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Yichao Wang, Jianyan Ding, Zhengyan Zhao, Yuhua Wang
A series of BaSr2 Sc4 O9 and Ce3+ -doped BaSr2 Sc4 O9 phosphors were synthesized via the high temperature solid state reaction. Crystal structure information on BaSr2 Sc4 O9 is first refined using the Rietveld method based on the XRD data, and it is assigned to the trigonal system with the R3 space-group. The photoluminescence properties were investigated in detail, including the emission and excitation spectra, site occupation, decay lifetime, thermal quenching, and quantum efficiency. There are three Ba2+ /Sr2+ sites and four Sc3+ sites in this structure...
November 9, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Ari Waisman, Lisa Johann
Autoreactive T cells are considered the major culprits in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). Upon activation in the lymphoid organs, autoreactive T cells migrate towards the central nervous system (CNS) and target the myelin sheath-forming oligodendrocytes, resulting in detrimental neurological symptoms. Despite the availability of extensively studied systems like the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, our understanding of this disease and the underlying pathogenesis is still elusive...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Mingxian Yang, Zhicai Zuo, Bi Li, Shuang Liang, Liping Gou, Zhihua Ren, Xiaoping Ma
Objective To explore the relationship between resistin and PPARγ and to investigate the pro-inflammatory functions of bovine resistin. Methods Bovine alveolar macrophages (BAMs) were incubated with 100 ng/mL bovine-resistin for 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, NF-κB, and resistin were tested by qRT-PCR, the protein expression levels of PPARγ and NF-κB were analyzed by Western blot analysis, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the supernatant were measured by ELISA...
August 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Karolina Połeć, Beata Barnaś, Magdalena Kowalska, Michał Dymek, Rafał Rachwalik, Elżbieta Sikora, Artur Biela, Michał Kobiałka, Kinga Wójcik, Katarzyna Hąc-Wydro
Many plant-derived compounds possess antimicrobial, antioxidant and even anticancer activities. Therefore, they are considered as substances that can be used instead of synthetic compounds in various applications. In this work, the essential oil from hop cones was extracted and analyzed, and then its effects on model bacteria membranes were studied to verify whether the hop essential oils could be used as ecological pesticides. The experiments involved surface pressure-area measurements, penetration studies and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) imaging of lipid monolayers as well as hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) measurements of liposomes...
October 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hou Rui-Gang, Fan Lei, Liu Jun-Jin, Cheng Yao, Chang Zhuang-Peng, Wu Bei, Shao Yun-Yun
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs) critically depends on BA transporters and enzymes, which can be affected by inflammatory bowel disease. Diarrhea in colitis is believed to result in part from BA malabsorption (BAM). The work aimed to investigate whether diarrhea in colitis was associated with the expression of BA transporters, enzymes and nuclear receptors. RT-qPCR and Western blot techniques were used to evaluate the gene and protein levels of Cyp7a1, Asbt, SHP, FXR, Ostβ in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rat model of colitis...
November 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Salima Lakehal, Aicha Lakehal, Malika Bouchagour, Christophe Morell, Henry Chermette
In this work, the nature of the chemical interactions between the metalloid atom (M = Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po) and the nitrogen atoms in the bora-amidinate (bam) complexes (Cln M[PhB(Nt Bu)2 ]) are investigated, mainly via density-based indices. The descriptors used are derived using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and natural orbitals for chemical valence approaches. It is shown that the strongest interaction is achieved with silicon. Indeed, it is generally the lightest metalloid in a particular group of the periodic table (i...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Dacha Gholobova, Melanie Gerard, Lisanne Terrie, Linda Desender, Janet Shansky, Herman Vandenburgh, Lieven Thorrez
Skeletal muscle tissue engineering aims at creating functional skeletal muscle in vitro. Human muscle organoids can be used for potential applications in regenerative medicine, but also as an in vitro model for myogenesis or myopathology. However, the thickness of constructs is limited due to passive diffusion of nutrients and oxygen. Introduction of a vascular network in vitro may solve this limitation. Here, we describe tissue engineering of in vitro skeletal muscle consisting of human aligned myofibers with interspersed endothelial networks...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jonathan D Monroe, Amanda R Storm
Multi-gene families present a rich research area to study how related proteins evolve to acquire new structures and functions. The β-amylase (BAM) gene family is named for catalytic members' ability to hydrolyze starch into maltose units. However, the family also contains proteins that are catalytically inactive, have additional domains, or are not localized with a starch substrate. Here we review the current knowledge of each of the nine Arabidopsis BAMs, including information on their localization, structural features, expression patterns, regulation and potential functions...
