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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431909/antipsychotics-and-the-risk-of-cerebrovascular-accident-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#1
Wan-Ting Hsu, Amin Esmaily-Fard, Chih-Cheng Lai, Darshan Zala, Sie-Huei Lee, Shy-Shin Chang, Chien-Chang Lee
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between antipsychotic use and the risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) showed inconsistent results. AIM: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether use of antipsychotics is associated with increased risk of CVA. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from 1970 to October 2016 for observational studies investigating the risk of CVA among users of antipsychotics...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397632/antipsychotic-medication-and-long-term-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
J Vermeulen, G van Rooijen, P Doedens, E Numminen, M van Tricht, L de Haan
Patients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality risk than patients suffering from any other psychiatric disorder. Previous research is inconclusive regarding the association of antipsychotic treatment with long-term mortality risk. To this aim, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis on the relationship between long-term mortality and exposure to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia. The objectives were to (i) determine long-term mortality rates in patients with schizophrenia using any antipsychotic medication; (ii) compare these with mortality rates of patients using no antipsychotics; (iii) explore the relationship between cumulative exposure and mortality; and (iv) assess causes of death...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397113/managing-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-how-far-have-we-come
#3
REVIEW
Joshua T Kantrowitz
The specific efficacy of antipsychotics on negative symptoms is questionable, suggesting an urgent need for specific treatments for negative symptoms. This review includes studies published since 2014 with a primary or secondary focus on treating negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Special emphasis is given to recently published meta-analyses. Topics include novel pharmacological approaches, including glutamatergic-based and nicotinic-acetylcholinergic treatments, treatments approved for other indications by the US FDA (or other regulatory bodies) (antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers), brain stimulation, and behavioral- and activity-based approaches, including physical exercise...
April 10, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383359/amantadine-for-antipsychotic-related-weight-gain-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#4
Wei Zheng, Shibin Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Xin-Hu Yang, Yu-Hong Gu, Ming Li, Ying-Qiang Xiang, Yu-Tao Xiang
PURPOSE: Weight gain associated with antipsychotics in schizophrenia has been an ongoing concern. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy and safety of amantadine as an adjunctive treatment of weight gain in schizophrenia by systematically searching and analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs comparing adjunctive amantadine with placebo in adult patients with schizophrenia were included in the meta-analysis. METHODS: Two independent investigators searched the literature and extracted data...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372526/adjunctive-metformin-for-antipsychotic-related-hyperprolactinemia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Wei Zheng, Xin-Hu Yang, Dong-Bin Cai, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Nan Wang, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Hyperprolactinemia is a common and severe antipsychotic-induced adverse drug reaction. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials systematically examined the efficacy and safety of adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Two independent investigators searched, extracted, and synthesized data. Weighted mean differences and risk ratios with their 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effect model. Four randomized controlled trials ( n=509) comparing adjunctive metformin ( n=253) with the control groups ( n=256), lasting 22...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370309/long-term-antipsychotic-use-and-brain-changes-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika Jääskeläinen, Noora Hirvonen, Jukka Remes, Graham K Murray, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Jouko Miettunen
OBJECTIVE: The association between long-term antipsychotic treatment and changes in brain structure in schizophrenia is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis on long-term antipsychotic effects on brain structures in schizophrenia focusing on studies with at least 2 years of follow-up between MRI scans. DESIGN: Studies were systematically collected using 4 databases, and we also contacted authors for unpublished data. We calculated correlations between antipsychotic dose and/or type and brain volumetric changes and used random effect meta-analysis to study correlations by brain area...
