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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236991/-how-to-assess-curative-and-or-preventive-effects-of-psychotropic-drugs
#1
T Bottai, D Pringuey, R Belzeaux, M Adida, J-M Azorin
Proving the efficacy of a psychotropic drug is a medical, scientific and ethical need. Psychotropic drug development is now a highly complex process, which takes several years and which is very expensive. It involves multiple steps of preclinical and clinical pharmacological refinement and testing. Methodology of studies to prove curative or preventive effect of psychotropic drugs is well codified. Preclinical studies include pharmacokinetic data, toxicology and performance in various animal models of pathology...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#2
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222360/maintenance-therapy-with-second-generation-antipsychotics-for-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Leif Lindström, Eva Lindström, Mikael Nilsson, Malin Höistad
BACKGROUND: Second generations antipsychotics (SGA) are frequently used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. We systematically reviewed the efficacy and long-term effects of treatment with SGA, regardless of treatment strategy (SGA administered either as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy), in comparison to placebo, lithium or valproate. Primary outcomes were relapses (mood episode recurrence) and discontinuation. METHOD: Clinical studies were identified through database searching in PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and Cochrane Library and critically appraised based on the Cochrane Handbook...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219485/acute-antipsychotic-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Simon Tarp, Dorte Glintborg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Anders Fink-Jensen, Christoph Ulrich Correll, Robin Christensen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of antipsychotics for youth with early-onset schizophrenia using network meta-analytic methods combining direct and indirect trial data. METHOD: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov and selected randomized controlled trials allocating youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders to a (non-clozapine) antipsychotic versus placebo or another antipsychotic...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202095/the-effects-of-vitamin-and-mineral-supplementation-on-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
J Firth, B Stubbs, J Sarris, S Rosenbaum, S Teasdale, M Berk, A R Yung
BACKGROUND: When used as an adjunctive with antipsychotics, certain vitamins and minerals may be effective for improving symptomatic outcomes of schizophrenia, by restoring nutritional deficits, reducing oxidative stress, or modulating neurological pathways. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting effects of vitamin and/or mineral supplements on psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the standardized mean difference between nutrient and placebo treatments...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179039/cannabis-use-and-adherence-to-antipsychotic-medication-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
E Foglia, T Schoeler, E Klamerus, K Morgan, S Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Substance use may increase the risk of non-adherence to antipsychotics, resulting in negative outcomes in patients with psychosis. METHOD: We aimed to quantitatively summarize evidence regarding the effect of cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug amongst those with psychosis, on adherence to antipsychotic medication. Studies were identified through a systematic database search. Adopting random-effects models, pooled odds ratios (OR) for risk of non-adherence to antipsychotic medications were calculated comparing: cannabis-users at baseline v...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146614/tardive-dyskinesia-prevalence-in-the-period-of-second-generation-antipsychotic-use-a-meta-analysis
#7
Maren Carbon, Cheng-Hsi Hsieh, John M Kane, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of tardive dyskinesia (TD) prevalence during contemporaneous treatment with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and/or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). DATA SOURCES: PubMed/MEDLINE/Google Scholar search (January 1, 2000-September 30, 2015) without language restriction using (tardive dyskinesia OR tardive) AND (antipsychotic*) plus specific names of SGAs. STUDY SELECTION: Of 8,895 hits, we screened 203 full-text articles for cross-sectional, rating scale-based TD rates during SGA, FGA, or FGA+SGA treatment...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138965/memory-impairment-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Wei Zheng, Guo Tong, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Helen F K Chiu, Ying-Qiang Xiang, Xiao-Lan Cao, Zheng-Rong Liu, Li-Rong Meng, Gábor Gazdag, Yu-Tao Xiang
PURPOSE: To evaluate memory impairment associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-antipsychotic (AP) combination in comparison to AP monotherapy in schizophrenia. DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of randomized controlled trial (RCTs) was performed. FINDINGS: Eleven RCTs that compared ECT-AP combination (n = 508) with AP monotherapy (n = 510) were analyzed. ECT-AP combination was associated with greater impairment than AP monotherapy in (1) endpoint memory quotient (MQ) of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)-Revised at the end of the ECT course; and (2) picture recall, counting, recognition, and associative learning of the WMS...
