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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732035/vaccine-induced-immune-responses-against-both-gag-and-env-improve-control-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-replication-in-rectally-challenged-rhesus-macaques
#1
Mauricio A Martins, Young C Shin, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Aline Domingues, Martin J Gutman, Helen S Maxwell, Iris Castro, Diogo M Magnani, Michael Ricciardi, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian Bailey, Dillon Betancourt, John D Altman, Matthias Pauthner, Dennis R Burton, Benjamin von Bredow, David T Evans, Maoli Yuan, Christopher L Parks, Keisuke Ejima, David B Allison, Eva Rakasz, Glen N Barber, Saverio Capuano, Jeffrey D Lifson, Ronald C Desrosiers, David I Watkins
The ability to control lentivirus replication may be determined, in part, by the extent to which individual viral proteins are targeted by the immune system. Consequently, defining the antigens that elicit the most protective immune responses may facilitate the design of effective HIV-1 vaccines. Here we vaccinated four groups of rhesus macaques with a heterologous vector prime/boost/boost/boost (PBBB) regimen expressing the following simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) genes: env, gag, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 1); env, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 2); gag, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 3); or vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 4)...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730622/susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-is-influenced-by-toll-like-receptor-2-196-to-174-polymorphism-in-north-indian-population
#2
Sanjukta Vidyant, Animesh Chatterjee, Vikas Agarwal, Tapan N Dhole
INTRODUCTION: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, recognize molecular patterns of pathogens and play an important role in innate immunity. Recent studies have identified that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in TLR gene impairs the response to TLR ligands in some individuals and is associated with susceptibility to various infectious diseases. AIM: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of four SNPs in the TLR2 gene, -196 to -174 Ins/Del, 2258 G/A (Arg753Gln), 2029 C/T (Arg677Trp) and 1892 C/A (Pro631His) with susceptibility and progression to HIV-1 in North Indian individuals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730446/intracellular-reassociation-of-rna-dna-hybrids-that-activates-rnai-in-hiv-infected-cells
#3
Angelica N Martins, Weina Ke, Vaishnavi Jawahar, Morriah Striplin, Caryn Striplin, Eric O Freed, Kirill A Afonin
Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 2014, it was estimated that 1.2 million people died from AIDS-related illnesses. RNA interference-based therapy to block HIV replication is a field that, as of now, is without any FDA-approved drugs available for clinical use. In this chapter we describe a protocol for testing and utilizing a new approach that relies on reassociation of RNA-DNA hybrids activating RNAi and blocking HIV replication in human cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728075/immunological-tolerance-as-a-barrier-to-protective-hiv-humoral-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Kristin Ms Schroeder, Amanda Agazio, Raul M Torres
HIV-1 infection typically eludes antibody control by our immune system and is not yet prevented by a vaccine. While many viral features contribute to this immune evasion, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 are often autoreactive and it has been suggested that immunological tolerance may restrict a neutralizing antibody response. Indeed, recent Ig knockin mouse studies have shown that bnAb-expressing B cells are largely censored by central tolerance in the bone marrow. However, the contribution of peripheral tolerance in limiting the HIV antibody response by anergic and potentially protective B cells is poorly understood...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726771/rapid-elicitation-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-to-hiv-by-immunization-in-cows
#5
Devin Sok, Khoa M Le, Melissa Vadnais, Karen Saye-Francisco, Joseph G Jardine, Jonathan Torres, Zachary T Berndsen, Leopold Kong, Robyn Stanfield, Jennifer Ruiz, Alejandra Ramos, Chi-Hui Liang, Patricia L Chen, Michael F Criscitiello, Waithaka Mwangi, Ian A Wilson, Andrew B Ward, Vaughn V Smider, Dennis R Burton
No immunogen to date has reliably elicited broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV in humans or animal models. Advances in the design of immunogens (BG505 SOSIP) that antigenically mimic the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env)(1) have improved the elicitation of potent isolate-specific antibody responses in rabbits(2) and macaques(3), but so far failed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. One possible contributor to this failure is that the relevant antibody repertoires are poorly suited to target somewhat occluded conserved epitope regions on Env relative to exposed variable epitopes...