November 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Kelly M Storek, Rajesh Vij, Dawei Sun, Peter A Smith, James T Koerber, Steven T Rutherford
Integral β-barrel membrane proteins are folded and inserted into the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane by the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM). This essential complex, comprised of a β-barrel protein, BamA, and four lipoproteins, BamB, BamC, BamD, and BamE, resides in the outer membrane, a unique asymmetrical lipid bilayer that is difficult to recapitulate in vitro Thus, probing BAM function in living cells is critical to fully understand the mechanism of β-barrel folding. We recently identified an α-BamA monoclonal antibody, MAB1, that is a specific and potent inhibitor of BamA function...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Cecilia Pinto, Deni Mance, Tessa Sinnige, Mark Daniëls, Markus Weingarth, Marc Baldus
The β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) is a pentameric complex (BamA-E), which catalyzes the essential process of β-barrel protein insertion into the outer membrane of E. coli. Thus far, a detailed understanding of the insertion mechanism has been elusive but recent results suggest that local protein motion, in addition to the surrounding membrane environment, may be of critical relevance. We have devised a high-sensitivity solid-state NMR approach to directly probe protein motion and the structural changes associated with BAM complex assembly in lipid bilayers...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Luisa M ª Mena Bares, José M Benítez Cantero, Eva Iglesias Flores, Beatriz Gros Alcalde, Estefanía Moreno Ortega, Francisco R Maza Muret, Elvira Carmona Asenjo, M ª Valle García Sánchez, Juan A Vallejo Casas
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Crohn's disease (CD) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease and is mainly characterized by diarrhea and abdominal pain. The aim of our study was to analyze the usefulness of performing a 75SeHCAT scan in CD patients with chronic diarrhea and suspected bile acid malabsorption (BAM). In addition, we aimed to determine whether there was a relationship with the clinical features of the disease and a previous bowel resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: this was an observational cross-sectional study of 39 patients with a diagnosis of CD and chronic diarrhea...
October 4, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Pritish Mondal, Priti Dalal, Niruja Sathiyadevan, David M Snyder, Satyanarayan Hegde
Background: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) can be performed under bronchoscopist administered moderate sedation (BAMS) with a midazolam/fentanyl combination or general anesthesia (GA). However, the outcome of BAMS has not been well established in children. Currently, most of the centers prefer FB under GA. Both techniques have their advantages and disadvantages with implications for safety, complications, and diagnostic yield. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the safety, time efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of FB under BAMS as compared with FB under GA in a similar setting...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Shaowei Zhao, Tina M Fortier, Eric H Baehrecke
Adult stem cells usually reside in specialized niche microenvironments. Accumulating evidence indicates that competitive niche occupancy favors stem cells with oncogenic mutations, also known as tumor-like stem cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate tumor-like stem cell niche occupancy are largely unknown. Here, we use Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells as a model and use bam mutant cells as tumor-like stem cells. Interestingly, we find that autophagy is low in wild-type stem cells but elevated in bam mutant stem cells...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Dan Wen, Ni-Bin Chang, Martin P Wanielista
Copper, a commonly occurring heavy metal in stormwater runoff, was tested for its inhibitory effects on key nitrogen cycle bacteria in Biosorption Activated Media (BAM) and woodchip. The information in this paper is used to show that copper can enhance the denitrification process through enzyme cascade reactions since nitrous reductase is the enzyme responsible for the last step of denitrification and is largely dependent on copper as its cofactor. However, media characteristics are critical for assessing multi-enzymatic cascade reactions from the microbial ecology point of view...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Alicia McCarthy, Aron Deiulio, Elliot Todd Martin, Maitreyi Upadhyay, Prashanth Rangan
Germline stem cells (GSCs) self-renew and differentiate to sustain a continuous production of gametes. In the female Drosophila germ line, two differentiation factors, bag of marbles ( bam) and benign gonial cell neoplasm ( bgcn), work in concert in the stem cell daughter to promote the generation. In GSCs, bam transcription is repressed by signaling from the niche and is activated in stem cell daughters. In contrast, bgcn is transcribed in both the GSCs and stem cell daughters, but little is known about how bgcn is transcriptionally modulated...
