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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107435/peptide-targeted-by-human-antibodies-associated-with-hiv-vaccine-associated-protection-assumes-a-dynamic-%C3%AE-helical-structure
#1
Mohammed S Aiyegbo, Evgeny Shmelkov, Lorenzo Dominguez, Michael Goger, Shibani Battacharya, Allan C deCamp, Peter B Gilbert, Phillip W Berman, Timothy Cardozo
The only evidence of vaccine-induced protection from HIV acquisition in humans was obtained in the RV144 HIV vaccine clinical trial. One immune correlate of risk in RV144 was observed to be higher titers of vaccine-induced antibodies (Abs) reacting with a 23-mer non-glycosylated peptide with the same amino acid sequence as a segment in the second variable (V2) loop of the MN strain of HIV. We used NMR to analyze the dynamic 3D structure of this peptide. Distance restraints between spatially proximate inter-residue protons were calculated from NOE cross peak intensities and used to constrain a thorough search of all possible conformations of the peptide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107226/evaluation-of-a-predictive-staging-model-for-hiv-associated-kaposi-sarcoma-in-uganda
#3
Fred Okuku, Elizabeth M Krantz, James Kafeero, Moses R Kamya, Jackson Orem, Corey Casper, Warren Phipps
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is commonly staged using the AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria, which classify 3 variables-- tumor extent (T), immune status (I), and systemic symptoms (S) - into good risk (0) and poor risk (1). Although validated in the US and Europe, these criteria have not been systematically evaluated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the burden of KS is greatest. METHODS: We reviewed medical charts of adult patients with HIV-associated KS seen at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1992-2007...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#4
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104935/neurotuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Deepasree Jaganmohan, Sunitha V Chakkalakkoombil, Anjana A Beena, Nagarajan Krishnan
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#6
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103319/an-hsv-2-trivalent-vaccine-is-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques-and-highly-efficacious-in-guinea-pigs
#7
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S Veazey, Harvey M Friedman
A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101146/bone-health-in-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-or-c-infections
#8
REVIEW
Emmanuel Biver, Alexandra Calmy, René Rizzoli
Chronic infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) add to age-dependent bone loss and may contribute to lower bone strength in the elderly. In this review, we report recent highlights on the epidemiology of bone fragility in chronic viral infections with HIV, HCV and HBV, its physiopathology and discuss the interference of antiviral therapies with bone metabolism. Chronic infections influence bone through the interactions between risk factors for bone fragility and falls (which are highly prevalent in infected patients), virus activity and antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#9
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100849/the-role-genes-encoding-of-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-kirs-and-their-ligands-in-susceptibility-to-and-progression-of-hiv-infection
#10
Olga Błachowicz, Katarzyna Zwolińska
NK cells are a part of the innate antiviral response. Their activity is regulated by signals from the surface receptors. Some of them, known as killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), determine the quality and intensity of the immunological response, together with their ligands (HLA class I). KIR genes are very polymorphic, and this is reflected in the NK activity modulation. The stimulation of NK cells, especially in the early stages of the infection, can reduce the transmission of HIV or slow down the progression of infection...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100833/follicular-cd8-t-cells-accumulate-in-hiv-infection-and-can-kill-infected-cells-in-vitro-via-bispecific-antibodies
#11
Constantinos Petrovas, Sara Ferrando-Martinez, Michael Y Gerner, Joseph P Casazza, Amarendra Pegu, Claire Deleage, Arik Cooper, Jason Hataye, Sarah Andrews, David Ambrozak, Perla M Del Río Estrada, Eli Boritz, Robert Paris, Eirini Moysi, Kristin L Boswell, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Ilias Vagios, Manuel Leal, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Amaranta Rivero, Luz Alicia Gonzalez-Hernandez, Adrian B McDermott, Susan Moir, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Fernando Docobo, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Daniel C Douek, Michael R Betts, Jacob D Estes, Ronald N Germain, John R Mascola, Richard A Koup
Cytolytic CD8 T cells play a crucial role in the control and elimination of virus-infected cells and are a major focus of HIV cure efforts. However, it has been shown that HIV-specific CD8 T cells are infrequently found within germinal centers (GCs), a predominant site of active and latent HIV infection. We demonstrate that HIV infection induces marked changes in the phenotype, frequency, and localization of CD8 T cells within the lymph node (LN). Significantly increased frequencies of CD8 T cells in the B cell follicles and GCs were found in LNs from treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals...
