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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527251/-pathological-findings-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-lymphadenopathies
#1
Federico Rodríguez-Vega, Miguel Botero, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ángela Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is a frequent clinical finding in HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancy or reactive changes. Currently, there are no data on this topic in the region. OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of lymph node pathology in HIV-infected patients from the Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy who underwent excisional lymph node biopsy between June 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively evaluated...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525320/sexual-and-reproductive-health-priorities-of-adolescent-girls-in-lagos-nigeria-findings-from-free-listing-interviews
#2
Juliet Iwelunmor, Sarah Blackstone, Ucheoma Nwaozuru, Donaldson Conserve, Patricia Iwelunmor, John E Ehiri
Background Adolescent girls in Nigeria experience a disproportionately high burden of sexual and reproductive health disparities that affect their well-being. Yet, little is known about adolescent girls' own unique perspectives of the sexual and reproductive health challenges they face, and possible solutions to these challenges. Aims To explore top sexual and reproductive health concerns of female adolescents in Nigeria and their perceptions regarding potential solutions to these issues. Methods Eighty adolescent girls attending two public secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria completed individual free-listing interviews...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524736/effect-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-a-c-and-d-in-hiv-associated-pre-eclampsia
#3
Gugulethu Promise Shange, Jagidesa Moodley, Thajasvarie Naicker
OBJECTIVE: To measure and correlate the level of vascular endothelial growth factors A, C, and D in HIV-associated pre-eclampsia. METHODS: VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were measured in serum of 76 normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnant women stratified by HIV status using Bio-Plex. RESULTS: No significant difference was shown between pre-eclamptic and normotensive and between HIV negative and positive women. A strong significant positive correlation was demonstrated between VEGF-A and VEGF-C, VEGF-A and VEGF-D, and VEGF-C and VEGF D (p < 0...
May 19, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521720/the-role-of-il-27-and-its-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-aids-and-anti-viral-immune-response
#4
Yu-Huang Zheng, Shui-Ling Xiao, Bo He, Yan He, Hua-Ying Zhou, Zi Chen, Mei He, Hong-Yan Wang, Yi-He Lin, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Cytokines have been widely demonstrated to involve in the pathogenesis of AIDS and the mechanisms of antiretroviral therapy. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 cytokine family and has been shown to interfere HIV-1 virus replication with controversial findings. This study is to investigate the dynamic changes in plasma IL-27 level and cell surface IL-27 receptor expression in HIV/AIDS patients who underwent HAART. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 34 HIV-positive/AIDS patients 0, 6, and 12 months after initiation of HAART and 27 healthy subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520969/cell-mediated-immunity-to-target-the-persistent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoir
#5
James L Riley, Luis J Montaner
Effective clearance of virally infected cells requires the sequential activity of innate and adaptive immunity effectors. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, naturally induced cell-mediated immune responses rarely eradicate infection. However, optimized immune responses could potentially be leveraged in HIV cure efforts if epitope escape and lack of sustained effector memory responses were to be addressed. Here we review leading HIV cure strategies that harness cell-mediated control against HIV in stably suppressed antiretroviral-treated subjects...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520963/humoral-and-innate-antiviral-immunity-as-tools-to-clear-persistent-hiv-infection
#6
Guido Ferrari, Justin Pollara, Georgia D Tomaras, Barton F Haynes
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 uses the CD4 molecule as its principal receptor to infect T cells. HIV-1 integrates its viral genome into the host cell, leading to persistent infection wherein HIV-1 can remain transcriptionally silent in latently infected CD4+ T cells. On reactivation of replication-competent provirus, HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) are expressed and accumulate on the cell surface, allowing infected cells to be detected and targeted by endogenous immune responses or immune interventions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#7
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518089/laparoscopic-technique-for-serial-collection-of-liver-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-in-macaques
#8
Alexander S Zevin, Cassie Moats, Drew May, Solomon Wangari, Charlene Miller, Joel Ahrens, Naoto Iwayama, Megan Brown, Debbie Bratt, Nichole R Klatt, Jeremy Smedley
The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the liver are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making them immunologically unique. The GI tract and associated MLN are sites of early viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the MLN are likely important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells even after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). The liver has been shown to play a significant role in immune responses to lentiviruses and appears to play a significant role in clearance of virus from circulation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514679/size-doesn-t-matter-shorter-antibody-loops-can-infiltrate-hiv-s-env-apex-defenses
#9
Jinal N Bhiman, Penny L Moore
An HIV vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies, which often have unusual structural features, has not yet been developed. In Immunity this month, Cale et al., 2017 describe how a new mode of binding allows a conventional antibody to infiltrate HIV's armor.
