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Adenosine deaminase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160524/a-fatal-case-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-child-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#1
Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Pinar Yazici, Semra Sen, Cenk Eraslan, Cengiz Cavusoglu, Bulent Karapinar, Fadil Vardar
The prognosis of tuberculous meningitis, a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, depends on the stage of treatment initiation. We report a fatal case of tuberculous meningitis. The patient had received successive tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists and abatacept to treat juvenile idiopathic arthritis, with negative results for polymerase chain reaction and acid-fast bacilli on smear, had normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adenosine deaminase and glucose levels. Six weeks post-admission, the CSF culture demonstrated Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160308/programmable-base-editing-of-a%C3%A2-t-to-g%C3%A2-c-in-genomic-dna-without-dna-cleavage
#2
Nicole M Gaudelli, Alexis C Komor, Holly A Rees, Michael S Packer, Ahmed H Badran, David I Bryson, David R Liu
The spontaneous deamination of cytosine is a major source of C•G to T•A transitions, which account for half of known human pathogenic point mutations. The ability to efficiently convert target A•T base pairs to G•C could therefore advance the study and treatment of genetic diseases. While the deamination of adenine yields inosine, which is treated as guanine by polymerases, no enzymes are known to deaminate adenine in DNA. Here we report adenine base editors (ABEs) that mediate conversion of A•T to G•C in genomic DNA...
October 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155548/site-selective-rna-splicing-nanozyme-dnazyme-and-rtcb-conjugates-on-a-gold-nanoparticle
#3
Jessica R Petree, Kevin Yehl, Kornelia Galior, Roxanne Glazier, Brendan Deal, Khalid Salaita
Modifying RNA through either splicing or editing is a fundamental biological process for creating protein diversity from the same genetic code. Developing novel chemical biology tools for RNA editing has potential to transiently edit genes and to provide a better understanding of RNA biochemistry. Current techniques used to modify RNA include the use of ribozymes, adenosine deaminase and tRNA endonucleases. Herein, we report a nanozyme that is capable of splicing of virtually any RNA stem-loop. This nanozyme is comprised of a gold nanoparticle functionalized with three enzymes: two catalytic DNA strands with ribonuclease function and an RNA ligase...
November 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146145/adars-and-editing-the-role-of-a-to-i-rna-modification-in-cancer-progression
#4
REVIEW
Kajsa Fritzell, Li-Di Xu, Jens Lagergren, Marie Öhman
Cancer arises when pathways that control cell functions such as proliferation and migration are dysregulated to such an extent that cells start to divide uncontrollably and eventually spread throughout the body, ultimately endangering the survival of an affected individual. It is well established that somatic mutations are important in cancer initiation and progression as well as in creation of tumor diversity. Now also modifications of the transcriptome are emerging as a significant force during the transition from normal cell to malignant tumor...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145975/in-cancer-a-to-i-rna-editing-can-be-the-driver-the-passenger-or-the-mechanic
#5
Nabeel S Ganem, Noa Ben-Asher, Ayelet T Lamm
In recent years, A-to-I RNA modifications performed by the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) protein family were found to be expressed at altered levels in multiple human malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing changes adenosine to inosine on double stranded RNA, thereby changing transcript sequence and structure. Although A-to-I RNA editing have the potential to change essential mRNA transcripts, affecting their corresponding protein structures, most of the human editing sites identified to date reside in non-coding repetitive transcripts such as Alu elements...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145785/adenosine-deaminase-activity-in-pig-saliva-analytical-validation-of-two-spectrophotometric-assays
#6
Fernando Tecles, Camila P Rubio, María D Contreras-Aguilar, Marina López-Arjona, Silvia Martínez-Miró, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, José J Cerón
We validated 2 assays for the measurement of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the saliva of pigs: the Giusti-Galanti manual method (ADA-GG) and a commercial automated assay (Diazyme Laboratories; ADA-D). Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were <7 and 9%, and interassay CVs were <12 and 5%, for ADA-GG and ADA-D, respectively. Accuracy was measured by 2 methods: recovery and linearity-under-dilution. Recovery was 82.4-106.8% for ADA-GG, and 92.8-107.9% for ADA-D. Serial dilutions showed R(2) > 0...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144509/circular-rna-expression-is-suppressed-by-androgen-receptor-ar-regulated-adenosine-deaminase-that-acts-on-rna-adar1-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Liang Shi, Peijian Yan, Yuelong Liang, Yin Sun, Jiliang Shen, Senjun Zhou, Hui Lin, Xiao Liang, Xiujun Cai
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous malignancy as a result of complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. HCC is characterized by a clear gender disparity for which there is lack of a clear mechanistic understanding. Androgen receptor (AR) is thought to be critical for such bias. Meanwhile, the potential function of circular RNA (circRNA), regulated by RNA editing enzyme, remained largely unknown in malignancy till now. By utilizing circRNA microarray survey coupled with in vitro analysis, we analyzed the influence of AR on circRNA expression in HCC...
