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tacrolimus and sirolimus review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731207/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-treating-acute-rejection-episodes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Sunny Wu, Krishna Tallapragada, Min Young Park, Jeremy R Chapman, Sue J Carr
BACKGROUND: Registry data shows that the incidence of acute rejection has been steadily falling. Approximately 10% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Treatment options include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. Over recent years, new treatment strategies have evolved, and in many parts of the world there has been an increase in use of tacrolimus and mycophenolate and a reduction in the use of cyclosporin and azathioprine use as baseline immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722255/drug-drug-interactions-between-triazole-antifungal-agents-used-to-treat-invasive-aspergillosis-and-immunosuppressants-metabolized-by-cytochrome-p450-3a4
#2
REVIEW
Andreas H Groll, Robert Townsend, Amit Desai, Nkechi Azie, Mark Jones, Marc Engelhardt, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffman, Robert J Brüggemann
Patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressant drugs following solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at particular risk for development of serious infections such as invasive aspergillosis. Four triazole antifungal drugs, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole, are approved to treat invasive aspergillosis either as first- or second-line therapy. All of these agents are inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4, which plays a key role in metabolizing immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus...
July 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621877/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-in-solid-organ-transplantation-the-role-of-immunosuppression
#3
REVIEW
Theoni Kanellopoulou
Hemolysis after solid organ transplantation can be caused by both immune and non-immune-mediated mechanisms, and the evaluation must take into account issues distinctive to the post-transplant period. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia usually occurs within the first year and has been attributed to immunosuppressive treatment, infections, or underlying post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Review of the literature revealed 59 cases with autoimmune hemolytic anemia mostly in children after liver transplantation...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616377/blue-after-splenectomy
#4
Taaran Cariappa Ballachanda Subbaiah, Jeremy P Feldman
INTRODUCTION: We present a 51 year old, African American, female who presented with persistent hypoxemia. She had been taking dapsone for many years for prophylaxis against Pneumocystic Jiroveci with no symptoms but eventually developed methemoglobinemia only after a splenectomy. From our literature review there are no documented cases that have demonstrated this relationship between dapsone, splenic function and methemoglobin and we hope to share our perplexing case and shed light on the interaction...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362060/maintenance-immunosuppression-for-adults-undergoing-liver-transplantation-a-network-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Marta Guerrero-Misas, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: As part of liver transplantation, immunosuppression (suppressing the host immunity) is given to prevent graft rejections resulting from the immune response of the body against transplanted organ or tissues from a different person whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient. The optimal maintenance immunosuppressive regimen after liver transplantation remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different maintenance immunosuppressive regimens in adults undergoing liver transplantation through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the different immunosuppressive regimens according to their safety and efficacy...
March 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081041/a-systematic-literature-review-approach-to-estimate-the-therapeutic-index-of-selected-immunosuppressant-drugs-after-renal-transplantation
#6
Jessica E Ericson, Kanecia O Zimmerman, Daniel Gonzalez, Chiara Melloni, Jeffrey T Guptill, Kevin D Hill, Huali Wu, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
BACKGROUND: Drugs that exhibit close margins between therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index (NTI). The Food and Drug Administration has proposed that NTI drugs should have more stringent bioequivalence standards for approval of generic formulations. However, many immunosuppressant drugs do not have a well-defined therapeutic index (TI). METHODS: We sought to determine whether safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic data obtained from the medical literature through a comprehensive literature search could be used to estimate the TI of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus...