January 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100611/the-envelope-gene-of-transmitted-hiv-1-resists-a-late-ifn%C3%AE-induced-block
#12
Suzannah J Rihn, Toshana L Foster, Idoia Busnadiego, Muhamad Afiq Aziz, Joseph Hughes, Stuart J D Neil, Sam J Wilson
: Type I interferon (IFN) signaling engenders an antiviral state that likely plays an important role in constraining HIV-1 transmission and contributes to defining subsequent AIDS pathogenesis. Type II IFN (IFNγ) also induces an antiviral state but is often primarily considered to be an immunomodulatory cytokine. We report that IFNγ stimulation can induce an antiviral state that can be both distinct from that of type I interferon, and can potently inhibit HIV-1 in primary CD4+ T cells and a number of human cell lines...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097226/ifitm1-targets-hiv-1-latently-infected-cells-for-antibody-dependent-cytolysis
#13
Rui André Saraiva Raposo, Miguel de Mulder Rougvie, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Phillip M Brailey, Vinicius D Cabido, Paul M Zdinak, Allison S Thomas, Szu-Han Huang, Greta A Beckerle, Richard B Jones, Douglas F Nixon
HIV-1 persistence in latent reservoirs during antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the main obstacle to virus eradication. To date, there is no marker that adequately identifies latently infected CD4(+) T cells in vivo. Using a well-established ex vivo model, we generated latently infected CD4(+) T cells and identified interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), a transmembrane antiviral factor, as being overexpressed in latently infected cells. By targeting IFITM1, we showed the efficient and specific killing of a latently infected cell line and CD4(+) T cells from ART-suppressed patients through antibody-dependent cytolysis...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097102/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-progression-during-hiv-infection
#14
REVIEW
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen, Andre Boonstra
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097068/hepatic-fibrosis-and-factors-associated-with-liver-stiffness-in-hiv-mono-infected-individuals
#15
Mihály Sulyok, Tamás Ferenci, Mihály Makara, Gábor Horváth, János Szlávik, Zsófia Rupnik, Luca Kormos, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Zita Sulyok, István Vályi-Nagy
BACKGROUND: Liver disease has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality even in those HIV-infected individuals who are devoid of hepatitis virus co-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of hepatic fibrosis and the role of associated factors using liver stiffness measurement in HIV mono-infected patients without significant alcohol intake. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 101 HIV mono-infected patients recruited prospectively from March 1, 2014 to October 30, 2014 at the Center for HIV, St István and St László Hospital, Budapest, Hungary...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096698/burkitt-lymphoma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-management-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Massimo Dozzo, Francesca Carobolante, Pietro Maria Donisi, Annamaria Scattolin, Elena Maino, Rosaria Sancetta, Piera Viero, Renato Bassan
About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25-40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein-Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095807/comparison-of-developmental-milestone-attainment-in-early-treated-hiv-infected-infants-versus-hiv-unexposed-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Sarah Benki-Nugent, Dalton Wamalwa, Agnes Langat, Kenneth Tapia, Judith Adhiambo, Daisy Chebet, Helen Moraa Okinyi, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Infant HIV infection is associated with delayed milestone attainment. The extent to which effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents these delays is not well defined. METHODS: Ages at attainment of milestones were compared between HIV-infected (initiated ART by age <5 months), and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. Kaplan Meier analyses were used to estimate and compare (log-rank tests) ages at milestones between groups. Adjusted analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095712/current-views-on-the-potential-for-development-of-a-hiv-vaccine
#18
Kristen W Cohen, Nicole Frahm
Despite many recent advances in the HIV prevention landscape, an effective vaccine remains the most promising tool to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Areas covered: This review summarizes past HIV vaccine efficacy trials and current vaccine strategies as well as new approaches about to move into first-in-human trials. Expert opinion: Despite many setbacks in early HIV vaccine efficacy trials, the success of RV144 has provided the glimmer of hope necessary to invigorate the vaccine field, and has led to the development of a large number of vaccine strategies aiming at inducing an array of different immune responses...
January 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095491/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-pregnant-women-with-and-without-preeclampsia
#19
Niren Ray Maharaj, Alisa Phulukdaree, Savania Nagiah, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Charlette Tiloke, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia and HIV/AIDS are inflammatory conditions that contribute significantly to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. The immune reconstitution effects of HAART on inflammatory mediators has not been adequately studied in pregnancy and may impact on the inflammatory cytokine network in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. Our study evaluated changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 in HIV infected preeclamptic women on HAART. METHODS: A prospective experimental study was conducted at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital between July 2013 and September 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094770/rapamycin-mediated-mtor-inhibition-uncouples-hiv-1-latency-reversal-from-cytokine-associated-toxicity
#20
Alyssa R Martin, Ross A Pollack, Adam Capoferri, Richard F Ambinder, Christine M Durand, Robert F Siliciano
Current strategies for HIV-1 eradication require the reactivation of latent HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s). Global T cell activation is a well-characterized means of inducing HIV-1 transcription, but is considered too toxic for clinical applications. Here, we have explored a strategy that involves a combination of immune activation and the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In purified rCD4s from HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy, rapamycin treatment downregulated markers of toxicity, including proinflammatory cytokine release and cellular proliferation that were induced after potent T cell activation using αCD3/αCD28 antibodies...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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