March 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369804/positive-symptoms-associate-with-cortical-thinning-in-the-superior-temporal-gyrus-via-the-enigma-schizophrenia-consortium
#7
E Walton, D P Hibar, T G M van Erp, S G Potkin, R Roiz-Santiañez, B Crespo-Facorro, P Suarez-Pinilla, N E M Van Haren, S M C de Zwarte, R S Kahn, W Cahn, N T Doan, K N Jørgensen, T P Gurholt, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye, I Melle, A O Berg, L Mørch-Johnsen, A Faerden, L Flyckt, H Fatouros-Bergman, E G Jönsson, R Hashimoto, H Yamamori, M Fukunaga, A Preda, P De Rossi, F Piras, N Banaj, V Ciullo, G Spalletta, R E Gur, R C Gur, D H Wolf, T D Satterthwaite, L M Beard, I E Sommer, S Koops, O Gruber, A Richter, B Krämer, S Kelly, G Donohoe, C McDonald, D M Cannon, A Corvin, M Gill, A Di Giorgio, A Bertolino, S Lawrie, T Nickson, H C Whalley, E Neilson, V D Calhoun, P M Thompson, J A Turner, S Ehrlich
OBJECTIVE: Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer...
May 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350194/modafinil-treatment-of-cocaine-dependence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Dinesh Sangroula, Fatima Motiwala, Bivek Wagle, Vivek C Shah, Katsuhiko Hagi, Steven Lippmann
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is none FDA-approved medication to treat cocaine dependency. Studies conducted with various medications, including antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and others, revealed inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: To meta-analytically investigate the efficacy and safety of modafinil in the treatment of cocaine-dependent patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials with ≥20 subjects comparing the numerical therapeutic outcomes of modafinil with placebo were identified in databases, such as PUBMED, psycINFO, EMBASE, and Clinicaltrials...
March 28, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350151/-the-relationship-between-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-metabolic-syndrome-an-overview
#9
S M Dieleman, J P de Jong
BACKGROUND: In this article we discuss the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and metabolic syndrome (MbS). AIM: To assess the prevalence of MbS in patients with PTSD, establish which factors are involved and to consider what the implications are for clinical practice. METHOD: We performed a systematic search of the literature, using Medline, Embase Psychiatry and PsycINFO covering the period January 1990 up to and including October 2014...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325572/lipid-profile-disturbances-in-antipsychotic-naive-patients-with-first-episode-non-affective-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Bartłomiej Stańczykiewicz, Łukasz Łaczmański, Dorota Frydecka
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidaemia is one of the most prevalent metabolic disturbances observed in schizophrenia patients and has been largely attributed to the effects of poor lifestyle habits and adverse effects of antipsychotic treatment. However, less is known whether patients with first-episode non-affective psychosis (FENP) present subthreshold indices of dyslipidaemia. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether subclinical lipid profile alterations occur already in antipsychotic-naïve FENP patients...
March 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318897/efficacy-of-off-label-augmentation-in-unipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Julia Kleeblatt, Felix Betzler, Laura L Kilarski, Tom Bschor, Stephan Köhler
Treatment of unipolar depression with currently available antidepressants is still unsatisfactory. Augmentation with lithium or second generation antipsychotics is an established practice in non-responders to antidepressant monotherapy, but is also associated with a substantial non-response rate and with non-tolerance. Based on a systematic review of the literature, including meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized comparative studies and case studies, off-label augmentation agents (administered in addition to an antidepressant, without FDA approval for treatment of MDD) were identified and evaluated regarding their efficacy using levels of evidence...
March 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302699/psychological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-negative-symptoms-in-psychosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Danyael Lutgens, Genevieve Gariepy, Ashok Malla
BackgroundNegative symptoms observed in patients with psychotic disorders undermine quality of life and functioning. Antipsychotic medications have a limited impact. Psychological and psychosocial interventions, with medication, are recommended. However, evidence for the effectiveness of specific non-biological interventions warrants detailed examination.AimsTo conduct a meta-analytic and systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of non-biological treatments for negative symptoms in psychotic disorders...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297592/a-systematized-review-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-pregnant-women-balancing-between-risks-of-untreated-illness-and-risks-of-drug-related-adverse-effects
#14
Sarah Tosato, Umberto Albert, Simona Tomassi, Felice Iasevoli, Claudia Carmassi, Silvia Ferrari, Maria Giulia Nanni, Alessandra Nivoli, Umberto Volpe, Anna Rita Atti, Andrea Fiorillo
OBJECTIVE: To summarize risks related to (1) illness and (2) second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in pregnant women and their offspring. Concerning illness-related risks, we focused on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, psychiatric disorders for which SGAs are preferentially prescribed. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from the date of the first available article to October 2015 using the following key terms: pregnancy OR gestation OR bipolar disorder OR schizophrenia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285148/acute-variations-of-cytokine-levels-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-subjects-with-a-first-episode-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Enrico Capuzzi, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
Schizophrenia is likely to be associated with immunological abnormalities. However, antipsychotics may induce immunomodulatory effects, by influencing plasma cytokines. In order to distinguish these influences, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the acute effect of antipsychotics on candidate cytokines plasma levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α) among drug-naïve subjects with first episode psychosis. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying eight studies meeting our inclusion criteria...