January 30, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137460/the-pharmacological-treatment-of-aggression-in-children-and-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder-do-callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-the-efficacy-of-medication
#9
REVIEW
Carla Balia, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) show repetitive and persistent patterns of aggressive behaviour and the more severe forms are often associated with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and, where data are adequate, conduct meta-analyses on the efficacy of medication on aggression in children and adolescent with CD considering the impact of CU traits. RESULTS: Few studies have investigated patients with CD as primary diagnosis, and few of these have discriminated between different types of aggression or reported measures of CU traits...
January 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129701/how-gender-affects-the-pharmacotherapeutic-approach-to-treating-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#10
Bettina Lange, Juliane K Mueller, F Markus Leweke, J Malte Bumb
The effectiveness, effective dosages and side effect profiles of antipsychotic medication differ significantly between the sexes. Areas covered: We present a systematic review of gender-differences in the treatment of psychosis focusing on randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses. Expert opinion: Despite many years of research, the database on gender-differences affecting the pharmacotherapeutic approach to treating psychosis is insufficient. Currently, the US National Institute of Health encouraged the enrolment of female participants in federally supported phase III clinical trials to increase the data available of female patients...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127934/antipsychotic-augmentation-vs-monotherapy-in-schizophrenia-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis
#11
Britta Galling, Alexandra Roldán, Katsuhiko Hagi, Liz Rietschel, Frozan Walyzada, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Lan Cao, Yu-Tao Xiang, Mathias Zink, John M Kane, Jimmi Nielsen, Stefan Leucht, Christoph U Correll
Antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia is much debated, since it is common and costly with unclear evidence for its efficacy and safety. We conducted a systematic literature search and a random effects meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing augmentation with a second antipsychotic vs. continued antipsychotic monotherapy in schizophrenia. Co-primary outcomes were total symptom reduction and study-defined response. Antipsychotic augmentation was superior to monotherapy regarding total symptom reduction (16 studies, N=694, standardized mean difference, SMD=-0...
February 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122506/variation-in-use-of-antipsychotic-medications-in-nursing-homes-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#12
Hannah Cioltan, Samah Alshehri, Carol Howe, Jeannie Lee, Mindy Fain, Howard Eng, Kenneth Schachter, Jane Mohler
BACKGROUND: The use of antipsychotic medications (APMs) in nursing home residents in the U.S. is an increasingly prominent issue and has been associated with increased risk of hospitalization, cardiovascular events, hip fractures, and mortality, among other adverse health events. The Food and Drug Administration has placed a black box warning on these drugs, specifying that they are not meant for residents with dementia, and has asked providers to review their treatment plans. The purpose of this systematic PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses)-based review was to summarize original research studies on facility level characteristics contributing to the use of antipsychotics in nursing homes across the United States, in order to investigate the variation of use...
January 26, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119036/one-year-mirror-image-study-using-paliperidone-palmitate-for-relapse-prevention-of-schizophrenia-in-four-university-hospitals-in-canada
#13
Philippe D Vincent, Marie-France Demers, Venessa Doyon-Kemp, Josée Duchesneau, Alex Halme, Violaine Masson
BACKGROUND: Superiority of long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) over oral antipsychotics remains controversial and dependent on study design and inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 21 RCTs demonstrated no difference in their effectiveness, but meta-analysis of 25 mirror-image studies did. None of these included paliperidone palmitate (PP). METHODS: We challenged efficiency of PP in a multicentric mirror-image study. Primary outcome was total hospitalization days...
January 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116777/pharmacological-treatment-for-antipsychotic-related-constipation
#14
REVIEW
Susanna Every-Palmer, Giles Newton-Howes, Mike J Clarke
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-related constipation is a common and serious adverse effect, especially for people taking clozapine. Clozapine has been shown to impede gastrointestinal motility, leading to constipation, and has been reported in up to 60% of patients receiving clozapine. In rare cases, complications can be fatal. Appropriate laxatives should be prescribed to treat constipation in people taking antipsychotics, but there is a lack of guidance on the comparative effectiveness and harms of different agents in this population...