November 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129909/rna-editing-by-adar1-leads-to-context-dependent-transcriptome-wide-changes-in-rna-secondary-structure
#8
Oz Solomon, Ayelet Di Segni, Karen Cesarkas, Hagit T Porath, Victoria Marcu-Malina, Orel Mizrahi, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Nitzan Kol, Sarit Farage-Barhom, Efrat Glick-Saar, Yaniv Lerenthal, Erez Y Levanon, Ninette Amariglio, Ron Unger, Itamar Goldstein, Eran Eyal, Gidi Rechavi
Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is the master RNA editor, catalyzing the deamination of adenosine to inosine. RNA editing is vital for preventing abnormal activation of cytosolic nucleic acid sensing pathways by self-double-stranded RNAs. Here we determine, by parallel analysis of RNA secondary structure sequencing (PARS-seq), the global RNA secondary structure changes in ADAR1 deficient cells. Surprisingly, ADAR1 silencing resulted in a lower global double-stranded to single-stranded RNA ratio, suggesting that A-to-I editing can stabilize a large subset of imperfect RNA duplexes...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123884/a-case-of-cerebral-tuberculoma-mimicking-neurocysticercosis
#9
Hiroko Yuzawa, Yousuke Hirose, Tomonori Kimura, Sho Kimura, Hisanori Sugawara, Asako Yanagisawa, Sono Toi, Takashi Ohashi, Tomohito Sadahiro
Case: A 42-year-old Peruvian woman residing in Japan for 11 years with a family history of neurocysticercosis presented to our intensive care unit with fever and intense headache.Computed tomography indicated multiple micronodular lesions in the brain parenchyma, and cerebral tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis were considered in the differential diagnosis. Neurocysticercosis was initially suspected, and oral praziquantel was initiated. However, because of a high adenosine deaminase level in the cerebrospinal fluid and positive peripheral blood interferon gamma release test result, cerebral tuberculoma was subsequently considered...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122710/adenosine-deaminase-activity-and-gene-expression-patterns-are-altered-after-chronic-ethanol-exposure-in-zebrafish-brain
#10
Eduardo Pacheco Rico, Denis Broock Rosemberg, Jotele Fontana Agostini Berteli, Andrei da Silveira Langoni, André Arigony Souto, Maurício Reis Bogo, Carla Denise Bonan, Diogo Onofre Souza
Ethanol alters the homeostasis between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and its intoxication reveals adenosine as responsible to modify several responses including signal transduction. Zebrafish has been recently investigated for knowledge the prolonged effect of ethanol on behavioral and biochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soluble and membrane adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression in zebrafish brain. Animals were exposed to 0.5% ethanol for 7, 14, and 28days...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095874/effects-of-ampd1-common-mutation-on-the-metabolic-chronotropic-relationship-insights-from-patients-with-myoadenylate-deaminase-deficiency
#11
Fabrice Rannou, Virginie Scotet, Pascale Marcorelles, Roxane Monnoyer, Cédric Le Maréchal
PURPOSE: Current evidence indicates that the common AMPD1 gene variant is associated with improved survival in patients with advanced heart failure. Whilst adenosine has been recognized to mediate the cardioprotective effect of C34T AMPD1, the precise pathophysiologic mechanism involved remains undefined to date. To address this issue, we used cardio-pulmonary exercise testing data (CPX) from subjects with myoadenylate deaminase (MAD) defects. METHODS: From 2009 to 2013, all the patients referred in our laboratory to perform a metabolic exercise testing, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091862/the-anti-hyperuricemic-effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg-on-hyperuricemic-mice
