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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784823/continuous-intrathecal-orexin-delivery-inhibits-cataplexy-in-a-murine-model-of-narcolepsy
#1
Mahesh K Kaushik, Kosuke Aritake, Aya Imanishi, Takashi Kanbayashi, Tadashi Ichikawa, Tetsuo Shimizu, Yoshihiro Urade, Masashi Yanagisawa
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons, associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and fragmentation of nighttime sleep. Currently, human narcolepsy is treated by providing symptomatic therapies, which can be associated with an array of side effects. Although peripherally administered orexin does not efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier, centrally delivered orexin can effectively alleviate narcoleptic symptoms in animal models...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782311/the-independent-associations-of-physical-activity-and-sleep-with-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#2
Ryan S Falck, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests physical activity (PA) and sleep are important for cognitive health; however, few studies examining the role of PA and sleep for cognitive health have measured these behaviors objectively. OBJECTIVE: We cross-sectionally examined whether 1) higher PA is associated with better cognitive performance independently of sleep quality; 2) higher sleep quality is associated with better cognitive performance independently of PA; and 3) whether higher PA is associated with better sleep quality...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781634/household-chaos-and-family-sleep-during-infants-first-year
#3
Corey J Whitesell, Brian Crosby, Thomas F Anders, Douglas M Teti
Household chaos has been linked with dysregulated family and individual processes. The present study investigated linkages between household chaos and infant and parent sleep, a self-regulated process impacted by individual, social, and environmental factors. Studies of relations between household chaos and child sleep have focused on older children and teenagers, with little attention given to infants or parent sleep. This study examines these relationships using objective measures of household chaos and sleep while controlling for, respectively, maternal emotional availability at bedtime and martial adjustment, in infant and parent sleep...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779142/arousal-index-as-a-marker-of-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#4
Mayumi Suzuki, Ken Shimamoto, Haruki Sekiguchi, Takamitsu Harada, Natsumi Satoya, Yuji Inoue, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Masatoshi Kawana
PURPOSE: It was shown in a previous cohort study that men with internal carotid artery (ICA) plaque, defined as focal wall thickness of ≥ 1.5 mm, had a threefold higher risk of stroke than those without plaque. We examined the relationship between arousal indices and sleep stages in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis severity was evaluated using the maximal carotid wall intima-media thickness of the ICA (ICA-maxIMT) and plaque in 83 patients with OSAS...
May 19, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774669/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-testosterone-deficiency
#5
REVIEW
Sung Dong Kim, Kyu Sup Cho
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. OSA in middle-aged men is often associated with decreased testosterone secretion, together with obesity and aging. Although OSA treatment does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies, OSA treatment with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may not only improve hypogonadism, but can also alleviate erectile/sexual dysfunction. However, because TRT may exacerbate OSA in some patients, patients should be asked about OSA symptoms before and after starting TRT...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766271/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-cerebral-white-matter-change-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Bo-Lin Ho, Ping-Tao Tseng, Chiou-Lian Lai, Meng-Ni Wu, Ming-Ju Tsai, Cheng-Fang Hsieh, Tien-Yu Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can cause sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxemia, which are linked to oxidative stress. White matter changes (WMCs) representing cerebrovascular burden and are at risk factor for oxidative ischemic injury. The current study explores the mutual relationships between OSA and WMCs. We performed a systematic review of electronic databases for clinical studies investigating OSA and WMCs. Random-effects models were used for pooled estimates calculation. A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765923/insomnia-with-musculoskeletal-pain-in-postmenopause-associations-with-symptoms-mood-and-quality-of-life
#7
Cristina Frange, Helena Hachul, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between insomnia (INS) combined with chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in postmenopausal women and its characteristics regarding MSP, menopausal and mood symptoms, sleep and quality of life (QOL). Methods: A cross-sectional control study in 4 groups of postmenopausal women: control (n = 15), MSP (n = 15), INS (n =15) and INS + MSP (n = 17). Sixty-two participants completed questionnaires and had blood collected, and 43 underwent polysomnography...