January 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111239/benefits-and-harms-of-atypical-antipsychotics-for-agitation-in-adults-with-dementia
#15
REVIEW
Martin R Farlow, Tatyana A Shamliyan
We evaluated the most current evidence regarding the benefits and harms of atypical antipsychotics in adults with dementia. In June 2016, following a protocol developed a priori, we systematically searched several databases for published and unpublished data from randomized controlled trials (RCT), observational studies, and meta-analyses; conducted direct meta-analyses using a random effects model; and graded the quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group...
January 19, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108226/efficacy-acceptability-and-tolerability-of-8-atypical-antipsychotics-in-chinese-patients-with-acute-schizophrenia-a-network-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Zhihua Bai, Guoqiang Wang, Shangli Cai, Xindi Ding, Weiwei Liu, Depei Huang, Weidi Shen, Juncheng Zhang, Kui Chen, Yuqing Yang, Lili Zhang, Xiaochen Zhao, Qiong Ouyang, Jingping Zhao, Huafei Lu, Wei Hao
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to create hierarchies of the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of eight atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia. METHOD: We systematically searched for RCT articles published between January 1st 2005 and December 31st 2014 in electronic databases (Medline, Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrial.gov for studies in English and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, and VIP Information/Chinese Scientific Journals Database for studies in Chinese)...
January 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100425/safety-and-efficacy-of-adjunctive-second-generation-antidepressant-therapy-with-a-mood-stabiliser-or-an-atypical-antipsychotic-in-acute-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-placebo-controlled-trials
#17
Alexander McGirr, Paul A Vöhringer, S Nassir Ghaemi, Raymond W Lam, Lakshmi N Yatham
BACKGROUND: Although mania and hypomania define bipolar disorder, depressive episodes are more common and impairing, with few proven treatments. Adjunctive therapy with second-generation antidepressants is widely used to treat acute bipolar depression, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to Jan 31, 2016, for randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of second-generation antidepressants adjunctive to a mood stabiliser or an antipsychotic in patients with acute bipolar depression...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097367/impaired-glucose-homeostasis-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Toby Pillinger, Katherine Beck, Cristian Gobjila, Jacek G Donocik, Sameer Jauhar, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether schizophrenia confers an inherent risk for glucose dysregulation in the absence of the effects of chronic illness and long-term treatment. Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis examining whether individuals with first-episode schizophrenia already exhibit alterations in glucose homeostasis compared with controls. Data Sources: The EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases were systematically searched for studies examining measures of glucose homeostasis in antipsychotic-naive individuals with first-episode schizophrenia compared with individuals serving as controls...
January 11, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068462/extent-time-course-and-moderators-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-youth-with-mood-disorders-results-of-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analyses
#19
Chiara Cervesi, Su Young Park, Britta Galling, Silvia Molteni, Gabriele Masi, Tobias Gerhard, Mark Olfson, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: To meta-analytically examine the trends and correlates of antipsychotic use in youth with mood disorders. METHODS: Systematic literature search without language restriction in PubMed/MEDLINE/PsycINFO from database inception through March 2015 using the following search terms: (antipsychotic* OR neuroleptic* OR "dopamine blocker*" OR antidopaminergic) AND (child* OR adolescen* OR pediatric OR youth) AND (prescription* OR prescrib* OR use OR utilization OR database OR pharmacoepidemiolog* OR frequency OR rate OR rates)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056018/the-effectiveness-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-improving-glycaemic-control-in-adults-with-severe-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Johanna Taylor, Brendon Stubbs, Catherine Hewitt, Ramzi A Ajjan, Sarah L Alderson, Simon Gilbody, Richard I G Holt, Prakash Hosali, Tom Hughes, Tarron Kayalackakom, Ian Kellar, Helen Lewis, Neda Mahmoodi, Kirstine McDermid, Robert D Smith, Judy M Wright, Najma Siddiqi
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have reduced life expectancy compared with the general population, which can be explained partly by their increased risk of diabetes. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the clinical effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for improving glycaemic control in people with SMI (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015015558). A systematic literature search was performed on 30/10/2015 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with SMI, with or without a diagnosis of diabetes that measured fasting blood glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)...
2017: PloS One
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