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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452219/increased-cd4-counts-pain-and-depression-are-correlates-of-lower-sleep-quality-in-treated-hiv-positive-patients-with-low-baseline-cd4-counts
#1
K N Redman, A S Karstaedt, K Scheuermaier
Poor sleep quality leads to increased immune activation and immune activation leads to worse sleep quality. South African HIV positive patients typically have delayed start of treatment, which has been associated with CD4+ effector T cells being more spontaneously activated in chronically treated patients. This cross-sectional study investigated whether subjective sleep quality was associated with CD4+ T lymphocyte reconstitution in treated South African HIV+ patients. One hundred and thirty-nine treated HIV+ patients (109 F, age average (SD)= 43 (9)) were recruited from Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451984/two-component-ferritin-nanoparticles-for-multimerization-of-diverse-trimeric-antigens
#2
Ivelin S Georgiev, Michael Gordon Joyce, Rita E Chen, Kwanyee Leung, Krisha McKee, Aliaksandr Druz, Joseph G Van Galen, Masaru Kanekiyo, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Eun Sung Yang, Yongping Yang, Priyamvada Acharya, Marie Pancera, Paul V Thomas, Timothy Wanninger, Hadi Yassine, Ulrich Baxa, Nicole Doria-Rose, Cheng Cheng, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
Antigen multimerization on a nanoparticle can result in improved neutralizing antibody responses. A platform that has been successfully used for displaying antigens from a number of different viruses is ferritin, a self-assembling protein nanoparticle that allows the attachment of multiple copies (twenty-four monomers or eight trimers) of a single antigen. Here we design two-component ferritin variants that allow the attachment of two diverse antigens on a single particle in a defined ratio and geometric pattern...
February 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451894/trade-off-between-synergy-and-efficacy-in-combinations-of-hiv-1-latency-reversing-agents
#3
Vipul Gupta, Narendra M Dixit
Eradicating HIV-1 infection is difficult because of the reservoir of latently infected cells that gets established soon after infection, remains hidden from antiretroviral drugs and host immune responses, and retains the capacity to reignite infection following the cessation of treatment. Drugs called latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are being developed to reactivate latently infected cells and render them susceptible to viral cytopathicity or immune killing. Whereas individual LRAs have failed to induce adequate reactivation, pairs of LRAs have been identified recently that act synergistically and hugely increase reactivation levels compared to individual LRAs...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449843/insights-into-the-structural-basis-of-antibody-affinity-maturation-from-next-generation-sequencing
#4
REVIEW
Arjun K Mishra, Roy A Mariuzza
Affinity maturation is the process whereby the immune system generates antibodies of higher affinities during a response to antigen. It is unique in being the only evolutionary mechanism known to operate on a molecule in an organism's own body. Deciphering the structural mechanisms through which somatic mutations in antibody genes increase affinity is critical to understanding the evolution of immune repertoires. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed the reconstruction of antibody clonal lineages in response to viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, which was not possible in earlier studies of affinity maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447279/regulatory-t-cells-in-retroviral-infections
#5
REVIEW
Kim J Hasenkrug, Claire A Chougnet, Ulf Dittmer
Tight regulation of immune responses is not only critical for preventing autoimmune diseases but also for preventing immunopathological damage during infections in which overactive immune responses may be more harmful for the host than the pathogen itself. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in this regulation, which was discovered using the Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model. Subsequent FV studies revealed basic biological information about Tregs, including their suppressive activity on effector cells as well as the molecular mechanisms of virus-induced Treg expansion...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447242/a-novel-ligand-on-astrocytes-interacts-with-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-nkp44-regulating-immune-response-mediated-by-nk-cells
#6
Kelly E Bowen, Stephen O Mathew, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Porunelloor A Mathew
NK cells play important role in immunity against pathogens and cancer. NK cell functions are regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells. NK cells were shown to be recruited to the CNS following several pathological conditions. NK cells could impact CNS physiology by killing glial cells and by secreting IFN-γ. Astrocytes are intimately involved in immunological and inflammatory events occurring in the CNS and reactive astrogliosis is a key feature in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445452/exploiting-immune-cell-metabolic-machinery-for-functional-hiv-cure-and-the-prevention-of-inflammaging
#7
REVIEW
Clovis S Palmer, Riya Palchaudhuri, Hassan Albargy, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Suzanne M Crowe
An emerging paradigm in immunology suggests that metabolic reprogramming and immune cell activation and functions are intricately linked. Viral infections, such as HIV infection, as well as cancer force immune cells to undergo major metabolic challenges. Cells must divert energy resources in order to mount an effective immune response. However, the fact that immune cells adopt specific metabolic programs to provide host defense against intracellular pathogens and how this metabolic shift impacts immune cell functions and the natural course of diseases have only recently been appreciated...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444185/humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-after-a-booster-dose-of-hbv-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults
#8
Vania Giacomet, Michela Masetti, Pilar Nannini, Federica Forlanini, Mario Clerici, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Daria Trabattoni
OBJECTIVE: HBV vaccine induces protective antibodies only in 23-56% of HIV-infected children. The aim of our study is to evaluate the immunologic effects of a booster dose of HBV vaccine in HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: 53 young HIV-infected patients in whom HBV vaccination did not elicit protective Ab titers were enrolled. All patients were on ART with optimal immunological and viral response. METHOD: All patients received a booster dose of HBV vaccine (HBVAXPRO 10 μg i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443540/targeted-elimination-of-peroxisomes-during-viral-infection-lessons-from-hiv-and-other-viruses
#9
Cheung Pang Wong, Zaikun Xu, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles that are best known for their roles in lipid metabolism. Mounting evidence indicates that they are also important nodes for antiviral signaling. While research over the past few decades has revealed effective viral strategies to block antiviral signalling pathways from the plasma membrane, mitochondria and/or the nucleus, until recently, very little was known about how viruses interfere with peroxisome-based antiviral signaling. In this essay, we review how viruses use a variety of strategies to interfere with peroxisome biogenesis, a phenomenon that has implications for evasion of the host immune system as well as pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441069/interleukin-6-and-interferon-%C3%AE-signaling-via-jak1-stat-differentially-regulate-oncolytic-versus-cytoprotective-antiviral-states
#10
Oded Danziger, Tal Pupko, Eran Bacharach, Marcelo Ehrlich
Malignancy-induced alterations to cytokine signaling in tumor cells differentially regulate their interactions with the immune system and oncolytic viruses. The abundance of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment suggests that such signaling plays key roles in tumor development and therapy efficacy. The JAK-STAT axis transduces signals of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferons (IFNs), mediates antiviral responses, and is frequently altered in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, how activation of JAK-STAT signaling with different cytokines regulates interactions between oncolytic viruses and PCa cells is not known...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439476/virus-like-vaccines-against-hiv
#11
REVIEW
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Melanie Schwerdtfeger, Peter J Holst
Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV...
February 11, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438197/elevated-liver-stiffness-is-linked-to-increased-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-immune-activation-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#12
Luz Maria Medrano, Pilar Garcia-Broncano, Juan Berenguer, Juan González-García, Ma Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Josep M Guardiola, Manuel Crespo, Carmen Quereda, José Sanz, Isabel Canorea, Ana Carrero, Victor Hontañón, Ma Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Salvador Resino
OBJECTIVES: Immune dysregulation is a hallmark of HIV and HCV infections. To evaluate the relationship between liver stiffness measure (LSM) and biomarkers of T cell activation, bacterial translocation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and coagulopathy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We studied 238 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, 32 healthy controls and 39 HIV-monoinfected patients. Patients were stratified according to LSM into four groups: <12...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438131/improved-neurodevelopment-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children
#13
Laurén A Gómez, Claudia S Crowell, Irene Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Dalton Wamalwa, Daisy Chebet, Vincent Otieno, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Melissa Gladstone, Grace John-Stewart, Sarah Benki-Nugent
BACKGROUND: Late HIV diagnosis following severe co-morbidity remains common in resource limited settings. Neurodevelopmental recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART) for late-diagnosed children is understudied. We determined 6-month neurodevelopmental trajectories in HIV-infected children initiating ART during hospitalization. METHODS: HIV-infected children initiated ART following HIV diagnosis during hospitalization in Kenya. The Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) was administered after clinical stabilization within 1-month and at 6-months post-ART initiation...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437277/identification-of-native-and-post-translationally-modified-hla-b-57-01-restricted-hiv-envelope-derived-epitopes-using-immunoproteomics
#14
Sri H Ramarathinam, Stephanie Gras, Sheilajen Alcantara, Amanda W S Yeung, Nicole A Mifsud, Secondo Sonza, Patricia T Illing, Elias N Glaros, Robert J Center, Shane Thomas, Stephen J Kent, Nicola Ternette, Damian F J Purcell, Jamie Rossjohn, Anthony W Purcell
The recognition of pathogen-derived peptides by T lymphocytes is the cornerstone of adaptive immunity, whereby intracellular antigens are degraded in the cytosol and short peptides assemble with class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These peptide-HLA complexes egress to the cell surface and are scrutinized by cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells leading to the eradication of the infected cell. Here we identify naturally presented HLA-B*57:01 bound peptides derived from the envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIVenv)...