#12
Chuang Zhu, Yan Xu, Zeng-Hui Liu, Xiao-Chun Wan, Da-Xiang Li, Ling-Ling Tai
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea catechin, has been used for antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperuricemic activity of EGCG on hyperuricemic mice. We demonstrated that serum uric acid (UA) level was decreased significantly with dose-dependence by EGCG treated with 10, 20, and 50mg/kg. Compared with the model, data on blood urea nitrogen (BUN) supported that there was significance with high dose of EGCG (50mg/kg). Levels of serum creatinine (Cr) in each EGCG-treated group were decreased but not significant; the activities of hepatic xanthine oxidase (XOD) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in high dose groups' EGCG were notably lower than those of model group...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090621/post-thyroidectomy-hypothyroidism-increases-the-expression-and-activity-of-ectonucleotidases-in-platelets-possible-involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#13
Jucimara Baldissarelli, Micheli M Pillat, Roberta Schmatz, Andréia M Cardoso, Fátima H Abdalla, Juliana S de Oliveira, Carla R N Polachini, Emerson Casali, Clarissa Pereira Bornemann, Henning Ulrich, Vera M Morsch, Maria R C Schetinger
Signaling mediated by purines is a widespread mechanism of cell-cell communication related to vasomotor responses and the control of platelet function in the vascular system. However, little is known about the involvement of this signaling as well as the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of hypothyroidism. Therefore, the present study investigates changes in the purinergic system, including enzyme activities and expression in platelets, and oxidative profiles in patients with post-thyroidectomy hypothyroidism...
November 1, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089830/qualitative-and-quantitative-comparison-of-contrast-enhanced-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-magnetization-transfer-spin-echo-and-fat-saturation-t1-weighted-sequences-in-infectious-meningitis
#14
Rajiv Azad, Mohit Tayal, Sheenam Azad, Garima Sharma, Rajendra Kumar Srivastava
OBJECTIVE: To compare the contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR), the CE T1-weighted (CE-T1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and magnetization transfer (MT) for early detection and characterization of infectious meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients and 10 control subjects were evaluated with the CE-FLAIR and the CE-T1W sequences with FS and MT. Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence and grading of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079593/hypoxia-modulates-the-purine-salvage-pathway-and-decreases-red-blood-cell-and-supernatant-levels-of-hypoxanthine-during-refrigerated-storage
#15
Travis Nemkov, Kaiqi Sun, Julie A Reisz, Anren Song, Tatsuro Yoshida, Andrew Dunham, Matthew J Wither, Richard O Francis, Robert C Roach, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Stephen C Rogers, Allan Doctor, Anastasios Kriebardis, Marianna Antonelou, Issidora Papassideri, Carolyn Young, Tiffany Thomas, Kirk C Hansen, Steven L Spitalnik, Yang Xia, James C Zimring, Eldad A Hod, Angelo D'Alessandro
Hypoxanthine catabolism in vivo is potentially dangerous as it fuels production of urate and, most importantly, hydrogen peroxide. However, it is unclear whether accumulation of intracellular and supernatant hypoxanthine in stored RBC units is clinically relevant for transfused recipients. Leukoreduced RBCs from G6PD-normal or -deficient human volunteers were stored in AS-3 under normoxic, hyperoxic, or hypoxic conditions (with SO2 ranging from <3 to >95%). RBCs from healthy human volunteers were also collected at sea level or after 1-7 days at high altitude (>5000m)...
