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Quentin Huys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942321/don-t-think-just-feel-the-music-individuals-with-strong-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-effects-rely-less-on-model-based-reinforcement-learning
#1
Miriam Sebold, Daniel J Schad, Stephan Nebe, Maria Garbusow, Elisabeth Jünger, Nils B Kroemer, Norbert Kathmann, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael N Smolka, Michael A Rapp, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys
Behavioral choice can be characterized along two axes. One axis distinguishes reflexive, model-free systems that slowly accumulate values through experience and a model-based system that uses knowledge to reason prospectively. The second axis distinguishes Pavlovian valuation of stimuli from instrumental valuation of actions or stimulus-action pairs. This results in four values and many possible interactions between them, with important consequences for accounts of individual variation. We here explored whether individual variation along one axis was related to individual variation along the other...
July 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934499/german-translation-and-validation-of-the-cognitive-style-questionnaire-short-form-csq-sf-d
#2
Quentin J M Huys, Daniel Renz, Frederike Petzschner, Isabel Berwian, Christian Stoppel, Helene Haker
BACKGROUND: The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations. METHODS: The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906507/computational-psychiatry-as-a-bridge-from-neuroscience-to-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Quentin J M Huys, Tiago V Maia, Michael J Frank
Translating advances in neuroscience into benefits for patients with mental illness presents enormous challenges because it involves both the most complex organ, the brain, and its interaction with a similarly complex environment. Dealing with such complexities demands powerful techniques. Computational psychiatry combines multiple levels and types of computation with multiple types of data in an effort to improve understanding, prediction and treatment of mental illness. Computational psychiatry, broadly defined, encompasses two complementary approaches: data driven and theory driven...
March 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573970/charting-the-landscape-of-priority-problems-in-psychiatry-part-1-classification-and-diagnosis
#4
REVIEW
Klaas E Stephan, Dominik R Bach, Paul C Fletcher, Jonathan Flint, Michael J Frank, Karl J Friston, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, Michael J Owen, Elisabeth B Binder, Peter Dayan, Eve C Johnstone, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, P Read Montague, Ulrich Schnyder, Xiao-Jing Wang, Michael Breakspear
Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders...
January 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573969/charting-the-landscape-of-priority-problems-in-psychiatry-part-2-pathogenesis-and-aetiology
#5
REVIEW
Klaas E Stephan, Elisabeth B Binder, Michael Breakspear, Peter Dayan, Eve C Johnstone, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Ulrich Schnyder, Xiao-Jing Wang, Dominik R Bach, Paul C Fletcher, Jonathan Flint, Michael J Frank, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, P Read Montague, Michael J Owen, Karl J Friston
This is the second of two companion papers proposing priority problems for research on mental disorders. Whereas the first paper focuses on questions of nosology and diagnosis, this Personal View concerns pathogenesis and aetiology of psychiatric diseases. We hope that this (non-exhaustive and subjective) list of problems, nominated by scientists and clinicians from different fields and institutions, provides guidance and perspectives for choosing future directions in psychiatric science.
January 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26157034/computational-psychiatry-towards-a-mathematically-informed-understanding-of-mental-illness
#6
REVIEW
Rick A Adams, Quentin J M Huys, Jonathan P Roiser
Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia...
January 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068725/neural-correlates-of-three-promising-endophenotypes-of-depression-evidence-from-the-embarc-study
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Christian A Webb, Daniel G Dillon, Pia Pechtel, Franziska K Goer, Laura Murray, Quentin J M Huys, Maurizio Fava, Patrick J McGrath, Myrna Weissman, Ramin Parsey, Benji T Kurian, Phillip Adams, Sarah Weyandt, Joseph M Trombello, Bruce Grannemann, Crystal M Cooper, Patricia Deldin, Craig Tenke, Madhukar Trivedi, Gerard Bruder, Diego A Pizzagalli
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is clinically, and likely pathophysiologically, heterogeneous. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes. Guided by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria initiative, we used source localization of scalp-recorded EEG resting data to examine the neural correlates of three emerging endophenotypes of depression: neuroticism, blunted reward learning, and cognitive control deficits. Data were drawn from the ongoing multi-site EMBARC study...