February 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647003/rapid-virological-response-after-early-treatment-with-a-combined-therapy-of-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-in-hcv-genotype-4-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-a-hcc-downstaged-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Aiman Obed, Abdalla Bashir, Anwar Jarrad
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT-4) is widespread in the Middle East, where it is responsible for the majority of HCV infections. It shows moderate treatment response rates when compared to other genotypes in the current era of interferon-based regimens. However, in the era of direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs, its response is at least as good as observed for HCV genotypes 1-3. CASE REPORT We present a case of a 44-year-old patient with HCV cirrhosis. Since 2007, he has been treated for HCV infection with multiple ineffective regimens of interferon (INF) and ribavirin...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578428/immunosuppressive-therapy-for-kidney-transplantation-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-economic-model
#8
Tracey Jones-Hughes, Tristan Snowsill, Marcela Haasova, Helen Coelho, Louise Crathorne, Chris Cooper, Ruben Mujica-Mota, Jaime Peters, Jo Varley-Campbell, Nicola Huxley, Jason Moore, Matt Allwood, Jenny Lowe, Chris Hyde, Martin Hoyle, Mary Bond, Rob Anderson
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring renal replacement therapy: kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (induction and maintenance therapy) to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. OBJECTIVES: To review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) and rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) (Thymoglobulin(®), Sanofi) as induction therapy, and immediate-release tacrolimus (TAC) (Adoport(®), Sandoz; Capexion(®), Mylan; Modigraf(®), Astellas Pharma; Perixis(®), Accord Healthcare; Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma; Tacni(®), Teva; Vivadex(®), Dexcel Pharma), prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf(®) Astellas Pharma), belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (Arzip(®), Zentiva; CellCept(®), Roche Products; Myfenax(®), Teva), mycophenolate sodium (MPS) (Myfortic(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd), sirolimus (SRL) (Rapamune(®), Pfizer) and everolimus (EVL) (Certican(®), Novartis) as maintenance therapy in adult renal transplantation...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557331/immunosuppressive-therapy-for-kidney-transplantation-in-children-and-adolescents-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#9
Marcela Haasova, Tristan Snowsill, Tracey Jones-Hughes, Louise Crathorne, Chris Cooper, Jo Varley-Campbell, Ruben Mujica-Mota, Helen Coelho, Nicola Huxley, Jenny Lowe, Jan Dudley, Stephen Marks, Chris Hyde, Mary Bond, Rob Anderson
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation followed by induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect,(®) Novartis Pharmaceuticals) and rabbit antihuman thymocyte immunoglobulin (Thymoglobuline,(®) Sanofi) as induction therapy and immediate-release tacrolimus [Adoport(®) (Sandoz); Capexion(®) (Mylan); Modigraf(®) (Astellas Pharma); Perixis(®) (Accord Healthcare); Prograf(®) (Astellas Pharma); Tacni(®) (Teva); Vivadex(®) (Dexcel Pharma)], prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf,(®) Astellas Pharma); belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix,(®) Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) [Arzip(®) (Zentiva), CellCept(®) (Roche Products), Myfenax(®) (Teva), generic MMF is manufactured by Accord Healthcare, Actavis, Arrow Pharmaceuticals, Dr Reddy's Laboratories, Mylan, Sandoz and Wockhardt], mycophenolate sodium, sirolimus (Rapamune,(®) Pfizer) and everolimus (Certican,(®) Novartis Pharmaceuticals) as maintenance therapy in children and adolescents undergoing renal transplantation...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468645/intra-cellular-immunosuppressive-drugs-monitoring-a-step-forward-towards-better-therapeutic-efficacy-after-organ-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
A Capron, V Haufroid, P Wallemacq
Immunosuppressive drugs (IS) used in solid organ transplantation are critical dose drugs with high intra- and inter-subject variability. Therefore, IS therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), mainly as trough levels analysis, is a major support to patient management, mandatory to optimize clinical outcome. Even though transplant patients undoubtedly benefited by this pre-dose (C0) monitoring, the relationship between these C0 concentrations and the incidence of graft rejections remains hardly predictable. Identification and validation of additional biomarkers of efficacy are therefore very much needed...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293553/reviewing-15%C3%A2-years-of-experience-with-sirolimus
#11
REVIEW
Helio Tedesco Silva, Claudia Rosso Felipe, Jose Osmar Medina Pestana
Here, we review 15 years of clinical use of sirolimus in our transplant center, in context with the developing immunosuppressive strategies use worldwide. The majority of studies were conducted in de novo kidney transplant recipients, using sirolimus (SRL) in combination with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We also explored steroid (ST) or CNI-sparing therapies, including CNI minimization, elimination, or conversion strategies in combination with mycophenolate (MMF/MPS). Pooled long-term outcomes were comparable with those obtained with CNI and antimetabolite combination...
2015: Transplantation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279024/immunosuppression-in-the-elderly-renal-allograft-recipient-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Nuria Montero, María José Pérez-Sáez, Julio Pascual, Daniel Abramowicz, Klemens Budde, Chris Dudley, Mark Hazzan, Marian Klinger, Umberto Maggiore, Rainer Oberbauer, Julio Pascual, Soren S Sorensen, Ondrej Viklicky
BACKGROUND: The Elderly are the fastest growing part of kidney transplant recipients. The best immunosuppressive strategy is unknown. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of randomized controlled trials and observational studies focused on safety and efficacy of different immunosuppression strategies in elderly kidney recipients. Data extraction and risk of bias evaluation were systematically performed. RESULTS: Ten studies were included: 2 randomized clinical trials and 8 observational...
July 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26945331/pediatric-cardiac-intensive-care-society-2014-consensus-statement-pharmacotherapies-in-cardiac-critical-care-immune-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Rakesh K Singh, Timothy Humlicek, Aamir Jeewa, Keith Fester
OBJECTIVE: In this Consensus Statement, we review the etiology and pathophysiology of inflammatory processes seen in critically ill children with cardiac disease. Immunomodulatory therapies aimed at improving outcomes in patients with myocarditis, heart failure, and transplantation are extensively reviewed. DATA SOURCES: The author team experience and along with an extensive review of the medical literature were used as data sources. DATA SYNTHESIS: The authors synthesized the data in the literature to present current immumodulatory therapies...
