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HIV immune

Christina Yacoob, Miles Darnell Lange, Kristen Cohen, Kanan Lathia, Junli Feng, Jolene Glenn, Sara Carbonetti, Brian Oliver, Vladimir Vigdorovich, David Noah Sather, Leonidas Stamatatos
Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutralizing antibodies. Env-based immunogens tested so far in various animal species and humans have elicited binding and autologous neutralizing antibodies but not bNAbs (with a few notable exceptions). The underlying reasons for this are not well understood despite intensive efforts to characterize the binding specificities of the elicited antibodies; mostly by employing serologic methodologies and monoclonal antibody isolation and characterization...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Vijayakumar Velu, Geetha Mylvaganam, Chris Ibegbu, Rama Rao Amara
T follicular helper CD4 cells (Tfh) are essential for the development and maintenance of germinal center (GC) reactions, a critical process that promotes the generation of long-lived high affinity humoral immunity. It is becoming increasingly evident that GC-Tfh cells are heterogeneous in nature with some cellular characteristics associated with a Th1, Th2, and Th17 phenotype. Emerging studies suggest that GC-Tfh cells are directed to differentiate into distinct phenotypes during chronic HIV/SIV infection and these changes in GC-Tfh cells can greatly impact the B cell response and subclass of antibodies generated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Victoria Simms, Sarah Rylance, Tsitsi Bandason, Ethel Dauya, Grace Mchugh, Shungu Munyati, Hilda Mujuru, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Helen A Weiss, Rashida A Ferrand
OBJECTIVE: To investigate CD4 cell count recovery following ART initiation in perinatally HIV-infected children diagnosed in later childhood. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort study of newly diagnosed children aged 6-15 in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: Participants were enrolled into a cohort at seven primary healthcare clinics between January 2013 and January 2015. ART was initiated according to national guidelines and CD4 counts were performed 6-monthly over 18 months...
June 20, 2018: AIDS
Laura Ambra Nicolini, Federica Magnè, Alessio Signori, Antonio Di Biagio, Laura Sticchi, Chiara Paganino, Paolo Durando, Claudio Viscoli
OBJECTIVES: Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended in people living with HIV (PLHIV), although immune response rates are lower than in healthy individuals. We aimed at assessing response rates and predictors as well as persistence of seroprotection in a cohort of PLHIV with no serological evidence of current or previous HBV infection. METHODS: PLHIV followed at our site were retrospectively included if they started a primary HBV vaccination course (20 mcg dose three-doses schedule, alone or combined with inactivated hepatitis A virus) between 2007 and 2012...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Carolina Garrido, Matthew L Clohosey, Chloe P Whitworth, Michael Hudgens, David M Margolis, Natalia Soriano-Sarabia
Current strategies aimed to cure HIV infection are based on combined efforts to reactivate the virus from latency and improve immune effector cell function to clear infected cells. These strategies are primarily focused on CD8+ T cells and approaches are challenging due to insufficient HIV antigen production from infected cells and poor HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. γδ T cells represent a unique subset of effector T cells that can traffic to tissues, and selectively target cancer or virally infected cells without requiring MHC presentation...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Waleed Elsegeiny, Mingquan Zheng, Taylor Eddens, Richard L Gallo, Guixiang Dai, Giraldina Trevejo-Nunez, Patricia Castillo, Kara Kracinovsky, Hillary Cleveland, William Horne, Jonathan Franks, Derek Pociask, Mark Pilarski, John F Alcorn, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls
Despite the discovery of key pattern recognition receptors and CD4+ T cell subsets in laboratory mice, there is ongoing discussion of the value of murine models to reflect human disease. Pneumocystis is an AIDS-defining illness, in which risk of infection is inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts. Due to medical advances in the control of HIV, the current epidemiology of Pneumocystis infection is predominantly due to primary human immunodeficiencies and immunosuppressive therapies. To this end, we found that every human genetic immunodeficiency associated with Pneumocystis infection that has been tested in mice recapitulated susceptibility...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
David Thomas Evans, Mark Dukes
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first labelled as a new illness in 1981; it took two more years to discover a causative virus, which was named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1985. Nurses who practised during those times may recall the fear, panic, stigma, ethical dilemmas and refusals to care that were associated with the pandemic. Four decades later, HIV can be considered a long-term condition rather than a life-limiting disease, as a result of developments in treatment. However, the UK has the highest number of people living with the virus since the pandemic was first identified, and there remains a need to challenge stigma and prejudice in relation to HIV and AIDS, to ensure that people receive timely access to HIV testing, treatment and preventive measures...