January 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25853523/serotonin-s-many-meanings-elude-simple-theories
#8
COMMENT
Peter Dayan, Quentin Huys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2015: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828702/pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-effects-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-relate-to-relapse-in-alcohol-dependence
#9
Maria Garbusow, Daniel J Schad, Miriam Sebold, Eva Friedel, Nadine Bernhardt, Stefan P Koch, Bruno Steinacher, Norbert Kathmann, Dirk E M Geurts, Christian Sommer, Dirk K Müller, Stephan Nebe, Sören Paul, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Henrik Walter, Michael N Smolka, Philipp Sterzer, Michael A Rapp, Quentin J M Huys, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz
In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus promote alcohol seeking, intake and relapse. Pavlovian-to-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) may be one of those behavioral phenomena contributing to relapse, capturing how Pavlovian conditioned (contextual) cues determine instrumental behavior (e...
May 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25727532/failure-modes-of-the-will-from-goals-to-habits-to-compulsions
#10
EDITORIAL
Quentin J M Huys, Frederike H Petzschner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25705929/depression-a-decision-theoretic-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Quentin J M Huys, Nathaniel D Daw, Peter Dayan
The manifold symptoms of depression are common and often transient features of healthy life that are likely to be adaptive in difficult circumstances. It is when these symptoms enter a seemingly self-propelling spiral that the maladaptive features of a disorder emerge. We examine this malignant transformation from the perspective of the computational neuroscience of decision making, investigating how dysfunction of the brain's mechanisms of evaluation might lie at its heart. We start by considering the behavioral implications of pessimistic evaluations of decision variables...
July 8, 2015: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25675480/interplay-of-approximate-planning-strategies
#12
Quentin J M Huys, Níall Lally, Paul Faulkner, Neir Eshel, Erich Seifritz, Samuel J Gershman, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
Humans routinely formulate plans in domains so complex that even the most powerful computers are taxed. To do so, they seem to avail themselves of many strategies and heuristics that efficiently simplify, approximate, and hierarchically decompose hard tasks into simpler subtasks. Theoretical and cognitive research has revealed several such strategies; however, little is known about their establishment, interaction, and efficiency. Here, we use model-based behavioral analysis to provide a detailed examination of the performance of human subjects in a moderately deep planning task...
March 10, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25605941/ventral-striatal-dopamine-reflects-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-model-based-control-during-sequential-decision-making
#13
Lorenz Deserno, Quentin J M Huys, Rebecca Boehme, Ralph Buchert, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Anthony A Grace, Raymond J Dolan, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Dual system theories suggest that behavioral control is parsed between a deliberative "model-based" and a more reflexive "model-free" system. A balance of control exerted by these systems is thought to be related to dopamine neurotransmission. However, in the absence of direct measures of human dopamine, it remains unknown whether this reflects a quantitative relation with dopamine either in the striatum or other brain areas. Using a sequential decision task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging, combined with striatal measures of dopamine using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography, we show that higher presynaptic ventral striatal dopamine levels were associated with a behavioral bias toward more model-based control...
February 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25566131/processing-speed-enhances-model-based-over-model-free-reinforcement-learning-in-the-presence-of-high-working-memory-functioning
#14
Daniel J Schad, Elisabeth Jünger, Miriam Sebold, Maria Garbusow, Nadine Bernhardt, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael N Smolka, Andreas Heinz, Michael A Rapp, Quentin J M Huys
Theories of decision-making and its neural substrates have long assumed the existence of two distinct and competing valuation systems, variously described as goal-directed vs. habitual, or, more recently and based on statistical arguments, as model-free vs. model-based reinforcement-learning. Though both have been shown to control choices, the cognitive abilities associated with these systems are under ongoing investigation. Here we examine the link to cognitive abilities, and find that individual differences in processing speed covary with a shift from model-free to model-based choice control in the presence of above-average working memory function...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25546072/chronic-alcohol-intake-abolishes-the-relationship-between-dopamine-synthesis-capacity-and-learning-signals-in-the-ventral-striatum
#15
Lorenz Deserno, Anne Beck, Quentin J M Huys, Robert C Lorenz, Ralph Buchert, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Michail Plotkin, Yoshitaka Kumakara, Paul Cumming, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Anthony A Grace, Michael A Rapp, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz
Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such 'hijacked' dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27)...
