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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350127/converting-oral-to-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-a-guide-for-the-perplexed
#1
Jonathan M Meyer
There has been increasing recognition that antipsychotic nonadherence is common across all stages of schizophrenia, starting from the first episode. Moreover, numerous meta-analyses of the existing literature indicate superiority of long-acting injectable (LAI) over oral antipsychotics when one adjusts for the greater illness severity and duration among patients in LAI antipsychotic trials. The increasing availability of LAI antipsychotic options has raised interest in converting patients from oral medication; however, the successful transition from oral to the comparable LAI antipsychotic requires an understanding of the current extent of antipsychotic exposure, the kinetics of the LAI preparation, and the expected plasma levels achieved by the LAI formulation...
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338576/effect-of-clinical-response-to-active-drugs-and-placebo-on-antipsychotics-and-mood-stabilizers-relative-efficacy-for-bipolar-depression-and-mania-a-meta-regression-analysis
#2
Francesco Bartoli, Massimo Clerici, Carmen Di Brita, Ilaria Riboldi, Cristina Crocamo, Giuseppe Carrà
BACKGROUND: Randomised placebo-controlled trials investigating treatments for bipolar disorder have been hampered by wide variations of active drugs and placebo clinical response rates. It is important to estimate whether the active drug or placebo response has a greater influence in determining the relative efficacy of drugs for psychosis (antipsychotics) and relapse prevention (mood stabilisers) for bipolar depression and mania. METHODS: We identified 53 randomised, placebo-controlled trials assessing antipsychotic or mood stabiliser monotherapy ('active drugs') for bipolar depression or mania...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334627/testosterone-dhea-and-dhea-s-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Olga Loska, Ahmed A Moustafa, Jerzy Samochowiec, Justyna Kasznia, Bartłomiej Stańczykiewicz
Neuroactive steroids, including testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S) might play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the levels of testosterone, DHEA and DHEA-S in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We searched electronic databases from their inception until Oct 29, 2017. Effect size (ES) estimates were calculated as Hedges' g. Data analysis was performed using random-effects models...
January 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325867/atypical-antipsychotics-insulin-resistance-and-weight-a-meta-analysis-of-healthy-volunteer-studies
#4
Kyle J Burghardt, Berhane Seyoum, Abdullah Mallisho, Paul R Burghardt, Renu A Kowluru, Zhengping Yi
Atypical antipsychotics increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease through their side effects of insulin resistance and weight gain. The populations for which atypical antipsychotics are used carry a baseline risk of metabolic dysregulation prior to medication which has made it difficult to fully understand whether atypical antipsychotics cause insulin resistance and weight gain directly. The purpose of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of atypical antipsychotic trials in healthy volunteers to better understand their effects on insulin sensitivity and weight gain...
January 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201642/the-effect-of-duration-of-illness-and-antipsychotics-on-subcortical-volumes-in-schizophrenia-analysis-of-778-subjects
#5
Naoki Hashimoto, Yoichi M Ito, Naohiro Okada, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Noriko Kudo, Ariyoshi Takemura, Shuraku Son, Hisashi Narita, Maeri Yamamoto, Khin Khin Tha, Asuka Katsuki, Kazutaka Ohi, Fumio Yamashita, Shinsuke Koike, Tsutomu Takahashi, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Masaki Fukunaga, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hidenori Yamasue, Michio Suzuki, Kiyoto Kasai, Ichiro Kusumi, Ryota Hashimoto
Background: The effect of duration of illness and antipsychotic medication on the volumes of subcortical structures in schizophrenia is inconsistent among previous reports. We implemented a large sample analysis utilizing clinical data from 11 institutions in a previous meta-analysis. Methods: Imaging and clinical data of 778 schizophrenia subjects were taken from a prospective meta-analysis conducted by the COCORO consortium in Japan. The effect of duration of illness and daily dose and type of antipsychotics were assessed using the linear mixed effect model where the volumes of subcortical structures computed by FreeSurfer were used as a dependent variable and age, sex, duration of illness, daily dose of antipsychotics and intracranial volume were used as independent variables, and the type of protocol was incorporated as a random effect for intercept...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183418/defending-psychiatry-or-defending-the-trivial-effects-of-therapeutic-interventions-a-citation-content-analysis-of-an-influential-paper
#6
I A Cristea, F Naudet
AIMS: Leucht et al. in 2012 described an overview of meta-analyses of the efficacy of medication in psychiatry and general medicine, concluding that psychiatric drugs were not less efficacious than other drugs. Our goal was to explore the dissemination of this highly cited paper, which combined a thought provoking message with a series of caveats. METHODS: We conducted a prospectively registered citation content analysis. All papers published before June 1st citing the target paper were independently rated by two investigators...