March 9, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280892/antidepressant-pharmacotherapy-in-old-age-depression-a-review-and-clinical-approach
#16
REVIEW
Nathalie Pruckner, Vjera Holthoff-Detto
PURPOSE: Depression in old age is a disabling disease associated with functional and cognitive decline severely affecting quality of life. Studies specifically investigating antidepressant treatment for this special cohort of patients remain scarce and results are often conflicting. A narrative literature review was undertaken, synthesizing findings from published studies, systematic reviews, and treatment guidelines specifically conducted in elderly depressed patients to summarize implications and current recommendations as well as gaps in evidence for old-age pharmacologic treatment...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264635/lurasidone-compared-to-other-atypical-antipsychotic-monotherapies-for-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#17
Michael Ostacher, Daisy Ng-Mak, Pankaj Patel, Dionysios Ntais, Max Schlueter, Antony Loebel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of lurasidone versus other atypical antipsychotic monotherapy agents in patients with bipolar depression, using a Bayesian network meta-analysis. METHODS: Fourteen randomised clinical trials (6221 patients) of lurasidone, quetiapine (extended release and immediate release), aripiprazole, olanzapine, and ziprasidone for bipolar depression were included. Efficacy assessments included change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), rates of response (≥50% improvement in MADRS) and remission (MADRS ≤12 at study endpoint), and change in the Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S) scale...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260229/is-there-consensus-across-international-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-management-of-bipolar-disorder
#18
REVIEW
G B Parker, R K Graham, G Tavella
OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of agreement across professionally auspiced evidence-based guidelines for managing the bipolar disorders. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycInfo was undertaken using the search terms 'bipolar disorder' and 'guidelines', generating 11 evidence-based guidelines published by professional organisations over the 2002-2015 period. Each guideline was reviewed by two independent reviewers and key themes extracted via qualitative analyses...
March 5, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242107/gradual-vs-wait-and-gradual-discontinuation-in-antipsychotic-switching-a-meta-analysis
#19
Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Sadhana Thiyanavadivel, Ofer Agid, Gary Remington
To address whether wait discontinuation (i.e., introducing the new antipsychotic while maintaining the first for a period before initiating its discontinuation) is superior to non-wait discontinuation (i.e., initiating the first antipsychotic's discontinuation when introducing the new antipsychotic) in antipsychotic switching, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing gradual vs. wait-and-gradual antipsychotic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analysis of 5 studies (n=410) demonstrated no significant differences in any clinical outcomes, including study discontinuation, psychopathology, extrapyramidal symptoms, and treatment-emergent adverse events, between the two groups...
February 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236991/-how-to-assess-curative-and-or-preventive-effects-of-psychotropic-drugs
#20
T Bottai, D Pringuey, R Belzeaux, M Adida, J-M Azorin
Proving the efficacy of a psychotropic drug is a medical, scientific and ethical need. Psychotropic drug development is now a highly complex process, which takes several years and which is very expensive. It involves multiple steps of preclinical and clinical pharmacological refinement and testing. Methodology of studies to prove curative or preventive effect of psychotropic drugs is well codified. Preclinical studies include pharmacokinetic data, toxicology and performance in various animal models of pathology...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
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