April 2018: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746617/a-wake-up-call-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-providers-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-people-living-with-hiv
#8
Robert L Owens, Charles B Hicks
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is defined by repetitive collapse of the upper airway during sleep leading to transient hypoxemia and arousals from sleep. Surges in sympathetic activity, repeated oxygen desaturation, and sleep fragmentation can lead to cardiovascular (eg, myocardial infarction) and neurocognitive (eg, excessive daytime sleepiness) consequences. Emerging data suggest that OSA is common in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and that traditional risk factors for OSA, such as obesity, are not highly predictive of OSA in PLWH...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734983/the-effects-of-experimental-sleep-fragmentation-and-sleep-deprivation-on-the-response-of-the-genioglossus-muscle-to-inspiratory-resistive-loads
#9
Jennifer M Cori, Christian L Nicholas, Joanne Avraam, V Vien Lee, Rachel Schembri, Melinda L Jackson, Amy S Jordan
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Poor upper airway dilator muscle function may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sleep deprivation reduces dilator muscle responsiveness, but sleep fragmentation, which is most characteristic of OSA, has not been assessed. This study compared the effects of sleep deprivation and fragmentation on dilator muscle responsiveness during wakefulness. METHOD: Twenty-four healthy individuals (10 female) participated in two consecutive overnight polysomnography (PSG) sessions...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733807/fractal-regulation-and-incident-alzheimer-s-disease-in-elderly-individuals
#10
Peng Li, Lei Yu, Andrew S P Lim, Aron S Buchman, Frank A J L Scheer, Steven A Shea, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Kun Hu
INTRODUCTION: Healthy physiological systems exhibit fractal regulation (FR), generating similar fluctuation patterns in physiological outputs across different time scales. FR in motor activity is degraded in dementia, and the degradation correlates to cognitive decline. We tested whether degraded FR predicts Alzheimer's disease dementia. METHODS: FR in motor activity was assessed in 1097 nondemented older adults at baseline. Cognition was assessed annually for up to 11 years...
May 4, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732438/acute-sleep-disruption-and-high-fat-diet-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-are-not-related-to-glucose-tolerance-in-mice
#11
Jacqueline M Ho, Nicole H Ducich, Nhat-Quynh K Nguyen, Mark R Opp
Chronic insufficient sleep is a major societal problem and is associated with increased risk of metabolic disease. Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to hyperphagia and weight gain in diet-induced obesity, but insufficient sleep-induced neuroinflammation has yet to be examined in relation to metabolic function. We therefore fragmented sleep of adult male C57BL/6J mice for 18 h daily for 9 days to determine whether sleep disruption elicits inflammatory responses in brain regions that regulate energy balance and whether this relates to glycemic control...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729237/melatonin-and-sleep-in-preventing-hospitalized-delirium-a-randomized-clinical-trial-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#12
Stuti J Jaiswal, Thomas J McCarthy, Nathan E Wineinger, Dae Y Kang, Janet Song, Solana Garcia, Christoffel J van Niekerk, Cathy Y Lu, Melissa Loeks, Robert L Owens
PURPOSE: Studies suggest that melatonin may prevent delirium, a condition of acute brain dysfunction occurring in 20-30% of hospitalized older adults that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We examined the effect of melatonin on delirium prevention in hospitalized older adults while measuring sleep parameters as a possible underlying mechanism. METHODS: This was a randomized clinical trial measuring the impact of 3 mg of melatonin nightly on incident delirium and both objective and subjective sleep in inpatients age ≥ 65, admitted to Internal Medicine wards (non-ICU)...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699592/effects-of-feet-warming-using-bed-socks-on-sleep-quality-and-thermoregulatory-responses-in-a-cool-environment
#13
Yelin Ko, Joo-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: As a way of helping to sleep in winter, methods of warming the feet through footbaths or heating pads before bedtime are tried. In particular, bed socks are popular during winter sleeping in Korea, but scientific evidence about the physiological effects of bed socks on sleep quality is rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of feet warming using bed socks on sleep quality and thermoregulatory responses during sleep in a cool environment. METHODS: Six young males (22...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685533/imaging-of-adult-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#14
REVIEW
Andy Whyte, Daren Gibson
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by recurrent upper airway collapse during sleep resulting in chronic and repetitive hypoxia, hypercapnia, subsequent arousal and fragmented sleep. Symptoms are insidious and diagnosis is usually delayed. Moderate to severe OSA has serious health implications with significant increase in all causes of mortality in patients with the condition as compared with unaffected individuals. The prevalence of OSA in the 30-70 year age group is estimated at 27% of males and 11% of females and it increases with age...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684315/sleep-disorders-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Ali A El-Solh, Usman Riaz, Jasmine Roberts
A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments as it relates to PTSD including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions...