November 29, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179595/efficacy-and-safety-of-aripiprazole-lauroxil-once-monthly-versus-aripiprazole-once-monthly-long-acting-injectable-formulations-in-patients-with-acute-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-an-indirect-comparison-of-two-double-blind-placebo-controlled-studies
#7
Chris Cameron, Jacqueline Zummo, Dharmik Desai, Christine Drake, Brian Hutton, Ahmed Kotb, Peter J Weiden
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic recently approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To indirectly compare the safety and efficacy of AL and aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM). METHODS: We performed a systematic search to identify randomized, controlled trials of AOM and AL that met criteria for indirect comparison according to Bayesian network meta-analysis. The analysis indirectly compared AL and AOM treatment groups for efficacy by mean change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and ≥30% reduction in PANSS total score, as well as tolerability including adverse events, akathisia, and weight gain...
November 27, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178686/memantine-as-an-augmentation-treatment-for-schizophrenia-limitations-of-meta-analysis-for-evidence-based-evaluation-of-research
#8
Chittaranjan Andrade
The action of memantine on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamatergic receptors and the other pharmacodynamic actions of this drug suggest that it may benefit patients with schizophrenia. Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have examined this possibility. These RCTs have been meta-analyzed by at least 2 groups of authors. In one meta-analysis (8 RCTs, pooled N = 448), memantine (20 mg/d for 6-12 weeks) augmentation of antipsychotic drug therapy was found to attenuate the severity of negative symptoms and improve cognitive functioning; in both regards, the effect was large...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172097/statin-add-on-therapy-in-the-antipsychotic-treatment-of-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#9
Ikuo Nomura, Taro Kishi, Toshikazu Ikuta, Nakao Iwata
A comprehensive meta-analysis of statin add-on therapy in the antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia was conducted. Data from previous studies, prior to 8/21/2017, was obtained from Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library. Both a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted with patient data from randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) to compare statins with placebo in order to calculate effect size. Across the five RCTs (mean duration: 9.2 weeks), 236 adult patients with schizophrenia were randomly selected to receive either placebo (n=117) or statins (n=119)...
November 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162032/the-metabolic-side-effects-of-12-antipsychotic-drugs-used-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-on-glucose-a-network-meta-analysis
#10
Yangyu Zhang, Yingyu Liu, Yingying Su, Yueyue You, Yue Ma, Guang Yang, Yan Song, Xinyu Liu, Mohan Wang, Lili Zhang, Changgui Kou
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics have serious metabolic side effects on blood glucose. However, the comparative influence of these drugs on blood glucose levels has not been comprehensively evaluated. We conducted a network meta-analysis to create a hierarchy of the side effects of 12 antipsychotic drugs on changes in blood glucose levels. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases (last search June 2016) was conducted to identify studies that reported randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing changes in blood glucose levels between patients receiving one of 12 antipsychotic drugs or a placebo for the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders...
November 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144549/zuclopenthixol-dihydrochloride-for-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Edward J Bryan, Marie Ann Purcell, Ajit Kumar
BACKGROUND: Oral zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride (Clopixol) is an anti-psychotic treatment for people with psychotic symptoms, especially those with schizophrenia. It is associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a prolongation of the QTc interval, extra-pyramidal reactions, venous thromboembolism and may modify insulin and glucose responses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride for treatment of schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (latest search 09 June 2015)...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126609/meta-analysis-of-adult-height-and-birth-length-in-schizophrenia
#12
Keely Latham, Brian Kirkpatrick
OBJECTIVE: As a group, people with schizophrenia have a number of subtle anatomical abnormalities as well as physiological abnormalities that precede antipsychotic treatment. Some studies have also found shorter birth length or shorter adult height in people with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of birth length and adult height in schizophrenia, following PRISMA guidelines (Prospero Registration # CRD42016043718)...