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514281/acute-hyperinsulinemia-effects-on-systemic-markers-of-immune-activation-in-hiv
#10
Timothy K O'malley, Tricia H Burdo, Jake A Robinson, Kathleen V Fitch, Steven K Grinspoon, Suman Srinivasa
: The well-treated HIV population remains at risk for insulin resistance and chronic immune activation. We tested the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on inflammation in HIV. Twenty HIV-infected and 10 non-HIV-infected individuals well-matched for BMI underwent oral glucose tolerance testing to stimulate insulin secretion and assess for changes in circulating sCD163, sCD14, and MCP-1. sCD14 decreased significantly after stimulation of hyperinsulinemia and no significant changes in sCD163 or MCP-1 were demonstrated in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected groups...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514279/impact-of-alemtuzumab-on-hiv-persistence-in-an-hiv-infected-individual-on-antiretroviral-therapy-with-sezary-syndrome
#11
Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, James McMahon, J Judy Chang, Jori Symons, Michael Roche, Ashanti Dantanarayana, Afam Okoye, Bonnie Hiener, Sarah Palmer, Wen Shi Lee, Stephen Kent, Carrie Van Der Weyden, H Miles Prince, Paul U Cameron, Sharon R Lewin
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of alemtuzumab on HIV persistence in an HIV-infected individual on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with Sezary syndrome, a rare malignancy of CD4+ T-cells DESIGN:: Case report. METHODS: Blood was collected 30 and 18 months prior to presentation with Sezary syndrome, at the time of presentation and during alemtuzumab. T-cell subsets in malignant (CD7-CD26-TCR-VBeta2+) and non-malignant cells were quantified by flow cytometry. HIV-DNA in total CD4+ T-cells, in sorted malignant and non-malignant CD4+ T-cells was quantified by PCR and clonal expansion of HIV-DNA assessed by full-length next-generation sequencing...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513983/book-review-the-foundations-of-immunology-and-their-pertinence-to-medicine
#12
REVIEW
A Corthay
We are in the era cursed with overspecialization. Charles Darwin's foundational Origin of Species, published in 1859 was accessible to the broadly educated individual. Starting with this statement, Peter Bretscher in his new book aims at explaining foundational concepts of immunology to a broad public. His standpoint is that foundational ideas usually can be simply expressed. This book describes first how foundational concepts of immunology have evolved over the last two and a half centuries. The importance of self-nonself discrimination by the immune system is acknowledged and models for immunological tolerance are compared...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513067/interventions-for-cutaneous-molluscum-contagiosum
#13
REVIEW
Johannes C van der Wouden, Renske van der Sande, Emma J Kruithof, Annet Sollie, Lisette Wa van Suijlekom-Smit, Sander Koning
BACKGROUND: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006, and updated previously in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of specific treatments and management strategies, including waiting for natural resolution, for cutaneous, non-genital molluscum contagiosum in people without immune deficiency...