March 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26915834/sirolimus-based-immunosuppressive-regimens-in-renal-transplantation-a-systemic-review
#14
REVIEW
D Q Zhao, S W Li, Q Q Sun
Sirolimus (SRL)-based immunosuppressive regimens have been used for preventing rejection after kidney transplantation. This review analyzes their merits and demerits compared with other conventional regimes from the aspects of acute rejection rate, graft function, as well as patient/graft survival rates. In general, SRL is mostly recommended to be used as conversion therapy from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) after kidney transplantation in most studies. Minimization or withdrawal of cyclosporine A (CsA) could also be considered when it was combined with SRL...
January 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26874932/current-methods-of-the-analysis-of-immunosuppressive-agents-in-clinical-materials-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Adriana Mika, Piotr Stepnowski
More than 100000 solid organ transplantations are performed every year worldwide. Calcineurin (cyclosporine A, tacrolimus), serine/threonine kinase (sirolimus, everolimus) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor (mycophenolate mofetil), are the most common drugs used as immunosuppressive agents after solid organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy, although necessary after transplantation, is associated with many adverse consequences, including the formation of secondary metabolites of drugs and the induction of their side effects...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26721314/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-immunosuppressants-by-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#16
REVIEW
Adam J McShane, Dustin R Bunch, Sihe Wang
Immunosuppressant medications allow the transplantation of tens of thousands of allografts per year and consequently have great potential to decrease patient morbidity and mortality. However, some medications have great risk associated with over- and under-dosing leading to adverse effects or allograft rejection, respectively. This necessitates immunosuppressant therapeutic drug monitoring accomplished by immunoassay or liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The former's accuracy can be hindered by metabolites of immunosuppressant medications, antibodies against these medications and heterophilic antibodies...
February 15, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709601/clinical-advantages-including-medication-adherence-with-conversion-to-once-daily-advagraf-and-sirolimus-combination-in-stable-kidney-recipients
#17
Heungman Jun, Myung Gyu Kim, Cheol Woong Jung
PURPOSE: For the past decades, the long-term results of renal allograft unchanged despite the development of immunology and drugs. The long-term use of a calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI) and medication nonadherence have become important issues affecting long-term results. The combination of the once-daily advagraf and sirolimus was proposed as a good alternative with such reasons. The purpose of this study was the analysis of the clinical advantages of oncedaily advagraf and sirolimus combination by decreasing the use of CNI and improving medication adherence in stable kidney recipients...
February 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687831/population-pharmacokinetic-approach-of-immunosuppressive-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#18
REVIEW
Bojana Golubovic, Milica Prostran, Branislava Miljkovic, Katarina Vucicevic, Dragana Radivojevic, Iztok Grabnar
Immunosuppressive therapy is the cornerstone of successful kidney transplantation. Frequently used immunosuppressives are cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus and mycophenolic acid. These drugs have narrow therapeutic index and show high pharmacokinetic variability. In order to maintain the balance between efficacy and safety, dosing is based on measured drug concentrations. Proper identification, quantification and understanding the sources of variability in measured concentrations facilitate routine dose adjustment in clinical practice...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26563168/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-immunosuppressants-in-allogeneic-haematopoietic-cell-transplantation-part-i
#19
REVIEW
Jeannine S McCune, Meagan J Bemer
Although immunosuppressive treatments and target concentration intervention (TCI) have significantly contributed to the success of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), there is currently no consensus on the best immunosuppressive strategies. Compared with solid organ transplantation, alloHCT is unique because of the potential for bidirectional reactions (i.e. host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host). Postgraft immunosuppression typically includes a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) and a short course of methotrexate after high-dose myeloablative conditioning, or a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil after reduced-intensity conditioning...
May 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26458498/incidence-and-outcomes-of-cytomegalovirus-in-pancreas-transplantation-with-steroid-free-immunosuppression
#20
Ashesh P Shah, Jeanne M Chen, Jonathan A Fridell
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common opportunistic infection encountered after pancreas transplantation. The records of 407 pancreas transplant recipients (226 simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant (SPK), 101 pancreas transplant after kidney (PAK), and 97 pancreas transplants alone [PTA]) performed at a single center with at least 1-yr follow-up were reviewed. Immunosuppression included rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction, steroid withdrawal, and maintenance therapy of tacrolimus and sirolimus (± mycophenolate)...
December 2015: Clinical Transplantation
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