October 27, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078406/site-directed-rna-repair-of-endogenous-mecp2-rna-in-neurons
#16
John R Sinnamon, Susan Y Kim, Glen M Corson, Zhen Song, Hiroyuki Nakai, John P Adelman, Gail Mandel
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a debilitating neurological disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2 (MECP2). A distinct disorder results from MECP2 gene duplication, suggesting that therapeutic approaches must restore close to normal levels of MECP2. Here, we apply the approach of site-directed RNA editing to repair, at the mRNA level, a disease-causing guanosine to adenosine (G > A) mutation in the mouse MeCP2 DNA binding domain. To mediate repair, we exploit the catalytic domain of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR2) that deaminates A to inosine (I) residues that are subsequently translated as G...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070703/rna-editing-with-crispr-cas13
#17
David B T Cox, Jonathan S Gootenberg, Omar O Abudayyeh, Brian Franklin, Max J Kellner, Julia Joung, Feng Zhang
Nucleic acid editing holds promise for treating genetic disease, particularly at the RNA level, where disease-relevant sequences can be rescued to yield functional protein products. Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems contain the programmable single-effector RNA-guided RNases Cas13. Here, we profile Type VI systems to engineer a Cas13 ortholog capable of robust knockdown and demonstrate RNA editing by using catalytically-inactive Cas13 (dCas13) to direct adenosine to inosine deaminase activity by ADAR2 to transcripts in mammalian cells...
October 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061410/elevated-serum-adenosine-deaminase-levels-in-neuroleptic-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-recent-onset-schizophrenia
#18
Arun Sasidharan, Sunil Kumar, John P John, Mariamma Philip, Sarada Subramanian, Sanjeev Jain, Bindu M Kutty
The present study examined serum levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA), an adenosine metabolizing enzyme, in neuroleptic-naive patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and age-matched healthy comparison subjects. ADA levels were found to be higher among patients, and revealed a possible link between evening rise and severity of auditory hallucinations as well as morning rise and severity of avolition-apathy in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest the potential utility of serum ADA as a peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056419/fungal-cordycepin-biosynthesis-is-coupled-with-the-production-of-the-safeguard-molecule-pentostatin
#19
Yongliang Xia, Feifei Luo, Yanfang Shang, Peilin Chen, Yuzhen Lu, Chengshu Wang
Cordycepin (COR) and pentostatin (PTN) are adenosine analogs with related bioactivity profiles as both mimic adenosine and can inhibit some of the processes that are adenosine dependent. Both COR and PTN are also natural products and were originally isolated from the fungus Cordyceps militaris and the bacterium Streptomyces antibioticus, respectively. Here, we report that not only is PTN produced by C. militaris but that biosynthesis of COR is coupled with PTN production by a single gene cluster. We also demonstrate that this coupling is an important point of metabolic regulation where PTN safeguards COR from deamination by inhibiting adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity...
September 27, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045406/microrna-profiling-of-human-primary-macrophages-exposed-to-dengue-virus-identifies-mirna-3614-5p-as-antiviral-and-regulator-of-adar1-expression
#20
Mayra Diosa-Toro, Liliana Echavarría-Consuegra, Jacky Flipse, Geysson Javier Fernández, Joost Kluiver, Anke van den Berg, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima, Jolanda M Smit
BACKGROUND: Due to the high burden of dengue disease worldwide, a better understanding of the interactions between dengue virus (DENV) and its human host cells is of the utmost importance. Although microRNAs modulate the outcome of several viral infections, their contribution to DENV replication is poorly understood. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the microRNA expression profile of primary human macrophages challenged with DENV and deciphered the contribution of microRNAs to infection...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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