September 19, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Jia Zhang, Lei Zhao, Xintian Bian, Guibin Chen
To develop new efficient phosphors for LEDs based on multifunctional applications, a series of Ce3+ /Mn2+ activated Ca7 (PO4 )2 (SiO4 )2 (CPS) samples were prepared by solid-state reaction method. Upon 365 nm excitation, a broad emission band around 439 nm in the Ce3+ -single-doped CPS was observed. The optimal Ce3+ concentration was determined to be 3%, for which the quantum efficiency was obtained to be 90.4%, higher than that of the commercial BAM phosphor. By monitoring 458 nm, an intense and broad excitation band was found from 240 to 400 nm, which can match well with the near-ultraviolet (NUV) LED chip...
September 3, 2018: Optics Express
Lieven Thorrez, Katherine DiSano, Janet Shansky, Herman Vandenburgh
Adult skeletal muscle progenitor cells can be embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue-engineered to form bio-artificial muscles (BAMs), composed of aligned post-mitotic myofibers. The ECM proteins which have been used most commonly are collagen type I and fibrin. Fibrin allows for in vitro vasculogenesis, however, high concentrations of fibrinolysis inhibitors are needed to inhibit degradation of the ECM and subsequent loss of BAM tissue structure. For in vivo implantation, fibrinolysis inhibition may prove difficult or even harmful to the host...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jonathan D Monroe, Lauren E Pope, Jillian S Breault, Christopher E Berndsen, Amanda R Storm
The β-amylase family in Arabidopsis thaliana has nine members, four of which are both plastid-localized and, based on active-site sequence conservation, potentially capable of hydrolyzing starch to maltose. We recently reported that one of these enzymes, BAM2, is catalytically active in the presence of physiological levels of KCl, exhibits sigmoidal kinetics with a Hill coefficient of over 3, is tetrameric, has a putative secondary binding site (SBS) for starch, and is highly co-expressed with other starch metabolizing enzymes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoxu Li, Ahmad Salman, Cun Guo, Jing Yu, Songxiao Cao, Xiaoming Gao, Wei Li, Hong Li, Yongfeng Guo
Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) represent the largest subfamily of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses in plants. In this study, 246 LRR-RLK genes were identified in the potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) genome, which were further classified into 14 subfamilies. Gene structure analysis revealed that genes within the same subgroup shared similar exon/intron structures. A signature small peptide recognition motif (RxR) was found to be largely conserved within members of subfamily IX, suggesting that these members may recognize peptide signals as ligands...
August 27, 2018: Cells
Joerg Stierstorfer, Thomas M Klapötke, Norbert Szimhardt, Maximilian H H Wurzenberger, Lukas Zeisel, Michael S Gruhne, Marcus Lommel
This unique complex study describes two isomeric aminotriazoles as auspicious, nitrogen-rich ligands for energetic coordination compounds (ECC) in order to replace commonly used, highly poisonous and environmentally harmful lead-based primary explosives. The triazoles have been obtained via easily scalable and convenient synthesis routes solely requiring commercially available starting materials. 1-Amino-1,2,3-triazole (1, 1-ATRI) and for the first time 1-amino-1,2,4-triazole (2, 1A-1,2,4-TRI) could be implemented as ligands to form highly energetic transition metal(II) complexes...
August 24, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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