May 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511640/tryptophan-catabolism-and-immune-activation-in-primary-and-chronic-hiv-infection
#14
Marco Gelpi, Hans J Hartling, Per M Ueland, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio (KTR) is increased in HIV infection, and linked to immune activation. We hypothesized that early cART initiation results in lower KTR compared to late initiation. Furthermore, we hypothesized that KTR prior to cART is a predictor of the magnitude of subsequent reduction in immune activation. METHODS: Prospective study including 57 HIV-infected individuals (primary HIV infection (N = 14), early presenters (>350 CD4+ T cells/μL, N = 24), late presenters (<200 CD4+ T cells/μL, N = 19))...
May 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509877/human-beta-defensin-2-selectively-inhibits-hiv-1-in-highly-permissive-ccr6%C3%A2-%C2%BAcd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cells
#15
Mark K Lafferty, Lingling Sun, Aaron Christensen-Quick, Wuyuan Lu, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)⁺CD4⁺ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted during HIV disease progression, but are preserved in non-progressors. CCR6 is expressed on a heterogeneous population of memory CD4⁺ T cells that are critical to mucosal immunity. Preferential infection of these cells is associated, in part, with high surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and α4β7. In addition, CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cells harbor elevated levels of integrated viral DNA and high levels of proliferation markers...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507544/within-epitope-interactions-can-bias-ctl-escape-estimation-in-early-hiv-infection
#16
Victor Garcia, Marcus W Feldman
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) begins to replicate within hosts, immune responses are elicited against it. Escape mutations in viral epitopes-immunogenic peptide parts presented on the surface of infected cells-allow HIV to partially evade these responses, and thus rapidly go to fixation. The faster they go to fixation, i.e., the higher their escape rate, the larger the selective pressure exerted by the immune system is assumed to be. This relation underpins the rationale for using escapes to assess the strength of immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506688/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-fungal-infections
#17
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
The discovery of HIV was largely due to the presence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in young patients that did not have the usual known causes of immune deficiencies in the early 1980s. Currently, treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the use of prophylaxis for PCP have lowered the frequency of fungal infections; however, these infections continue to cause morbidity and mortality in those patients that fall out or are not in care. The frequency of specific fungal diseases in HIV patients will depend on the prevalence of fungi in the particular geographic location...
April 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506566/trends-in-racial-ethnic-disparities-of-new-aids-diagnoses-in-the-united-states-1984-2013
#18
Johanna Chapin-Bardales, Eli Samuel Rosenberg, Patrick Sean Sullivan
PURPOSE: In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. We describe and evaluate trends in the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities of new AIDS diagnoses from 1984 to 2013 in the United States. METHODS: AIDS diagnosis rates by race/ethnicity for people ≥13 years were calculated using national HIV surveillance and Census data. Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities were measured as rate ratios...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506368/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-liver-pathology
#19
REVIEW
Mark W Sonderup, Helen Cecilia Wainwright
The improvement in antiretroviral therapy has significantly impacted the lives of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In high-income countries, HIV deaths are predominated by liver disease consequent to viral hepatitis coinfection, alcohol, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Published liver pathology findings have shifted from being predominated by opportunistic infections to the metabolic effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy as well as drug-induced liver injuries. Differences remain between high-income and low-income countries, where opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndromes, dominate findings...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505234/increased-risk-for-meningococcal-disease-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-2012-2015
#20
Temitope A Folaranmi, Cecilia B Kretz, Hajime Kamiya, Jessica R MacNeil, Melissa J Whaley, Amy Blain, Mike Antwi, Marie Dorsinville, Massimo Pacilli, Shamika Smith, Rachel Civen, Van Ngo, Kathleen Winter, Kathleen Harriman, Xin Wang, Virginia B Bowen, Manisha Patel, Stacey Martin, Lara Misegades, Sarah A Meyer
Background: Several clusters of serogroup C meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported in the United States in recent years. The epidemiology and risk of meningococcal disease among MSM is not well-described. Methods: All meningococcal disease cases among men aged 18-64 years reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System between January 2012 and June 2015 were reviewed. Characteristics of meningococcal disease cases among MSM and men not known to be MSM (non-MSM) were described...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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