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Eamy Nursaliza Yaacob, Bruno G De Geest, Jens Goethals, Aline Bajek, Kristof Dierckens, Peter Bossier, Daisy Vanrompay
Vibrio anguillarum causes high mortality in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larviculture. In this study, we evaluated if the recombinant sea bass ferritin-H could stimulate the innate immune system of gnotobiotic European sea bass larvae resulting in protection against a V. anguillarum challenge. We also evaluated the effect of a V. anguillarum infection on the transcription of immune-related genes in gnotobiotic European sea bass larvae. Recombinant sea bass ferritin-H was produced, encapsulated in calcium alginate microparticles and orally delivered to sea bass larvae at seven days after hatching...
October 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yan Li, Shihao Chen, Yafei Chi, Yiran Yang, Xiwen Chen, Huating Wang, Zhe Lv, Jingjing Wang, Linjie Yuan, Ping Huang, Kewu Huang, Chris J Corrigan, Wei Wang, Sun Ying
ILC2s are implicated in asthma pathogenesis, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying their accumulation in airways. We investigated the time course of ILC2 accumulation in different tissues in murine models of asthma induced by a serial per-nasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA), house dust mice (HDM), IL-25 and IL-33 and explored the potential roles of ILC2-attracting chemokines in this phenomenon. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate ILC2s at various time points. The effects of cytokines and chemokines on ILC2 migration were measured in vitro using a chemotaxis assay and in vivo using small animal imaging...
November 22, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Ya Sun, Jun Shao, Feizhou Jiang, Yanqiu Wang, Qin Yan, Na Yu, Jin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Mingqing Li, Yinyan He
PROBLEM: Endometriosis (EM) is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease associated with an abnormal immunotolerant microenvironment. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that play a major role in immunosuppression in cancer, inflammation and other diseases. This paper aims to elucidate whether or not MDSCs are involved in regulating this microenvironment in EM and how this regulation occurs. METHOD OF STUDY: Immunochemistry (IHC) and qPCR were conducted to measure CD11b and ARG1 expression in the ectopic endometrium samples from EM patients...
October 30, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jacob Spinnen, Jochen Ringe, Michael Sittinger
Due to its chemoattraction potential on mesenchymal stromal cells of the CCL25/CCR9 axis, local application of CCL25 to severely damaged tissues may be a promising approach for regenerative therapies. Analysis of the given data revealed that CCL25/CCR9 signaling has a crucial role in regulation of an adult immune homeostasis. CCR9 expression variations resulted in dysfunctional immune response in colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and endometriosis. Regarding oncology, different neoplastic tissues exploit CCL25-dependent CCR9 signaling for either local proliferation or migration processes...
October 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Natalia V Ortiz Zacarías, Jacobus P D van Veldhoven, Laura Portner, Eric van Spronsen, Salviana Ullo, Margo Veenhuizen, Wijnand J C van der Velden, Annelien J M Zweemer, Roy M Kreekel, Kenny Oenema, Eelke B Lenselink, Laura H Heitman, Adriaan P IJzerman
The recent crystal structures of CC chemokine receptors 2 and 9 (CCR2 and CCR9) have provided structural evidence for an allosteric, intracellular binding site. The high conservation of residues involved in this site suggests its presence in most chemokine receptors, including the close homologue CCR1. By using [3 H]CCR2-RA-[ R], a high-affinity, CCR2 intracellular ligand, we report an intracellular binding site in CCR1, where this radioligand also binds with high affinity. In addition, we report the synthesis and biological characterization of a series of pyrrolone derivatives for CCR1 and CCR2, which allowed us to identify several high-affinity intracellular ligands, including selective and potential multitarget antagonists...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tamara Pérez-Jeldres, Christopher J Tyler, Joshua D Boyer, Thangaraj Karuppuchamy, Giorgos Bamias, Parambir S Dulai, Brigid S Boland, William J Sandborn, Derek R Patel, Jesús Rivera-Nieves
After 20 years of successful targeting of pro-inflammatory cytokines for the treatment of IBD, an alternative therapeutic strategy has emerged, based on several decades of advances in understanding the pathogenesis of IBD. The targeting of molecules involved in leukocyte traffic has recently become a safe and effective alternative. With 2 currently approved drugs (ie, natalizumab, vedolizumab) and several others in phase 3 trials (eg, etrolizumab, ozanimod, anti-MAdCAM-1), the blockade of trafficking molecules has firmly emerged as a new therapeutic era for IBD...
