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Sleep fragmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900583/does-elite-sport-degrade-sleep-quality-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Luke Gupta, Kevin Morgan, Sarah Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology...
November 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899291/dynamic-changes-in-sleep-pattern-during-post-partum-in-normal-pregnancy-in-rat-model
#2
Neelima Sivadas, Arathi Radhakrishnan, B S Aswathy, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
To develop an animal model for studies on peri-partum sleep disorders, sleep patterns in female Wistar rats during pregnancy, post-partum and after weaning, were assessed and associated adaptive changes in their anxiety were examined. Adult nulliparous female rats, maintained in standard laboratory conditions with ad libitum food and water, were surgically implanted with electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes under anaesthesia for objective assessment of sleep-wakefulness (S-W). After post-surgical recovery, three control recordings of S-W were taken for 24h before the animals were kept for mating...
November 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886023/quantifying-the-dynamic-of-osa-brain-using-multifractal-formalism-a-novel-measure-for-sleep-fragmentation
#3
Somayeh Raiesdana
It is thought that the critical brain dynamics in sleep is modulated during frequent periods of wakefulness. This paper utilizes the capacity of EEG based scaling analysis to quantify sleep fragmentation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The scale-free (fractal) behavior refers to a state where no characteristic scale dominates the dynamics of the underlying process which is evident as long range correlations in a time series. Here, Multiscaling (multifractal) spectrum is utilized to quantify the disturbed dynamic of an OSA brain with fragmented sleep...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866595/modifiable-healthy-lifestyle-behaviors-10-year-health-outcomes-from-a-health-promotion-program
#4
Daniel W Byrne, Lori A Rolando, Muktar H Aliyu, Paula W McGown, Lisa R Connor, Bradley M Awalt, Marilyn C Holmes, Li Wang, Mary I Yarbrough
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have examined the impact of healthy lifestyle choices on health-related outcomes; however, given their fragmented, often cross-sectional nature, assessing the relative impact of daily modifiable behaviors on overall long-term outcomes, particularly for a diverse working adult population, remains challenging. METHODS: Relationships between ten self-reported healthy lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes during the subsequent 9 years in a cohort of 10,248 participants enrolled during 2003 in a voluntary workplace wellness program were assessed...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857841/relationship-between-sleep-characteristics-and-measures-of-body-size-and-composition-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#5
Qian Xiao, Fangyi Gu, Neil Caporaso, Charles E Matthews
BACKGROUND: Short sleep has been linked to obesity. However, sleep is a multidimensional behavior that cannot be characterized solely by sleep duration. There is limited study that comprehensively examined different sleep characteristics in relation to obesity. METHODS: We examined various aspects of sleep in relation to adiposity in 2005-2006 NHANES participants who were 18 or older and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and depression (N = 3995)...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857049/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-polysomnographic-study
#6
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are relatively common disorders. SDB induces repetitive arousals and sleep fragmentation and may cause symptomatic epileptic seizures or hypoxic encephalopathy. Epileptic seizures change sleep architecture with increase of light sleep and reduction of REM sleep, which may lead to central apneas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between SDB and daytime sleepiness in patients with epilepsy, who underwent polysomnography (PSG) due to problems with breathing during sleep or due to excessive daytime sleepiness...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855733/actigraphic-sleep-patterns-of-u-s-hispanics-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos
#7
Katherine A Dudley, Jia Weng, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Guido Simonelli, Elizabeth Cespedes, Maricelle Ramirez, Alberto R Ramos, Jose S Loredo, Kathryn J Reid, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Phyllis C Zee, Diana A Chirinos, Linda C Gallo, Rui Wang, Sanjay R Patel
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which objective sleep patterns vary among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: We assessed objective sleep patterns in 2,087 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos from six Hispanic/Latino subgroups aged 18-64 years who underwent 7 days of wrist actigraphy. RESULTS: The age- and sex-standardized mean (SE) sleep duration was 6.82 (0.05), 6.72 (0.07), 6.61 (0.07), 6.59 (0.06), 6...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851868/pharmacotherapies-for-sleep-disturbances-in-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Jenny McCleery, Daniel A Cohen, Ann L Sharpley
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including reduced nocturnal sleep time, sleep fragmentation, nocturnal wandering, and daytime sleepiness are common clinical problems in dementia, and are associated with significant caregiver distress, increased healthcare costs, and institutionalisation. Drug treatment is often sought to alleviate these problems, but there is significant uncertainty about the efficacy and adverse effects of the various hypnotic drugs in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects, including common adverse effects, of any drug treatment versus placebo for sleep disorders in people with dementia, through identification and analysis of all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848277/-sorry-were-you-sleeping-nurses-role-in-the-promotion-of-sleep-for-critically-ill-patients
#9
Felicity Dick-Smith
BACKGROUND: During critical illness sleep is important for immune function and restorative processes. Despite theoretical evidence and scientific understanding of the effects of sleep deprivation in the critically ill, research is yet to be entirely translated into institutional practices and department cultural norms. OBJECTIVES: This article was adapted from an undergraduate essay that considered the nurse's role in addressing fragmented sleep in critical care patients'...