July 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725225/antiviral-functions-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-specific-igg-antibodies-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-implications-for-therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-design
#6
REVIEW
Martyn A French, M Christian Tjiam, Laila N Abudulai, Sonia Fernandez
Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective and tolerable for long periods of time but cannot eradicate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by either elimination of viral reservoirs or enhancement of HIV-1-specific immune responses. Boosting "protective" HIV-1-specific immune responses by active or passive immunization will therefore be necessary to control or eradicate HIV-1 infection and is currently the topic of intense investigation. Recently reported studies conducted in HIV patients and non-human primate (NHP) models of HIV-1 infection suggest that HIV-1-specific IgG antibody responses may contribute to the control of HIV-1 infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723711/epidemiology-of-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases-in-a-french-nationwide-hiv-cohort
#7
D Lebrun, M Hentzien, L Cuzin, D Rey, V Joly, L Cotte, C Allavena, P Dellamonica, A Servettaz, F Bani-Sadr
HIV infection and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (IAD) are both related to immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data on IAD in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of 26 IAD among PLHIV followed in a large French multicenter cohort in the cART era (from January 2000 to July 2013), and to describe their occurrence according to cART onset, the immuno-virological status of patients and HCV and/or HBV co-infection.During the study period, 33 403 PLHIV were included in the Dat'AIDS cohort; 1381 patients with an IAD were identified...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723706/oral-shedding-of-herpesviruses-in-hiv-patients-with-varying-degrees-of-immune-status
#9
Dirk P Dittmer, Kristen Tamburro, Huichao Chen, Anthony Lee, Marcia K Sanders, Tischan A Wade, Sonia Napravnik, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Caroline H Shiboski, Judith A Aberg
OBJECTIVE: Herpesvirus shedding in the oral cavity was analyzed to determine if presence in the oral compartment correlates with systemic changes in HIV-associated immune deficiency as measured by CD4+ counts, plasma HIV viral load (VL) and presence of AIDS-defining events. DESIGN: A5254 is a multicenter, cross-sectional, single-visit study to evaluate oral complications of HIV/AIDS and determine the association between clinical appearance, herpesvirus shedding and immune status as ascertained by CD4 count and HIV viral load...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721397/hivis-dna-or-hivisopt-dna-priming-followed-by-cmdr-vaccinia-based-boosts-induce-both-humoral-and-cellular-murine-immune-responses-to-hiv
#10
J Hinkula, S Petkov, K Ljungberg, D Hallengärd, A Bråve, M Isaguliants, T Falkeborn, S Sharma, V Liakina, M Robb, M Eller, B Moss, G Biberfeld, E Sandström, C Nilsson, K Markland, P Blomberg, B Wahren
BACKGROUND: In order to develop a more effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine it is important optimize the components, improve Envelope glycoprotein immunogenicity as well as to explore prime-boost immunization schedules. It is also valuable to include several HIV-1 subtype antigens representing the world-wide epidemic. METHODS: HIVIS-DNA plasmids which include Env genes of subtypes A, B and C together with Gag subtypes A and B and RTmut/Rev of subtype B were modified as follows: the Envelope sequences were shortened, codon optimized, provided with an FT4 sequence and an immunodominant region mutated...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720097/a-versatile-papaya-mosaic-virus-papmv-vaccine-platform-based-on-sortase-mediated-antigen-coupling
#11
Ariane Thérien, Mikaël Bédard, Damien Carignan, Gervais Rioux, Louis Gauthier-Landry, Marie-Ève Laliberté-Gagné, Marilène Bolduc, Pierre Savard, Denis Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Flexuous rod-shaped nanoparticles made of the coat protein (CP) of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) have been shown to trigger innate immunity through engagement of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). PapMV nanoparticles can also serve as a vaccine platform as they can increase the immune response to fused peptide antigens. Although this approach shows great potential, fusion of antigens directly to the CP open reading frame (ORF) is challenging because the fused peptides can alter the structure of the CP and its capacity to self assemble into nanoparticles-a property essential for triggering an efficient immune response to the peptide...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719652/long-term-follow-up-of-human-t-cell-responses-to-conserved-hiv-1-regions-elicited-by-dna-simian-adenovirus-mva-vaccine-regimens
#12
Nathifa Moyo, Nicola J Borthwick, Edmund G Wee, Silvia Capucci, Alison Crook, Lucy Dorrell, Tomáš Hanke
BACKGROUND: Durability of vaccine-elicited immune responses is one of the key determinants for vaccine success. Our aim is to develop a vaccination strategy against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which induces protective and durable CD8+ T-cell responses. The central theorem of our approach is to focus T cells on highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and this is achieved through the use of the first-generation conserved vaccine immunogen HIVconsv. This immunogen vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and poxvirus MVA was tested in healthy, HIV-1-negative adults in UK and induced high magnitudes of HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional CD8+ T cells capable of in vitro HIV-1 inhibition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719316/high-mortality-and-coinfection-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-patients-with-histoplasmosis-in-guatemala
