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Claire Gillan

Lauren R Godier, Sanne de Wit, Anthony Pinto, Joanna E Steinglass, Ashley L Greene, Jessica Scaife, Claire M Gillan, B Timothy Walsh, Helen-Blair Simpson, Rebecca J Park
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterised by compulsive behaviour, such as self-starvation and excessive exercise, which develop in the pursuit of weight-loss. Recent theory suggests that once established, compulsive weight-loss behaviours in AN may become habitual. In two parallel studies, we measured whether individuals with AN showed a bias toward habits using two outcome-devaluation tasks. In Study 1, 23 women with AN (restrictive and binge/purge subtypes), and 18 healthy controls (HC) completed the slips-of-action paradigm, designed to assess reward-based habits...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Claire M Gillan, Nathaniel D Daw
Psychiatry is in need of a major overhaul. In order to improve the precision with which we can treat, classify, and research mental health problems, we need bigger datasets than ever before. Web-based data collection provides a novel solution.
July 6, 2016: Neuron
Juliette Tobias-Webb, Eve H Limbrick-Oldfield, Claire M Gillan, James W Moore, Michael R F Aitken, Luke Clark
Illusory control refers to an effect in games of chance where features associated with skilful situations increase expectancies of success. Past work has operationalised illusory control in terms of subjective ratings or behaviour, with limited consideration of the relationship between these definitions, or the broader construct of agency. This study used a novel card-guessing task in 78 participants to investigate the relationship between subjective and behavioural illusory control. We compared trials in which participants (i) had no opportunity to exercise illusory control, (ii) could exercise illusory control for free, or (iii) could pay to exercise illusory control...
July 4, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Karen D Ersche, Claire M Gillan, P Simon Jones, Guy B Williams, Laetitia H E Ward, Maartje Luijten, Sanne de Wit, Barbara J Sahakian, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem that is particularly difficult to treat. Without medically proven pharmacological treatments, interventions to change the maladaptive behavior of addicted individuals mainly rely on psychosocial approaches. Here we report on impairments in cocaine-addicted patients to act purposefully toward a given goal and on the influence of extended training on their behavior. When patients were rewarded for their behavior, prolonged training improved their response rate toward the goal but simultaneously rendered them insensitive to the consequences of their actions...
June 17, 2016: Science
Claire M Gillan, Michal Kosinski, Robert Whelan, Elizabeth A Phelps, Nathaniel D Daw
Prominent theories suggest that compulsive behaviors, characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction, are driven by shared deficits in goal-directed control, which confers vulnerability for developing rigid habits. However, recent studies have shown that deficient goal-directed control accompanies several disorders, including those without an obvious compulsive element. Reasoning that this lack of clinical specificity might reflect broader issues with psychiatric diagnostic categories, we investigated whether a dimensional approach would better delineate the clinical manifestations of goal-directed deficits...
2016: ELife
Claire M Gillan, Trevor W Robbins, Barbara J Sahakian, Odile A van den Heuvel, Guido van Wingen
Compulsivity has been recently characterized as a manifestation of an imbalance between the brain׳s goal-directed and habit-learning systems. Habits are perhaps the most fundamental building block of animal learning, and it is therefore unsurprising that there are multiple ways in which the development and execution of habits can be promoted/discouraged. Delineating these neurocognitive routes may be critical to understanding if and how habits contribute to the many faces of compulsivity observed across a range of psychiatric disorders...
May 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Claire M Gillan, A Ross Otto, Elizabeth A Phelps, Nathaniel D Daw
Studies in humans and rodents have suggested that behavior can at times be "goal-directed"-that is, planned, and purposeful-and at times "habitual"-that is, inflexible and automatically evoked by stimuli. This distinction is central to conceptions of pathological compulsion, as in drug abuse and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Evidence for the distinction has primarily come from outcome devaluation studies, in which the sensitivity of a previously learned behavior to motivational change is used to assay the dominance of habits versus goal-directed actions...
September 2015: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Claire M Gillan, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Sharon Morein-Zamir, Gonzalo P Urcelay, Akeem Sule, Naomi A Fineberg, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors aimed to test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and to infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. METHOD: Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 healthy comparison subjects learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional MRI scan...
March 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Claire M Gillan, Barbara J Sahakian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Claire M Gillan, Trevor W Robbins
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder...
November 5, 2014: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Claire M Gillan, Sharon Morein-Zamir, Alice M S Durieux, Naomi A Fineberg, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
There is disagreement regarding the role of perceived control in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study used a traditional illusion of control paradigm (Alloy and Abramson, 1979) to empirically test control estimation in OCD. Twenty-six OCD patients and 26 matched comparison subjects completed an illusion of control task wherein their goal was to attempt to exert control over a light bulb. The density of reinforcement (high, low) and the valence of trials (gain, loss) were experimentally manipulated within subjects...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Naomi A Fineberg, Samuel R Chamberlain, Anna E Goudriaan, Dan J Stein, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Claire M Gillan, Sameer Shekar, Philip A P M Gorwood, Valerie Voon, Sharon Morein-Zamir, Damiaan Denys, Barbara J Sahakian, F Gerard Moeller, Trevor W Robbins, Marc N Potenza
Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, which are mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors...
February 2014: CNS Spectrums
Claire M Gillan, Sharon Morein-Zamir, Gonzalo P Urcelay, Akeem Sule, Valerie Voon, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Naomi A Fineberg, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition that typically manifests in compulsive urges to perform irrational or excessive avoidance behaviors. A recent account has suggested that compulsivity in OCD might arise from excessive stimulus-response habit formation, rendering behavior insensitive to goal value. We tested if OCD patients have a bias toward habits using a novel shock avoidance task. To explore how habits, as a putative model of compulsivity, might relate to obsessions and anxiety, we recorded measures of contingency knowledge, explicit fear, and physiological arousal...
April 15, 2014: Biological Psychiatry
Claire M Gillan, Sharon Morein-Zamir, Muzaffer Kaser, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Barbara J Sahakian, Rudolf N Cardinal, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice...
April 15, 2014: Biological Psychiatry
Trevor W Robbins, Claire M Gillan, Dana G Smith, Sanne de Wit, Karen D Ersche
A key criticism of the main diagnostic tool in psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-IV), is that it lacks a biological footing. In this article, we argue for a biological approach to psychiatry based on 'neurocognitive endophenotypes', whereby changes in behavioural or cognitive processes are associated with discrete deficits in defined neural systems. We focus on the constructs of impulsivity and compulsivity as key examples of the approach and discuss their possible cross-diagnostic significance, applying them to co-morbidities and commonalities across a range of disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance dependence, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders)...
January 2012: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Claire M Gillan, Martina Papmeyer, Sharon Morein-Zamir, Barbara J Sahakian, Naomi A Fineberg, Trevor W Robbins, Sanne de Wit
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors and thought patterns. Although patients with OCD report that these compulsive behaviors are unproductive and often senseless, they are unable to desist. This study investigated whether the urge to perform compulsive acts is mediated by a disruption in the balance between flexible, goal-directed action control and habitual behavior. METHOD: A total of 21 patients with OCD and 30 healthy comparison subjects participated in a set of tasks designed to assess relative goal-directed versus habitual behavioral control...
July 2011: American Journal of Psychiatry
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