August 24, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Z Vrablicova, K Soltys, A Krajcovicova, I Sturdik, T Koller, M Huorka, J Payer, S Stuchlik, Z Killinger, P Jackuliak, M Stuchlikova, H Drahovska, T Hlavaty
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of 25(OH)VD serum concentration on the expression of mRNA cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, TNFα, CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR9, CCL5, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, CD207 ,CD206, FoxP3) in mucosa of IBD patients. The cohort consisted of 86 IBD patients (48 CD and 38 UC) followed at the IBD center of University Hospital Bratislava-Ruzinov. We performed colonoscopy in each patient and took biopsies from mucosa of sigma and terminal ileum. Serum concentration of 25(OH)VD was assessed at the time of colonoscopy...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Palak J Trivedi, David H Adams
The principal targets for anti-chemokine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been the receptors CCR9 and CXCR3 and their respective ligands CCL25 and CXCL10. More recently CCR6 and its ligand CCL20 have also received attention, the expression of the latter in enterocytes being manipulated through Smad7 signalling. These pathways, selected based on their fundamental role in regulating mucosal immunity, have led to the development of several therapeutic candidates that have been tested in early phase clinical trials with variable clinical efficacy...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Zongguo Yang, Yuquan Tao, Xin Xu, Feng Cai, Yongchun Yu, Lifang Ma
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate functions of APOBEC3F gene in biological process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti-tumor mechanisms of bufalin. METHODS: Effect of APOBEC3F and bufalin on cell proliferation and migration abilities were evaluated by CCK-8, wounding healing tests and transwell assays in SK-Hep1 and Bel-7404 cells. Bioinformatic analysis were also used to compare APOBEC3F expression levels, detect coexpressed genes and enrichment of pathways...
September 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cong Wang, Zhenghuan Liu, Zhihui Xu, Xian Wu, Dongyang Zhang, Ziqi Zhang, Jianqin Wei
Chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25) and chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) are important regulators of migration, proliferation and apoptosis in leukocytes and cancer cells. Blocking of the CCR9/CCL25 signal has been demonstrated to be a potential novel cancer therapy. Research into CCR9 and CCL25 has revealed their associated upstream and downstream signaling pathways; CCR9 is regulated by several immunological factors, including NOTCH, interleukin 2, interleukin 4 and retinoic acid. NOTCH in particular, has been revealed to be a crucial upstream regulator of CCR9...
August 2018: Oncology Letters
Yufei Xia, Jie Wu, Yiqun Du, Chunyu Miao, Zhiguo Su, Guanghui Ma
As peripheral lymphocytes are typically excluded from the gastrointestinal lymph tissues, current parenteral vaccinations fail to simultaneously induce systemic and mucosal responses. To break the natural barrier, "immunoticket" capsules are developed and heralded, which are designed with positive charged shells and oily core to spatiotemporally deliver antigens and all-trans retinoic acid (RA). After intramuscular vaccinations, these capsules function as an immunoticket to cultivate peripheral dendritic cells (DCs) with gut-homing receptors (CCR9)...
August 2018: Advanced Materials
Divyanshu Malhotra, Jimann Shin, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel, Erez Raz
Chemokines are secreted proteins that regulate a range of processes in eukaryotic organisms. Interestingly, different chemokine receptors control distinct biological processes, and the same receptor can direct different cellular responses, but the basis for this phenomenon is not known. To understand this property of chemokine signaling, we examined the function of the chemokine receptors Cxcr4a, Cxcr4b, Ccr7, Ccr9 in the context of diverse processes in embryonic development in zebrafish. Our results reveal that the specific response to chemokine signaling is dictated by cell-type-specific chemokine receptor signal interpretation modules (CRIM) rather than by chemokine-receptor-specific signals...
June 6, 2018: ELife
Francesco Ciccia, Giuliana Guggino, Michael Zeng, Ranjeny Thomas, Vidya Ranganathan, Arifur Rahman, Riccardo Alessandro, Aroldo Rizzo, Laura Saieva, Federica Macaluso, Sergio Peralta, Diana Di Liberto, Francesco Dieli, Paola Cipriani, Roberto Giacomelli, Dominique Baeten, Nigil Haroon
OBJECTIVE: Gut-derived innate lymphoid cell 3 (ILC3) has been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). CX3 CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) have been demonstrated to modulate ILC3 function in the gut. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of proinflammatory CX3 CR1+CD59+ MNPs in modulating ILC3 function in AS patients. METHODS: MNP subsets in the blood of AS patients and controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. The presence of CX3 CR1+CD59+ cells in tissue was confirmed by confocal microscopy...