#13
Blanca Samayoa, Monika Roy, Angela Ahlquist Cleveland, Narda Medina, Dalia Lau-Bonilla, Christina M Scheel, Beatriz L Gomez, Tom Chiller, Eduardo Arathoon
Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717654/fusion-to-flaviviral-leader-peptide-targets-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-for-secretion-and-reduces-its-enzymatic-activity-and-ability-to-induce-oxidative-stress-but-has-no-major-effects-on-its-immunogenic-performance-in-dna-immunized-mice
#15
Anastasia Latanova, Stefan Petkov, Yulia Kuzmenko, Athina Kilpeläinen, Alexander Ivanov, Olga Smirnova, Olga Krotova, Sergey Korolev, Jorma Hinkula, Vadim Karpov, Maria Isaguliants, Elizaveta Starodubova
Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a key enzyme in viral replication and susceptibility to ART and a crucial target of immunotherapy against drug-resistant HIV-1. RT induces oxidative stress which undermines the attempts to make it immunogenic. We hypothesized that artificial secretion may reduce the stress and make RT more immunogenic. Inactivated multidrug-resistant RT (RT1.14opt-in) was N-terminally fused to the signal providing secretion of NS1 protein of TBEV (Ld) generating optimized inactivated Ld-carrying enzyme RT1...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715973/the-molecular-basis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-latency
#16
Uri Mbonye, Jonathan Karn
Although potent combination antiretroviral therapy can effectively block viral replication in the host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists due to the existence of latent but replication-competent proviruses residing primarily in a very small population of resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Viral latency is established when the expression of the autoregulatory viral trans-activating factor Tat is reduced to subthreshold levels. The absence of Tat reduces HIV transcription and protein production to levels that make the host cell invisible to the immune system and refractory to antiretroviral treatment...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714868/interval-dosing-with-the-hdac-inhibitor-vorinostat-effectively-reverses-hiv-latency
#17
Nancie M Archin, Jennifer L Kirchherr, Julia Am Sung, Genevieve Clutton, Katherine Sholtis, Yinyan Xu, Brigitte Allard, Erin Stuelke, Angela D Kashuba, Joann D Kuruc, Joseph Eron, Cynthia L Gay, Nilu Goonetilleke, David M Margolis
BACKGROUND: The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) can increase HIV RNA expression in vivo within resting CD4+ T cells of aviremic HIV+ individuals. However, while studies of VOR or other HDAC inhibitors have reported reversal of latency, none has demonstrated clearance of latent infection. We sought to identify the optimal dosing of VOR for effective serial reversal of HIV latency. METHODS: In a study of 16 HIV-infected, aviremic individuals, we measured resting CD4+ T cell-associated HIV RNA ex vivo and in vivo following a single exposure to VOR, and then in vivo after a pair of doses separated by 48 or 72 hours, and finally following a series of 10 doses given at 72-hour intervals...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713869/association-of-anisocytosis-with-markers-of-immune-activation-and-exhaustion-in-treated-hiv
#18
Sadeer G Al-Kindi, David A Zidar, Grace A McComsey, Chris T Longenecker
BACKGROUND: Treated HIV infection is associated with heightened inflammation which can contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have previously shown that anisocytosis, as measured by red cell distribution width (RDW), is independently associated with prevalent CVD in people living with HIV (PLHIV). In this study, we sought to identify immune correlates of RDW in PLHIV receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of 147 virally-suppressed PLHIV, who had LDL < 130 mg/dL and evidence of heightened inflammation, in a randomized trial of statin therapy...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713804/facilitating-and-inhibiting-factors-of-sexual-behavior-among-migrants-in-transition-from-mexico-to-the-united-states
#19
Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez, Raquel A Benavides-Torres, Rogelio Zapata-Garibay, Dora Julia Onofre-Rodríguez, María Aracely Márquez-Vega, Gabriela Zamora-Carmona
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico-United States (US) border...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713662/subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-in-a-child-suffering-from-human-immunodeficiency-virus-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-can-this-be-another-instance-of-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#20
Ashutosh Gupta, Suman Kushwaha, Mushbiq Manzoor, Shah Faisal Ahmad Tarfarosh
We report a 12-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who presented with rapidly progressive difficulty in ambulation. The symptoms started to worsen when he was put on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our findings show that the dynamics of HIV-related immune suppression and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have an impact on the clinical course of Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Slow progression is expected in children on HAART but in our case, we observe a complex interaction of the virus with the immune system and modification of disease course of SSPE with ART...
June 13, 2017: Curēus
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