November 29, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848158/evidence-of-prolonged-torpor-in-goodman-s-mouse-lemurs-at-ankafobe-forest-central-madagascar
#10
Marina B Blanco, Andon'ny A Andriantsalohimisantatra, Tahiry V Rivoharison, Jean-Basile Andriambeloson
The small-bodied mouse lemurs of Madagascar (Microcebus) are capable of heterothermy (i.e., torpor or hibernation). The expression of these energy-saving strategies has been physiologically demonstrated in three species: M. berthae, the pygmy mouse lemur (daily torpor), M. murinus, the gray mouse lemur (daily torpor and hibernation), and M. griseorufus, the reddish-gray mouse lemur (daily, prolonged torpor and hibernation). Additional evidence, based on radiotracking and seasonal body mass changes, indicated that mouse lemur capabilities for heterothermy extended to M...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832434/monitoring-of-venus-transgenic-cell-migration-during-pregnancy-in-non-transgenic-rabbits
#11
N Lipták, O I Hoffmann, A Kerekes, G Iski, D Ernszt, K Kvell, L Hiripi, Z Bősze
Cell transfer between mother and fetus were demonstrated previously in several species which possess haemochorial placenta (e.g. in humans, mice, rats, etc.). Here we report the assessment of fetal and maternal microchimerism in non-transgenic (non-TG) New Zealand white rabbits which were pregnant with transgenic (TG) fetuses and in non-TG newborns of TG does. The TG construct, including the Venus fluorophore cDNA driven by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus enhancer, chicken ß-actin promoter (CAGGS), was previously integrated into the rabbit genome by Sleeping Beauty transposon system...
November 10, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823704/effect-of-different-types-of-exercise-on-sleep-quality-of-elderly-subjects
#12
José M T Bonardi, Leandra G Lima, Giulliard O Campos, Rodrigo F Bertani, Júlio C Moriguti, Eduardo Ferriolli, Nereida K C Lima
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: There are still many gaps in research concerning the effect of different physical training modalities on sleep quality in the elderly population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare the quality of sleep of hypertensive elderly subjects submitted to two types of training (ie, aerobic exercise alone or combined aerobic and resistance training). PATIENTS/METHODS: Participants aged 60-75 years were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), combined aerobic and resistance group (ARG), and control untrained group (CG)...
September 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815720/the-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#13
REVIEW
Chunchen Xiang, Yujia Wang, Han Zhang, Fang Han
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle involved in cellular homeostasis and control of protein quality. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular response to ER stress and promotes cell survival. Severe or prolonged stress activates apoptosis signaling to trigger cell death. In mammals, the UPR is initiated by three major ER stress sensors, including inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase 1, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase and activating transcription factor 6...
November 4, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787741/lifetime-regular-exercise-affects-the-incident-of-different-arrhythmias-and-improves-organismal-health-in-aging-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Lan Zheng, Qiu Fang Li, Liu Ni, Hui Wang, Xiang Cheng Ruan, Xiu Shan Wu
We used Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model system to study the impact of exercise training initiated early in life on cardiac function using a well-established model of inherent myogenic properties of the heart and discussed the changes on myosin, a myocardial contractile protein. We also explored the effect of early physical exercise on organismal aging by analyzing the wake-sleep pattern using a Drosophila activity monitor system. We found that a variety of arrhythmias are part of the heart spectrum in old flies after a lifetime of physical exercise as evidenced by reducing the incidence of fibrillations and increasing the occurrence of bradycardias...
October 27, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774119/role-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-neurocognitive-dysfunction-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#15
Li Zhou, Ping Chen, Yating Peng, Ruoyun Ouyang
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentations. Neurocognitive dysfunction, a significant and extraordinary complication of OSAS, influences patients' career, family, and social life and reduces quality of life to some extent. Previous researches revealed that repetitive hypoxia and reoxygenation caused mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, overactivated NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and uncoupling nitric oxide synthase, induced an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, and then got rise to a series of oxidative stress (OS) responses, such as protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation along with inflammatory reaction...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755058/fragmented-sleep-enhances-postoperative-neuroinflammation-but-not-cognitive-dysfunction
#16
Susana Vacas, Vincent Degos, Mervyn Maze
BACKGROUND: Sleep is integral to biologic function, and sleep disruption can result in both physiological and psychologic dysfunction including cognitive decline. Surgery activates the innate immune system, inducing neuroinflammatory changes that interfere with cognition. Because surgical patients with sleep disorders have an increased likelihood of exhibiting postoperative delirium, an acute form of cognitive decline, we investigated the contribution of perioperative sleep fragmentation (SF) to the neuroinflammatory and cognitive responses of surgery...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748245/altered-cd8-t-cell-lymphocyte-function-and-tc1-cell-stemness-contribute-to-enhanced-malignant-tumor-properties-in-murine-models-of-sleep-apnea
#17
Mahzad Akbarpour, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanghong Qiao, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Isaac Almendros, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with cancer appears to be accompanied by poorer outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying such association are unknown. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), including CD8+ T cells, function as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and mount immune responses to cancer by the release of cytolytic enzymes, including granzyme B (GzmB), perforin (Prf) and cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ. METHODS: Using established in vivo mouse models, we investigated CD8+ T cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF) in the context of tumor environment...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747026/emerging-co-morbidities-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-cognition-kidney-disease-and-cancer
#18
Nadia Gildeh, Panagis Drakatos, Sean Higgins, Ivana Rosenzweig, Brian D Kent
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739530/chronic-sleep-disruption-alters-gut-microbiota-induces-systemic-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#19
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732667/can-sleep-and-resting-behaviours-be-used-as-indicators-of-welfare-in-shelter-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris
#20
Sara C Owczarczak-Garstecka, Oliver H P Burman
Previous research on humans and animals suggests that the analysis of sleep patterns may reliably inform us about welfare status, but little research of this kind has been carried out for non-human animals in an applied context. This study explored the use of sleep and resting behaviour as indicators of welfare by describing the activity patterns of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) housed in rescue shelters, and comparing their sleep patterns to other behavioural and cognitive measures of welfare. Sleep and activity patterns were observed over five non-consecutive days in a population of 15 dogs...
2016: PloS One
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