February 13, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437254/crispr-cas9-knockout-of-usp18-enhances-type-i-ifn-responsiveness-and-restricts-hiv-1-infection-in-macrophages
#15
Jared P Taylor, Melanie N Cash, Katherine E Santostefano, Mahito Nakanishi, Naohiro Terada, Mark A Wallet
The IFN-stimulated gene ubiquitin-specific proteinase 18 (USP18) encodes a protein that negatively regulates T1 IFN signaling via stearic inhibition of JAK1 recruitment to the IFN-α receptor 2 subunit (IFNAR2). Here, we demonstrate that USP18 expression is induced by HIV-1 in a T1 IFN-dependent manner. Experimental depletion of USP18 by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene editing results in a significant restriction of HIV-1 replication in an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophage model...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435829/an-siv-macaque-model-of-siv-and-hand-the-need-for-adjunctive-therapies-in-hiv-that-target-activated-monocytes-and-macrophages
#16
REVIEW
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth Williams
Non-human primate models of AIDS and neuroAIDS are critical to study HIV infection of the CNS, neuropathology, and immune activation and macrophage accumulation that occurs in HAND. SIV, similar to HIV, infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Virus enters the CNS early, and macrophage activation correlates with CNS disease, as well as inflammation outside of the CNS. Antiretroviral in HIV+ humans and SIV+ Rhesus macaques results in non-detectable plasma virus, decreased or non-detectable viral RNA or protein in the CNS...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434718/farnesyltransferase-inhibitors-prevent-hiv-protease-inhibitor-lopinavir-ritonavir-induced-lipodystrophy-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#17
Tomokazu Tanaka, Harumasa Nakazawa, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has successfully reduced the mortality rate of patients with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) are key components of HAART. Complications of HAART, particularly those associated with HIV PIs including lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbance, have emerged as an important public health issue. No specific treatment is available to prevent and/or treat HIV PI-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome. The present study demonstrated that a relatively low-dose of farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), tipifarnib (3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) and lonafarnib (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection), prevented the onset of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome induced by the combination of two HIV PIs, lopinavir (50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) and ritonavir (12...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432824/immune-response-to-antigen-adsorbed-to-aluminum-hydroxide-particles-effects-of-co-adsorption-of-alf-or-alfq-adjuvant-to-the-aluminum-antigen-complex
#18
Zoltan Beck, Oscar B Torres, Gary R Matyas, David E Lanar, Carl R Alving
Aluminum salts have been used as vaccine adjuvants for >50 years, and they are currently present in at least 146 licensed vaccines worldwide. In this study we examined whether adsorption of Army Liposome Formulation (ALF) to an aluminum salt that already has an antigen adsorbed to it might result in improved immune potency of the aluminum-adsorbed antigen. ALF is composed of a family of anionic liposome-based adjuvants, in which the liposomes contain synthetic phospholipids having dimyristoyl fatty acyl groups, cholesterol and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432596/high-turnover-of-tissue-macrophages-contributes-to-tuberculosis-reactivation-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#19
Marcelo J Kuroda, Chie Sugimoto, Yanhui Cai, Kristen M Merino, Smriti Mehra, Mariluz Araínga, Chad J Roy, Cecily C Midkiff, Xavier Alvarez, Elizabeth S Didier, Deepak Kaushal
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) profoundly affect the immune system and synergistically accelerate disease progression. It is believed that CD4+ T-cell depletion by HIV is the major cause of immunodeficiency and reactivation of latent TB. Previous studies demonstrated that blood monocyte turnover concurrent with tissue macrophage death from virus infection better predicted AIDS onset than CD4+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432231/noncommunicable-diseases-in-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-1-infection-in-high-income-and-low-income-settings
#20
Steve Innes, Kunjal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD)...
February 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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