June 20, 2018: Nursing Standard
Rachel Wodarski, Deniz Bagdas, Jason J Paris, Tim Pheby, Wisam Toma, Ruqiang Xu, M Imad Damaj, Pamela E Knapp, Andrew S C Rice, Kurt F Hauser
Introduction: HIV infection is associated with chronic pain states, including sensory neuropathy, which affects greater than 40% of patients. Objectives and Methods: To determine the impact of HIV-Tat induction on nociceptive behaviour in female mice conditionally expressing HIV Tat1-86 protein through a doxycycline (DOX)-driven glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, intraepidermal nerve fibre density and immune cell activation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord were assessed by immunohistochemistry...
May 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Mackenzie M Shipley, Daniel W Renner, Mariliis Ott, David C Bloom, David M Koelle, Christine Johnston, Moriah L Szpara
Here we present genomic and in vitro analyses of temporally separated episodes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shedding by an HSV-1-seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HSV-2-seronegative individual who has frequent recurrences of genital HSV-1. Using oligonucleotide enrichment, we compared viral genomes from uncultured swab specimens collected on different days and from distinct genital sites. We found that viral genomes from 7 swab specimens and 3 cultured specimens collected over a 4-month period from the same individual were 98...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
John R Su, Carmen Ng, Paige W Lewis, Maria V Cano
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes immune dysregulation, potentially affecting response to vaccines in infected persons. We investigated if unexpected adverse events (AEs) or unusual patterns of AEs after vaccination were reported among HIV-positive persons. We searched for domestic reports among HIV-positive persons to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1990-2016. We analyzed reports by age group (<19 and ≥19 years), sex, serious or non-serious status, live vaccine type (live versus inactivated), AEs reported, and CD4 counts...
2018: PloS One
Matthew R Pennington, Jennifer K Grenier, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Anti-microbial compounds typically exert their action by directly interfering with one or more stages of the pathogen's life cycle. However, some compounds also have secondary effects on the host that aid in pathogen clearance. Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-integrase inhibitor that has been shown to alter the host immune response to HIV in addition to its direct antiviral effect. Interestingly, raltegravir can also directly inhibit the replication of various herpesviruses. However, the host-targeted effects of this drug in the context of a herpesvirus infection have not been explored...
June 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Navid Madani, Amy M Princiotto, Linh Mach, Shilei Ding, Jérémie Prevost, Jonathan Richard, Bhavna Hora, Laura Sutherland, Connie A Zhao, Brandon P Conn, Todd Bradley, M Anthony Moody, Bruno Melillo, Andrés Finzi, Barton F Haynes, Amos B Smith Iii, Sampa Santra, Joseph Sodroski
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer ((gp120/gp41)3 ) mediates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) entry into cells. The "closed," antibody-resistant Env trimer is driven to more open conformations by binding the host receptor, CD4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved elements of the closed Env are potentially protective, but are elicited inefficiently. HIV-1 has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade readily elicited antibodies against more open Env conformations. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds (CD4mc) bind the HIV-1 gp120 Env and promote conformational changes similar to those induced by CD4, exposing conserved Env elements to antibodies...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Young C Shin, Georg F Bischof, William A Lauer, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Eva G Rakasz, Gregory M Hendricks, David I Watkins, Mauricio A Martins, Ronald C Desrosiers
The properties of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pose serious difficulties for the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine. Here we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant (r), replication-competent forms of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a gamma-2 herpesvirus, containing a near-full-length (nfl) genome of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A 306-nucleotide deletion in the pol gene rendered this nfl genome replication-incompetent as a consequence of deletion of the active site of the essential reverse transcriptase enzyme...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Hélène C F Côté, Anthony Y Y Hsieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zhilei Shan, Clary B Clish, Simin Hua, Justin M Scott, David B Hanna, Robert D Burk, Sabina A Haberlen, Sanjiv J Shah, Joseph B Margolick, Cynthia L Sears, Wendy S Post, Alan L Landay, Jason M Lazar, Howard N Hodis, Kathryn Anastos, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi
We examined associations of 5 plasma choline metabolites with carotid plaque among 520 HIV-infected and 217 HIV-uninfected participants (112 incident plaque cases) over 7 years. After multivariable adjustment, higher gut microbiota-related metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was associated with an increased risk of carotid plaque in HIV-infected participants (risk ratio=1.25 [95% CI, 1.05-1.50] per standard deviation increment; P=0.01). TMAO was positively correlated with biomarkers of monocyte activation and inflammation (sCD14, sCD163)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Matthew S Parsons, Roger Le Grand, Stephen J Kent
Improved vaccine-mediated protection against HIV-1 requires a thorough understanding of the mode of HIV-1 transmission and how various immune responses control transmission. Cell-associated HIV-1 is infectious and contributes to HIV-1 transmission in humans. Non-human primate models of cell-associated SIV infection demonstrate that cell-associated SIV is more infectious than cell-free SIV. In a recently described chimeric simian⁻human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) macaque model, it was demonstrated that an occult infection with cell-associated SHIV can be established that evades passive protection with a broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)...
June 18, 2018: Viruses
Vandana Saxena, Manisha Ghate, Shubhangi Bichare, Ishrat Khan, Raj Majumdar, Mansa Angadi, Smita Kulkarni, Ramesh Paranjape, Madhuri Rajeev Thakar
OBJECTIVE: The activation of effector immune cells at the cervicovaginal mucosa (CVM) might influence the cervical HIV load and thus the secondary transmission; however limited information is available about the innate effector cells at CVM during HIV infection. In this study we quantified and assessed the activation of the effector immune cells at the CVM of HIV infected women with different disease outcomes: non-progressive HIV disease (LTNPs) and chronic HIV-infected (CHI) and their relationship with cervical viral shedding...
June 14, 2018: AIDS
Eirini Moysi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Leslie R De Armas, Louis E Gonzalez, David Ambrozak, Varghese George, David Huddleston, Rajendra Pahwa, Richard A Koup, Constantinos Petrovas, Savita Pahwa
HIV infection changes the lymph node (LN) tissue architecture, potentially impairing the immunologic response to antigenic challenge. The tissue-resident immune cell dynamics in virologically suppressed HIV+ patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are not clear. We obtained LN biopsies before and 10 to 14 days after trivalent seasonal influenza immunization from healthy controls (HCs) and HIV+ volunteers on cART to investigate CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) and B cell dynamics by flow cytometry and quantitative imaging analysis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vanessa El Kamari, Corrilynn O Hileman, Pierre M Gholam, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapies are needed to limit progression of fatty liver diseases in patients with HIV infection. We analyzed data from a prospective study of the effects of rosuvastatin (a statin) on hepatic steatosis in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from a double-blind trial of adult patients with HIV infection (78% male; 68% African American; mean age, 46 years; body mass index, 29 kg/m2 ; HIV1 RNA<1000 copies/mL; LDL-cholesterol <130 mg/dL) receiving antiretroviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Alicia R Berard, Jennifer A Manuzak, Charlene J Miller, Alexander S Zevin, Patricia Polacino, Jillian Gile, Brian Agricola, Mark Cameron, Shiu-Lok Hu, Jacob D Estes, R Keith Reeves, Jeremy Smedley, Brandon F Keele, Adam D Burgener, Nichole R Klatt
HIV and pathogenic SIV infection are characterized by mucosal dysfunction including epithelial barrier damage, loss of Th17 cells, neutrophil infiltration, and microbial translocation with accompanying inflammation. However, it is unclear how and when these contributing factors occur relative to one another. In order to determine whether any of these features initiates the cycle of damage, we longitudinally evaluated the kinetics of mucosal and systemic T-cell activation, microbial translocation, and Th17 cell and neutrophil frequencies following intrarectal SIV infection of rhesus macaques...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
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