April 20, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680428/characteristics-of-napping-in-community-dwelling-insomnia-patients
#16
Kwang Ho Jang, Jung Hie Lee, Seong Jae Kim, Hyo Jeong Kwon
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine napping characteristics of community-dwelling patients with insomnia disorder (ID) compared to characteristics of normal controls (NC), and to examine the effect of napping on nocturnal sleep. METHODS: Adult volunteers who were more than 18 years old were recruited from three rural public health centers in Korea. Data from actigraphy recording and a sleep diary filled out for seven days were obtained. Finally, 115 ID patients and 80 NC subjects were included in this study...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672224/nocturnal-swallowing-and-arousal-threshold-in-individuals-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Aliza Rizwan, Abdulghani Sankari, Amy T Bascom, Sarah Vaughan, M Safwan Badr
Respiratory complications are potential causes of death in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Nocturnal swallowing could be related to transient arousals, and lead to fragmented sleep in SCI patients. However, the impact of nocturnal swallowing on breathing and sleep physiology in SCI is unknown. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether nocturnal swallowing is more common in SCI than in able-bodied subjects, (2) to determine the role of nocturnal swallowing on arousal threshold in SCI individuals with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), (3) to determine the effect of CPAP treatment on nocturnal swallowing...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671709/regulation-of-the-neuroligin-1-gene-by-clock-transcription-factors
#18
Lydia Hannou, Erika Bélanger-Nelson, Emma K O'Callaghan, Julien Dufort-Gervais, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Pierre-Gabriel Roy, Jean-Martin Beaulieu, Nicolas Cermakian, Valérie Mongrain
NEUROLIGIN-1 (NLGN1) is a postsynaptic adhesion molecule involved in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission. It has been associated with several features of sleep and psychiatric disorders. Our previous work suggested that transcription of the Nlgn1 gene could be regulated by the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 because they bind to the Nlgn1 gene promoter in vivo. However, whether CLOCK/BMAL1 can directly activate Nlgn1 transcription is not yet known. We thus aimed to verify whether CLOCK/BMAL1, as well as their homologs NPAS2 and BMAL2, can activate transcription via the Nlgn1 promoter by using luciferase assays in COS-7 cells...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595307/night-awakening-in-infancy-developmental-stability-and-longitudinal-associations-with-psychomotor-development
#19
Tiina E Mäkelä, Mikko J Peltola, Pirkko Nieminen, E Juulia Paavonen, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Tiina Paunio, Anneli Kylliäinen
Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (≥3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (≤1 night awakening, n = 70) within the CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort at 8 and 24 months of age...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572132/sleep-biology-updates-hemodynamic-and-autonomic-control-in-sleep-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Renaud Tamisier, J Woodrow Weiss, Jean Louis Pépin
Sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep syndrome, insomnia and narcolepsy-cataplexy are all associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. These disorders share an impaired autonomic nervous system regulation that leads to increased cardiovascular sympathetic tone. This increased cardiovascular sympathetic tone is, in turn, likely to play a major role in the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Different stimuli, such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, decrease in sleep duration, increased respiratory effort, and transient hypercapnia may all initiate the pathophysiological cascade leading to sympathetic overactivity and some or all of these are encountered in these different sleep disorders...
March 20, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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