November 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119585/effects-of-dopamine-receptor-antagonist-antipsychotic-therapy-on-blood-pressure
#13
REVIEW
N H Gonsai, V H Amin, C G Mendpara, R Speth, G M Hale
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, a major risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, affects 80 million American adults. The aetiology of hypertension is multifaceted and difficult to identify. Dopamine receptors, especially those in the kidneys, play a role in blood pressure regulation, and alterations in their function can cause hypertension. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between the use of dopamine antagonists with hypertension focusing especially on second-generation antipsychotics, like clozapine that is D4 receptor antagonist...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112195/face-and-predictive-validity-of-the-clock%C3%AE-19-mouse-as-an-animal-model-for-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
M Kristensen, A A Nierenberg, S D Østergaard
Mice carrying the circadian locomotor output cycles Kaput delta 19 N-ethyl-N-nitrosoure (ENU) mutation (ClockΔ19) are used as an animal model for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to systematically review the face validity (phenotypical and pathophysiological resemblance with BD) and predictive validity (responsiveness to treatments used in BD) of this model in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We carried out a systematic search of the databases PubMed and Embase, combining search terms covering BD and ClockΔ19...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093347/comparative-utility-of-atypical-antipsychotics-for-the-treatment-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-bayesian-network-meta-analysis
#15
Ryo Iketani, Yohei Kawasaki, Hiroshi Yamada
We performed a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis to determine atypical antipsychotics that are effective and safe for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Ichu-shi Web). We used randomized controlled trials evaluating the utility of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of psychosis in PD using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Unified PD rating Scale parts III (UPDRS-III) as the endpoints...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069112/systematic-review-of-recent-guidelines-for-pharmacological-treatments-of-bipolar-disorders-in-adults
#16
Stephen Hammett, Nagy A Youssef
BACKGROUND: To examine the similarities and differences among practice guidelines for managing bipolar disorders (BDs) in adults. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed/Medline was performed using multiple search terms and bibliographies for guidelines from July 2013 (since FDA approval of lurasidone) to June 2017. RESULTS: Six treatment guidelines for BDs in adults were identified. These guidelines showed consensus on first-line treatment of mania (moodstabilizer and/or an antipsychotic), and most first-line medications for bipolar depression...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048739/pharmacotherapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-sand
#17
REVIEW
Taryn Williams, Coenraad J Hattingh, Catherine M Kariuki, Sean A Tromp, Anton J van Balkom, Jonathan C Ipser, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Recognition is growing that social anxiety disorder (SAnD) is a chronic and disabling disorder, and data from early trials demonstrate that medication may be effective in its treatment. This systematic review is an update of an earlier review of pharmacotherapy of SAnD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder in adults and identify which factors (methodological or clinical) predict response to treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMDCTR-Studies and CCMDCTR-References) to 17 August 2015...
October 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048190/the-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-paliperidone-in-mania-of-bipolar-disorder-a-preliminary-meta-analysis
#18
Han-Yung Chang, Ping-Tao Tseng, Brendon Stubbs, Che-Sheng Chu, Dian-Jeng Li, Michele Fornaro, Andre Carvalho, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Eduard Vieta, Tien-Yu Chen, Yen-Wen Chen, Pao-Yen Lin, Philip Chik-Keung Chow
Paliperidone may be effective for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD); however, the evidence has been mixed. This is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of paliperidone for the treatment of BD. We performed a systematic search of the literature using major electronic databases from inception to January 27, 2017. Randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating paliperidone treatment among patients with BD versus a placebo or other second-generation antipsychotics were included...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045304/effect-of-clozapine-vs-other-second-generation-antipsychotics-on-hospitalization-and-seclusion-a-retrospective-mirror-image-study-in-a-japanese-public-psychiatric-hospital
#19
Fuminari Misawa, Takefumi Suzuki, Yasuo Fujii
BACKGROUND: Clozapine has been regarded as the gold standard for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but a recent network meta-analysis has questioned its relative superiority over other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) such as olanzapine and risperidone. PURPOSE: We conducted a retrospective mirror-image study of clozapine vs other SGAs to evaluate real-world effectiveness of clozapine in terms of the duration of hospitalization and seclusion, both of which represent a critical outcome...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992823/impact-of-music-therapy-on-dementia-behaviors-a-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Nora Fakhoury, Nathaniel Wilhelm, Kristen F Sobota, Kelly R Kroustos
Worldwide, dementia is the most important contributor to disability in elderly patients. Treating patients with dementia can be challenging for clinicians because of the numerous behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The Dementia Action Alliance and American Geriatrics Society Beers criteria promote nonpharmacological and behavioral treatments as first-line therapy to manage BPSD to avoid adverse events associated with antipsychotic medications. Some of the nonpharmacologic therapies proposed for BPSD include: music therapy (MT), light therapy, acupressure, aromatherapy, massage, and animal-assisted therapy...
October 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
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