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Raymond Dolan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876357/building-a-new-field-of-computational-psychiatry
#1
Michael Moutoussis, Eran Eldar, Raymond J Dolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832071/approach-induced-biases-in-human-information-sampling
#2
Laurence T Hunt, Robb B Rutledge, W M Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W Kennerley, Raymond J Dolan
Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one's prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791110/adaptive-integration-of-habits-into-depth-limited-planning-defines-a-habitual-goal-directed-spectrum
#3
Mehdi Keramati, Peter Smittenaar, Raymond J Dolan, Peter Dayan
Behavioral and neural evidence reveal a prospective goal-directed decision process that relies on mental simulation of the environment, and a retrospective habitual process that caches returns previously garnered from available choices. Artificial systems combine the two by simulating the environment up to some depth and then exploiting habitual values as proxies for consequences that may arise in the further future. Using a three-step task, we provide evidence that human subjects use such a normative plan-until-habit strategy, implying a spectrum of approaches that interpolates between habitual and goal-directed responding...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736152/high-health-satisfaction-among-emerging-adults-with-diabetes-factors-predicting-resilience
#4
Sarah D Corathers, Jessica C Kichler, Nora F Fino, Wei Lang, Jean M Lawrence, Jennifer K Raymond, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Dana Dabelea, Angela D Liese, Sharon H Saydah, Michael Seid, Lawrence M Dolan
Objective: This study was conducted to identify factors contributing to health satisfaction outcomes among emerging adults (ages 18-25) with diabetes. Method: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study participants whose diabetes was prevalent in 2001 and were ≥18 years of age when they completed a 2008-2009 follow-up survey (n = 340) were included. We developed a health resilience model (HRM) to identify potentially modifiable factors (anticipatory guidance, social support, physical activity, quality of life) associated with health outcomes (satisfaction with health care, overall personal health, self-report of hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c])...
October 13, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638901/peripheral-serotonin-1b-receptor-transcription-predicts-the-effect-of-acute-tryptophan-depletion-on-risky-decision-making
#5
Paul Faulkner, Federico Mancinelli, Patricia L Lockwood, Mar Matarin, Raymond J Dolan, Nick W Wood, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on human decision-making suggest that serotonin modulates the processing of rewards and punishments. However, few studies have assessed which of the many types of serotonin receptors are responsible. METHODS: Using a within-subject, double-blind, sham-controlled design in 26 subjects, we examined whether individual differences in serotonin system gene transcription, measured in peripheral blood, predicted the effect of acute tryptophan depletion on decision-making...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574314/gene-transcription-profiles-associated-with-inter-modular-hubs-and-connection-distance-in-human-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-networks
#6
Petra E Vértes, Timothy Rittman, Kirstie J Whitaker, Rafael Romero-Garcia, František Váša, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Konrad Wagstyl, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan, Peter B Jones, Ian M Goodyer, Edward T Bullmore
Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain networks have a complex topology comprising integrative components, e.g. long-distance inter-modular edges, that are theoretically associated with higher biological cost. Here, we estimated intra-modular degree, inter-modular degree and connection distance for each of 285 cortical nodes in multi-echo fMRI data from 38 healthy adults. We used the multivariate technique of partial least squares (PLS) to reduce the dimensionality of the relationships between these three nodal network parameters and prior microarray data on regional expression of 20 737 genes...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540831/corrigendum-changing-pattern-in-the-basal-ganglia-motor-switching-under-reduced-dopaminergic-drive
#7
Vincenzo G Fiore, Francesco Rigoli, Max-Philipp Stenner, Tino Zaehle, Frank Hirth, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Raymond J Dolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535770/neural-processes-mediating-contextual-influences-on-human-choice-behaviour
#8
Francesco Rigoli, Karl J Friston, Raymond J Dolan
Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts...
August 18, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486103/perimovement-decrease-of-alpha-beta-oscillations-in-the-human-nucleus-accumbens
#9
Max-Philipp Stenner, Stefan Dürschmid, Robb B Rutledge, Tino Zaehle, Friedhelm C Schmitt, Jörn Kaufmann, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Raymond J Dolan, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
The human nucleus accumbens is thought to play an important role in guiding future action selection via an evaluation of current action outcomes. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence for a more direct, i.e., online, role during action preparation. We recorded local field potentials from the nucleus accumbens in patients with epilepsy undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. We found a consistent decrease in the power of alpha/beta oscillations (10-30 Hz) before and around the time of movements...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457931/adolescence-is-associated-with-genomically-patterned-consolidation-of-the-hubs-of-the-human-brain-connectome
#10
Kirstie J Whitaker, Petra E Vértes, Rafael Romero-Garcia, František Váša, Michael Moutoussis, Gita Prabhu, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Martina F Callaghan, Konrad Wagstyl, Timothy Rittman, Roger Tait, Cinly Ooi, John Suckling, Becky Inkster, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan, Peter B Jones, Ian M Goodyer, Edward T Bullmore
How does human brain structure mature during adolescence? We used MRI to measure cortical thickness and intracortical myelination in 297 population volunteers aged 14-24 y old. We found and replicated that association cortical areas were thicker and less myelinated than primary cortical areas at 14 y. However, association cortex had faster rates of shrinkage and myelination over the course of adolescence. Age-related increases in cortical myelination were maximized approximately at the internal layer of projection neurons...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447491/how-people-use-social-information-to-find-out-what-to-want-in-the-paradigmatic-case-of-inter-temporal-preferences
#11
Michael Moutoussis, Raymond J Dolan, Peter Dayan
The weight with which a specific outcome feature contributes to preference quantifies a person's 'taste' for that feature. However, far from being fixed personality characteristics, tastes are plastic. They tend to align, for example, with those of others even if such conformity is not rewarded. We hypothesised that people can be uncertain about their tastes. Personal tastes are therefore uncertain beliefs. People can thus learn about them by considering evidence, such as the preferences of relevant others, and then performing Bayesian updating...