December 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Mpala Mwanza-Lisulo, Mumba S Chomba, Mubanga Chama, Ellen C Besa, Evelyn Funjika, Kanekwa Zyambo, Rose Banda, Mercy Imikendu, Sandie Sianongo, Robert E W Hancock, Amy Lee, Roma Chilengi, Andy J Stagg, Boniface Namangala, Paul M Kelly
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) up-regulates, in laboratory animals, the expression of the gut homing markers α4β7 integrin and CCR9 on lymphocytes, increasing their gut tropism. Here, we show that, in healthy adult volunteers, ATRA induced an increase of these gut homing markers on T cells in vivo in a time dependent manner. The coordinated increase of α4β7 and CCR9 by ATRA was seen in 57% (12/21) of volunteers and only when given together with an oral Vivotif vaccine. When this coordinated response to ATRA and Vivotif vaccine was present, it was strongly correlated with the gut immunoglobulin A (IgA) specific response to vaccine LPS (ρ = 0...
June 27, 2018: Vaccine
Emilie J Cosway, Izumi Ohigashi, Karin Schauble, Sonia M Parnell, William E Jenkinson, Sanjiv Luther, Yousuke Takahama, Graham Anderson
During αβ T cell development in the thymus, migration of newly selected CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes into medullary areas enables tolerance mechanisms to purge the newly selected αβ TCR repertoire of autoreactive specificities. Thymic dendritic cells (DC) play key roles in this process and consist of three distinct subsets that differ in their developmental origins. Thus, plasmacytoid DC and Sirpα+ conventional DC type 2 are extrathymically derived and enter into the thymus via their respective expression of the chemokine receptors CCR9 and CCR2...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
R E Hoeppli, K N MacDonald, P Leclair, V C W Fung, M Mojibian, J Gillies, S M R Rahavi, A I M Campbell, S K Gandhi, A M Pesenacker, G Reid, C J Lim, M K Levings
Cell-based therapy with CD4+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising strategy to limit organ rejection and graft-vs-host disease. Ongoing clinical applications have yet to consider how human Tregs could be modified to direct their migration to specific inflammation sites and/or tissues for more targeted immunosuppression. We show here that stable, homing-receptor-tailored human Tregs can be generated from thymic Tregs isolated from pediatric thymus or adult blood. To direct migration to Th1-inflammatory sites, addition of interferon-γ and IL-12 during Treg expansion produced suppressive, epigenetically stable CXCR3+ TBET+ FOXP3+ T helper (Th)1-Tregs...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Keiko Igaki, Yusaku Komoike, Yoshiki Nakamura, Takeshi Watanabe, Masashi Yamasaki, Paul Fleming, Lili Yang, Dulce Soler, Eric Fedyk, Noboru Tsuchimori
C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) is the homing receptor for C-C motif chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25), and contributes to the maintenance of mucosal immunity and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through the recruitment of T cells into the gut mucosa. Recent reports suggest that the interaction of CCR9 and CCL25 in the large intestine correlate with disease severity of colonic IBD. MLN3126 is an orally available small molecular compound with potent and selective CCR9 antagonist activity. MLN3126 inhibited CCL25-induced calcium mobilization in human CCR9 transfected cells and CCL25-induced chemotaxis of mouse primary thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner...
July 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Satoshi Koga, Katsuto Hozumi, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Masaki Yazawa, Tommy Terooatea, Aki Minoda, Takashi Nagasawa, Shigeo Koyasu, Kazuyo Moro
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are derived from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) via several specific precursors, and the transcription factors essential for ILC2 differentiation have been extensively studied. However, the external factors regulating commitment to the ILC lineage as well as the sites and stromal cells that constitute the optimal microenvironment for ILC2-specific differentiation are not fully defined. In this study, we demonstrate that three key external factors, the concentration of interleukin 7 (IL-7) and strength and duration of Notch signaling, coordinately determine the fate of CLP toward the T, B, or ILC lineage...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Erich Piovan, Valeria Tosello, Alberto Amadori, Paola Zanovello
The NOTCH signaling pathway is a conserved signaling cascade that regulates many aspects of development and homeostasis in multiple organ systems. Aberrant activity of this signaling pathway is linked to the initiation and progression of several hematological malignancies, exemplified by T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Interestingly, frequent non-mutational activation of NOTCH1 signaling has recently been demonstrated in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), significantly extending the pathogenic significance of this pathway in B-CLL...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xin Zhang, Jason B Cross, Jan Romero, Alexander Heifetz, Eric Humphries, Katie Hall, Yuchuan Wu, Sabrina Stucka, Jing Zhang, Haoqun Chandonnet, Blaise Lippa, M Dominic Ryan, J Christian Baber
Antagonism of CCR9 is a promising mechanism for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. There is limited experimental data on CCR9 and its ligands, complicating efforts to identify new small molecule antagonists. We present here results of a successful virtual screening and rational hit-to-lead campaign that led to the discovery and initial optimization of novel CCR9 antagonists. This work uses a novel data fusion strategy to integrate the output of multiple computational tools, such as 2D similarity search, shape similarity, pharmacophore searching, and molecular docking, as well as the identification and incorporation of privileged chemokine fragments...
April 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
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