February 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25359492/model-based-and-model-free-decisions-in-alcohol-dependence
#16
Miriam Sebold, Lorenz Deserno, Stephan Nebe, Stefan Nebe, Daniel J Schad, Maria Garbusow, Claudia Hägele, Jürgen Keller, Elisabeth Jünger, Norbert Kathmann, Michael N Smolka, Michael Smolka, Michael A Rapp, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys
BACKGROUND: Human and animal work suggests a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. However, the evidence for this in human alcohol dependence is as yet inconclusive. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy controls and 26 recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients underwent behavioral testing with a 2-step task designed to disentangle goal-directed and habitual response patterns. RESULTS: Alcohol-dependent patients showed less evidence of goal-directed choices than healthy controls, particularly after losses...
2014: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25359491/pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-in-alcohol-dependence-a-pilot-study
#17
Maria Garbusow, Daniel J Schad, Christian Sommer, Elisabeth Jünger, Miriam Sebold, Eva Friedel, Jean Wendt, Norbert Kathmann, Florian Schlagenhauf, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, Michael A Rapp
BACKGROUND: Pavlovian processes are thought to play an important role in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcohol dependence, possibly by influencing and usurping ongoing thought and behavior. The influence of pavlovian stimuli on ongoing behavior is paradigmatically measured by pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) tasks. These involve multiple stages and are complex. Whether increased PIT is involved in human alcohol dependence is uncertain. We therefore aimed to establish and validate a modified PIT paradigm that would be robust, consistent and tolerated by healthy controls as well as by patients suffering from alcohol dependence, and to explore whether alcohol dependence is associated with enhanced PIT...
2014: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25142177/the-effects-of-life-stress-and-neural-learning-signals-on-fluid-intelligence
#18
Eva Friedel, Florian Schlagenhauf, Anne Beck, Raymond J Dolan, Quentin J M Huys, Michael A Rapp, Andreas Heinz
Fluid intelligence (fluid IQ), defined as the capacity for rapid problem solving and behavioral adaptation, is known to be modulated by learning and experience. Both stressful life events (SLES) and neural correlates of learning [specifically, a key mediator of adaptive learning in the brain, namely the ventral striatal representation of prediction errors (PE)] have been shown to be associated with individual differences in fluid IQ. Here, we examine the interaction between adaptive learning signals (using a well-characterized probabilistic reversal learning task in combination with fMRI) and SLES on fluid IQ measures...
February 2015: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25071491/individual-differences-in-bodily-freezing-predict-emotional-biases-in-decision-making
#19
Verena Ly, Quentin J M Huys, John F Stins, Karin Roelofs, Roshan Cools
Instrumental decision making has long been argued to be vulnerable to emotional responses. Literature on multiple decision making systems suggests that this emotional biasing might reflect effects of a system that regulates innately specified, evolutionarily preprogrammed responses. To test this hypothesis directly, we investigated whether effects of emotional faces on instrumental action can be predicted by effects of emotional faces on bodily freezing, an innately specified response to aversive relative to appetitive cues...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24968776/the-role-of-learning-related-dopamine-signals-in-addiction-vulnerability
#20
REVIEW
Quentin J M Huys, Philippe N Tobler, Gregor Hasler, Shelly B Flagel
Dopaminergic signals play a mathematically precise role in reward-related learning, and variations in dopaminergic signaling have been implicated in vulnerability to addiction. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the relationship between theoretical, mathematical, and experimental accounts of phasic dopamine signaling, with implications for the role of learning-related dopamine signaling in addiction and related disorders. We describe the theoretical and behavioral characteristics of model-free learning based on errors in the prediction of reward, including step-by-step explanations of the underlying equations...
2014: Progress in Brain Research
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