July 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436299/acute-stress-selectively-impairs-learning-to-act
#12
Archy O de Berker, Margot Tirole, Robb B Rutledge, Gemma F Cross, Raymond J Dolan, Sven Bestmann
Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific...
July 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415631/stimulus-novelty-energizes-actions-in-the-absence-of-explicit-reward
#13
Raphael Koster, Tricia X Seow, Raymond J Dolan, Emrah Düzel
Novelty seeking has been tied to impulsive choice and biased value based choice. It has been postulated that novel stimuli should trigger more vigorous approach and exploration. However, it is unclear whether stimulus novelty can enhance simple motor actions in the absence of explicit reward, a necessary condition for energizing approach and exploration in an entirely unfamiliar situation. In this study human subjects were cued to omit or perform actions in form of button presses by novel or familiar images...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328323/a-bayesian-model-of-context-sensitive-value-attribution
#14
Francesco Rigoli, Karl J Friston, Cristina Martinelli, Mirjana Selaković, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Raymond J Dolan
Substantial evidence indicates that incentive value depends on an anticipation of rewards within a given context. However, the computations underlying this context sensitivity remain unknown. To address this question, we introduce a normative (Bayesian) account of how rewards map to incentive values. This assumes that the brain inverts a model of how rewards are generated. Key features of our account include (i) an influence of prior beliefs about the context in which rewards are delivered (weighted by their reliability in a Bayes-optimal fashion), (ii) the notion that incentive values correspond to precision-weighted prediction errors, (iii) and contextual information unfolding at different hierarchical levels...
June 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321922/fast-sequences-of-non-spatial-state-representations-in-humans
#15
Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Marcos Economides, Raymond J Dolan, Peter Dayan
Fast internally generated sequences of neural representations are suggested to support learning and online planning. However, these sequences have only been studied in the context of spatial tasks and never in humans. Here, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while human subjects performed a novel non-spatial reasoning task. The task required selecting paths through a set of six visual objects. We trained pattern classifiers on the MEG activity elicited by direct presentation of the visual objects alone and tested these classifiers on activity recorded during periods when no object was presented...
July 6, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293212/the-social-contingency-of-momentary-subjective-well-being
#16
Robb B Rutledge, Archy O de Berker, Svenja Espenhahn, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Although social comparison is a known determinant of overall life satisfaction, it is not clear how it affects moment-to-moment variation in subjective emotional state. Using a novel social decision task combined with computational modelling, we show that a participant's subjective emotional state reflects not only the impact of rewards they themselves receive, but also the rewards received by a social partner. Unequal outcomes, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, reduce average momentary happiness. Furthermore, the relative impacts of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality on momentary happiness at the individual level predict a subject's generosity in a separate dictator game...
June 13, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265392/risk-taking-for-potential-reward-decreases-across-the-lifespan
#17
Robb B Rutledge, Peter Smittenaar, Peter Zeidman, Harriet R Brown, Rick A Adams, Ulman Lindenberger, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
The extent to which aging affects decision-making is controversial. Given the critical financial decisions that older adults face (e.g., managing retirement funds), changes in risk preferences are of particular importance [1]. Although some studies have found that older individuals are more risk averse than younger ones [2-4], there are also conflicting results, and a recent meta-analysis found no evidence for a consistent change in risk taking across the lifespan [5]. There has as yet been little examination of one potential substrate for age-related changes in decision-making, namely age-related decline in dopamine, a neuromodulator associated with risk-taking behavior...
June 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132047/multiple-value-signals-in-dopaminergic-midbrain-and-their-role-in-avoidance-contexts
#18
Francesco Rigoli, Benjamin Chew, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
The role of dopaminergic brain regions in avoidance behaviour is unclear. Active avoidance requires motivation, and the latter is linked to increased activity in dopaminergic regions. However, avoidance is also often tethered to the prospect of punishment, a state typically characterized by below baseline levels of dopaminergic function. Avoidance has been considered from the perspective of two-factor theories where the prospect of safety is considered to act as a surrogate for reward, leading to dopamine release and enhanced motivational drive...
July 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101365/the-modulation-of-savouring-by-prediction-error-and-its-effects-on-choice
#19
Kiyohito Iigaya, Giles W Story, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Raymond J Dolan, Peter Dayan
When people anticipate uncertain future outcomes, they often prefer to know their fate in advance. Inspired by an idea in behavioral economics that the anticipation of rewards is itself attractive, we hypothesized that this preference of advance information arises because reward prediction errors carried by such information can boost the level of anticipation. We designed new empirical behavioral studies to test this proposal, and confirmed that subjects preferred advance reward information more strongly when they had to wait for rewards for a longer time...
April 21, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082045/the-dopaminergic-midbrain-mediates-an-effect-of-average-reward-on-pavlovian-vigor
#20
Francesco Rigoli, Benjamin Chew, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Dopamine plays a key role in motivation. Phasic dopamine response reflects a reinforcement prediction error (RPE), whereas tonic dopamine activity is postulated to represent an average reward that mediates motivational vigor. However, it has been hard to find evidence concerning the neural encoding of average reward that is uncorrupted by influences of RPEs. We circumvented this difficulty in a novel visual search task where we measured participants' button pressing vigor in a context where information (underlying an RPE) about future average reward was provided well before the average reward itself...
September 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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