarsulmer, Carlos Mejias-Aponte, Marisela Morales, James Pickel, Jeffrey C Smith, Yael Niv, Yavin Shaham, Brandon K Harvey, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Eating is a learned process. Our desires for specific foods arise through experience. Both electrical stimulation and optogenetic studies have shown that increased activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) promotes feeding. Current dogma is that these effects reflect a role for LH neurons in the control of the core motivation to feed, and their activity comes under control of forebrain regions to elicit learned food-motivated behaviors. However, these effects could also reflect the storage of associative information about the cues leading to food in LH itself...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608265/constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-and-lynch-syndrome-among-consecutive-arab-bedouins-with-colorectal-cancer-in-israel
#9
Naim Abu Freha, Yaara Leibovici Weissman, Alexander Fich, Inbal Barnes Kedar, Marisa Halpern, Ignacio Sztarkier, Doron M Behar, Orly Arbib Sneh, Alex Vilkin, Hagit N Baris, Rachel Gingold, Flavio Lejbkowicz, Yaron Niv, Yael Goldberg, Zohar Levi
We assessed the molecular characteristics and the frequency of mutations in mismatch-repair genes among Bedouin patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Israel. Bedouin patients with a diagnosis of CRC at a major hospital in the southern part of Israel were deemed eligible for this study. The primary screening method was immunohistochemical staining for mismatch-repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). For subjects with abnormal immunohistochemical staining, we performed microsatellite instability (MSI) analyses, and for tumors with a loss of MLH1 expression we also performed BRAF testing...
January 2018: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600043/placenta-associated-pregnancy-complications-in-pregnancies-complicated-with-placenta-previa
#10
Yael Baumfeld, Reli Herskovitz, Zehavi Bar Niv, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Adi Y Weintraub
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications (IUGR, preeclampsia, placental abruption and perinatal mortality). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included all deliveries that occurred at Soroka University Medical Center (Beer Sheva, Israel) between January 1998 and December 2013. Of them 1,249 were complicated by placenta previa and represented our study group...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542114/predictors-of-pouchitis-after-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-in-pediatric-onset-ulcerative-colitis
#11
Firas Rinawi, Amit Assa, Rami Eliakim, Yael Mozer Glassberg, Vered Nachmias Friedler, Yaron Niv, Yoram Rosenbach, Ari Silbermintz, Noam Zevit, Raanan Shamir
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have reported on the incidence and risk factors for pouchitis following colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients with pediatric-onset ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to determine clinical predictors for the development of pouchitis following IPAA in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric UC cases that were diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel between 1981 and 2013 and who underwent colectomy during disease course...
September 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530550/correction-the-computational-nature-of-memory-modification
#12
Samuel J Gershman, Marie-H Monfils, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368385/dopamine-transients-are-sufficient-and-necessary-for-acquisition-of-model-based-associations
#13
Melissa J Sharpe, Chun Yun Chang, Melissa A Liu, Hannah M Batchelor, Lauren E Mueller, Joshua L Jones, Yael Niv, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Associative learning is driven by prediction errors. Dopamine transients correlate with these errors, which current interpretations limit to endowing cues with a scalar quantity reflecting the value of future rewards. We tested whether dopamine might act more broadly to support learning of an associative model of the environment. Using sensory preconditioning, we show that prediction errors underlying stimulus-stimulus learning can be blocked behaviorally and reinstated by optogenetically activating dopamine neurons...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294944/the-computational-nature-of-memory-modification
#14
Samuel J Gershman, Marie-H Monfils, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations...
March 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230848/computational-approaches-to-fmri-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Jonathan D Cohen, Nathaniel Daw, Barbara Engelhardt, Uri Hasson, Kai Li, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman, Jonathan Pillow, Peter J Ramadge, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Theodore L Willke
Analysis methods in cognitive neuroscience have not always matched the richness of fMRI data. Early methods focused on estimating neural activity within individual voxels or regions, averaged over trials or blocks and modeled separately in each participant. This approach mostly neglected the distributed nature of neural representations over voxels, the continuous dynamics of neural activity during tasks, the statistical benefits of performing joint inference over multiple participants and the value of using predictive models to constrain analysis...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207474/risk-of-colectomy-in-patients-with-pediatric-onset-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Firas Rinawi, Amit Assa, Rami Eliakim, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Vered Nachmias-Friedler, Yaron Niv, Yoram Rosenbach, Ari Silbermintz, Noam Zevit, Raanan Shamir
OBJECTIVES: Data describing the incidence and risk factors for colectomy in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) is inconsistent. Our aim was to describe the colectomy rate and to identify risk factors associated with colectomy in a large cohort of children with UC with long-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric UC cases that were diagnosed at Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel between 1981 and 2013...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195019/do-you-see-the-forest-or-the-tree-neural-gain-and-breadth-versus-focus-in-perceptual-processing
#17
Eran Eldar, Yael Niv, Jonathan D Cohen
When perceiving rich sensory information, some people may integrate its various aspects, whereas other people may selectively focus on its most salient aspects. We propose that neural gain modulates the trade-off between breadth and selectivity, such that high gain focuses perception on those aspects of the information that have the strongest, most immediate influence, whereas low gain allows broader integration of different aspects. We illustrate our hypothesis using a neural-network model of ambiguous-letter perception...
December 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174526/reconsolidation-extinction-interactions-in-fear-memory-attenuation-the-role-of-inter-trial-interval-variability
#18
Allison Auchter, Lawrence K Cormack, Yael Niv, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Marie H Monfils
Fear extinction typically results in the formation of a new inhibitory memory that suppresses the original conditioned response. Evidence also suggests that extinction training during a retrieval-induced labile period results in integration of the extinction memory into the original fear memory, rendering the fear memory less susceptible to reinstatement. Here we investigated the parameters by which the retrieval-extinction paradigm was most effective in memory updating. Specifically, we manipulated the inter-trial intervals (ITIs) between conditional stimulus (CS) presentations during extinction, examining how having interval lengths with different degrees of variability affected the strength of memory updating...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128677/the-natural-history-of-pediatric-onset-ibd-unclassified-and-prediction-of-crohn-s-disease-reclassification-a-27-year-study
#19
Firas Rinawi, Amit Assa, Rami Eliakim, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Vered Nachmias Friedler, Yaron Niv, Yoram Rosenbach, Ari Silbermintz, Noam Zevit, Raanan Shamir
OBJECTIVES: A definitive diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in patients who were initially diagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease-unclassified (IBDU) remains challenging. Our aims were to describe the natural history of pediatric-onset IBDU patients during prolonged period of follow up and to identify associated predictors for CD reclassification among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective single center study, out of 723 patients with pediatric onset IBD, we identified 53 patients (7...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#20
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
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